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Habitation Investigation
(614) 413-0075 · (937) 205-4758
Inspector: Laura Troth

Pre-Drywall Report Sample

Client(s):  Happy Couple
Property address:  OH
Inspection date:  Thursday, June 2, 2022

This report published on Wednesday, July 20, 2022 1:12:59 PM EDT

"No home is perfect. Keep things in perspective. Do not kill your deal over things that do not matter. It is inappropriate to demand that a seller address deferred maintenance, conditions already listed on the seller's disclosure or nit-picky items."

The above is an excerpt from Sell Your Home For More by Nick Gromicko.

Acceptance of this report and/or relying on the information within constitutes acceptance of the real estate inspection agreement limits for the client listed above even if the agreement is not signed. Reliance on a home inspection report that was originally performed for a different home buyer removes warranties. Home Inspections are not a pass/fail. The purpose is to identify the condition of the home as much as can be done at the time of the inspection. It is out of the scope of the home inspection to give estimates for repairs. We recommend that contractors be utilized prior to closing to provide repair estimates.

If you are not the person identified as the client above then you need to attain permission from the client above and you need to have your own home inspection completed.

It is not typical to request to remedy those items which are small maintenance items. Your real estate agent will be your best source to help determine which items (if any) are appropriate to request for correction or improvement.

If this report or other forms of communications are translated into Spanish or other languages we can not guaranty the accuracy of the translation.

Table of Contents

General Information
Foundation and Grounds
Floor System
Wall System
Exterior Wall Coverings
Roof System
Roof Covering
HVAC System and Mechanical
Electric System
Interiors, Windows and Doors

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General Information
Table of contents
Present during inspection: Client, Builder, Contractor
Client present for discussion at end of inspection: Yes
Weather conditions during inspection: Rain
Temperature during inspection: Warm
Ground condition: Wet
Type of building: Single family residence
IMPORTANT NOTE: [b]If repairs are recommended in this report, they should be performed by a qualified, licensed contractor. Repairs should be made in accordance with national and local building codes, the designer's specifications, and per the installation instructions of the manufacturer of the building materials or components. Some municipalities have requirements that exceed national requirements, such as those in areas prone to high winds, floods, snow or earthquakes. It is not the inspector's responsibility to understand these requirements and recommend (or not recommend) specific repairs based on the property's location. Blueprint reading and verification of is outside the scope of the pre drywall inspection.
Foundation and Grounds
Table of contents
Limitations: The inspector performs a visual inspection of accessible components or systems at the foundation and crawl space. Below-grade foundation walls and footings are excluded from this inspection. Some amount of cracking is normal in foundation walls and concrete slabs due to shrinkage and drying. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of seismic reinforcement.

The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that water will not accumulate in the crawl spaces in the future. Complete access to all crawl space areas during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. Crawl space areas should be checked at least annually for water intrusion, plumbing leaks and pest activity.

For more information, visit:
Rough grade: Not completed
1) Repair/Replace - Grading is sloped to direct water towards the foundation. Exterior grading should be completed to help ensure proper drainage. Consider additional soil to account for the normal settling that will occur.

Basement was wet, Recommend improving grading and maintaining power to the sump pumps
Photo 1-1 
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Photo 1-5 
2) Repair/Replace - One or more sill plates appeared to have missing, or too few anchor bolts. They're installed for seismic reinforcement and are typically required every 6 feet, or every 4 feet for dwellings greater than 2 stories, and within 12 inches of the ends of sill plates. Seismic reinforcement should be installed per standard building practices.

in the garage. front side.
Photo 2-1 
Floor System
Table of contents
Limitations: Structural components such as joists and beams, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by insulation or lack of access are excluded from this inspection. The inspector does not determine if support posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing.

For information on floor construction, visit:
For information on under-floor insulation, visit:
Pier or support post material: Steel
Beam material: Built-up wood
Floor structure above: Wood
Sub-floor sheathing: Oriented strand board (OSB)
Wall System
Table of contents
Limitations: Structural components such as studs and support posts, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by wall insulation are excluded from this inspection. The inspector does not determine if studs, support posts, sill plates, bottom plates, top, connectors etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing. For information on wall construction, visit: information on wall insulation, visit:
Vertical wall structure: Wood
3) Repair/Replace - 6 or more studs were excessively warped. This can result in bowed or uneven walls, and problems when installing other components such as cabinets, tubs, showers, trim, etc. Repairs should be made as necessary.
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4) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - More daylight than normal was observed coming in through the foundation sill and floor junction. This indicates excessive gaps and this will effect energy efficiency and can provide access for pests. Recommend evaluation and repairs as needed.
Exterior Wall Coverings
Table of contents
Limitations: The inspector performs a visual inspection of accessible components or systems at the exterior. Items excluded from this inspection include below-grade foundation walls and footings; foundations, exterior surfaces or components obscured by vegetation, stored items or debris; wall structures obscured by coverings such as siding or trim. Some items such as siding, trim, soffits, vents and windows are often high off the ground, and may be viewed using binoculars from the ground or from a ladder. This may limit a full evaluation. Regarding foundations, some amount of cracking is normal in concrete slabs and foundation walls due to shrinkage and drying. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of seismic reinforcement.
Type of underlayment: House wrap
5) Major Defect - The schedule for fastening the building wrap was not followed. An excessive number of staples were applied in several areas.

For Kingspan GreenGuard® MAX™, VW™, RainDrop® 3D, RainArmor™ and C2000 Building Wraps the fastener spacing shall be 36” to 48” along every other stud location.

Also from the manufacturer installation guide: Acceptable fasteners include: common galvanized
roofing nails, plastic cap nails, 1” crown staples and 3/8” non–corrosive staples.
We recommend confirming that proper fasteners were used.
Photo 5-1 
Photo 5-2 
6) Repair/Replace - Building wrap was not fully installed in some areas leaving exposed sheathing. Recommend corrections.
Photo 6-1 
7) Repair/Replace - Torn / damaged building wrap and loose sealant tape was observed in various locations. Recommend repairing to help prevent moisture intrustion.

Sewing torn sections is not a proper repair. The manufacturer rep stated that it should be properly taped.
Photo 7-1 
Photo 7-2 
Photo 7-3 improper repair
Photo 7-4 improper repair
Photo 7-5 
8) Repair/Maintain - Soffit covers and vent caps not yet installed
Photo 8-1 
9) Comment - GreenGuard Residential & Light Commercial Installation Guide for Building Wrap & Flashing!rs_np_1=g-14292,p-33697&rs_rt_2=&hp=10146&p=1&ps=16
10) - Exterior siding was not yet installed.
Roof System
Table of contents
Limitations: Structural components such as rafters, joists and trusses, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by insulation or lack of access are excluded from this inspection. The inspector does not determine if rafters, joists, purlins, collar ties, rafter ties, trusses, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing. The inspector does not determine the adequacy of the attic ventilation system. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high/low temperatures, high/low humidity, high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so.

For more information, visit:
Roof structure type: Trusses
Roof sheathing material: Oriented strand board (OSB)
Roof ventilation type: Ridge vent(s)
11) Repair/Replace - Gutters were not installed / missing. Recommend installing to help control water and to direct it away from the foundation.
Roof Covering
Table of contents
Limitations: Some items were not visible or readily accessible such waterproof or ice dam membranes and are excluded from this inspection. Solar heating/roofing components are also excluded. Any comments made regarding these items are made as a courtesy only. Regarding roof leaks, only active leaks, visible evidence of possible sources of leaks, and evidence of past leaks observed during the inspection are reported on as part of this inspection. The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that leaks will not occur in the future. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. Regarding the roof drainage system, unless the inspection was conducted during and after prolonged periods of heavy rain, the inspector was unable to determine if gutters, downspouts and extensions performed adequately or were leak-free.

For more information, visit:
Roof inspection method: Viewed from ground
Roof surface material: Asphalt or fiberglass composition shingles
12) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Kick-out flashing was missing at one or more locations. It diverts water away from where eaves of a sloped roof intersect with a vertical sidewall. This is a newer requirement (2012), but has been commonly installed for years. Leaks are more likely to occur where it's missing, and can be a conducive condition for wood destroying organisms. Consult with the builder to determine if the local municipality requires it. Regardless, recommend that it be installed where missing. Repairs should be made if necessary.
Photo 12-1 
13) Comment - Inspector will walk the roof next visit. Unable to due to soft, slippery soil
HVAC System and Mechanical
Table of contents
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters; solar, coal or wood-fired heat systems; thermostat or temperature control accuracy and timed functions; heating components concealed within the building structure or in inaccessible areas; underground utilities and systems; safety devices and controls (due to automatic operation). Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on heating or cooling system components, does not determine if heating or cooling systems are appropriately sized, does not test coolant pressure, or perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit, a shut-off valve to be operated, a circuit breaker to be turned "on" or a serviceman's or oil emergency switch to be operated. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if furnace heat exchangers are intact and free of leaks. Condensation pans and drain lines may clog or leak at any time and should be monitored while in operation in the future. Where buildings contain furnishings or stored items, the inspector may not be able to verify that a heat source is present in all "liveable" rooms (e.g. bedrooms, kitchens and living/dining rooms).
Heating system #1 type: Forced air
Heating system #1 distribution type: Ducts and registers
14) Comment - HVAC systems were not yet installed and able to be tested.
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: private/shared wells and related equipment; private sewage disposal systems; hot tubs or spas; main, side and lateral sewer lines; gray water systems; pressure boosting systems; trap primers; incinerating or composting toilets; fire suppression systems; water softeners, conditioners or filtering systems; plumbing components concealed within the foundation or building structure, or in inaccessible areas such as below tubs; underground utilities and systems; overflow drains for tubs and sinks; backflow prevention devices. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not test for lead in the water supply, the water pipes or solder, does not determine if plumbing and fuel lines are adequately sized, and does not determine the existence or condition of underground or above-ground fuel tanks.
Interior supply pipe material: PEX plastic
Interior drain, waste and vent pipe material: Plastic
Sump pump installed: Yes
Location of sump pump: Basement
Location of sewage ejector pump: Basement
15) Comment - Water was not yet connected to the home.
Electric System
Table of contents
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: generator systems, transfer switches, surge suppressors, inaccessible or concealed wiring; underground utilities and systems; low-voltage lighting or lighting on timers or sensors. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of grounding or bonding, if this system has an adequate capacity for the client's specific or anticipated needs, or if this system has any reserve capacity for additions or expansion. The inspector does not operate circuit breakers as part of the inspection, and does not install or change light bulbs. The inspector does not evaluate every wall switch or receptacle, but instead tests a representative number of them per various standards of practice. When furnishings, stored items or child-protective caps are present some receptacles are usually inaccessible and are not tested; these are excluded from this inspection. Receptacles that are not of standard 110 volt configuration, including 240-volt dryer receptacles, are not tested and are excluded. The functionality of, power source for and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms is not determined as part of this inspection. Upon taking occupancy, proper operating and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms should be verified and batteries should be changed. These devices have a limited lifespan and should be replaced every 10 years. The inspector attempts to locate and evaluate all main and sub-panels. However, panels are often concealed. If panels are found after the inspection, a qualified electrician should evaluate and repair if necessary. The inspector attempts to determine the overall electrical service size, but such estimates are not guaranteed because the overall capacity may be diminished by lesser-rated components in the system. Any repairs recommended should be made by a licensed electrician.
Primary service type: Overhead
Service voltage (volts): 120-240
Estimated service amperage: 200
Service entrance conductor material: Stranded aluminum
Location of main service panels: Basement
Branch circuit wiring type: Non-metallic sheathed
16) Comment - The electrical system was not powered.
The spacing of the wires from the edges of studs were good.
Interiors, Windows and Doors
Table of contents
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: overflow drains for tubs and sinks; heated towel racks, saunas, steam generators, clothes washers, clothes dryers. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of washing machine drain lines, washing machine catch pan drain lines, or clothes dryer exhaust ducts. The inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves for sinks, toilets, bidets, clothes washers, etc. due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not determine if shower pans or tub and shower enclosures are water tight, or determine the completeness or operability of any gas piping to laundry appliances.
Type(s) of windows: Vinyl
17) Major Defect, Evaluate - The sill pan flashing was not installed or installed improperly for all the windows. The flashing tape should extend up approximately 6 inches on each side and cover the top of the sill plate. Recommend having the windows removed and evaluated for proper installation to help prevent water infiltration and damage to framing.

Silverlline window instructions also show the need for sill pan flashing pg 9
Photo 17-1 
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18) Comment - Interior doors not installed yet

You should not regard this inspection and report as a guarantee or warranty of the property and its components. It is not. It is simply a report on the general condition of the property at a given point in time. Furthermore, as a homeowner, you should expect problems to occur; roofs will leak, drain pipes will become blocked, and components and systems will fail without warning. For these reasons, you should take into consideration the age of the house and its components and keep a comprehensive insurance policy current. If you have been provided with a home protection policy, read it carefully. Such policies usually only cover insignificant costs, such as that of rooter service, and the representatives of some insurance companies are very likely to charge you for a service call and then deny coverage on the grounds that a given condition was preexisting or not covered because of an alleged code violation or a manufacturers defect. Therefore, you should read such policies very carefully, and depend upon our company for any assistance and consultation that you may need. It is highly recommended that the suggested repairs, corrections, evaluations, etc be done prior to the end of your due diligence time period if possible or before closing. Evaluations and repairs can reveal issues not visible during a home inspection or beyond the scope of a home inspection.

It is beyond the scope of the inspection to confirm if the structure uses a septic or a public sewer system. Recommend confirming with seller.

Heating and Cooling systems
Furnaces typically will last 15-20 years. With proper maintenance they can last longer. Air conditioners also have a typical life expectancy of 8-15 years. Heat pumps typically last 15-20 years. The estimated useful life for boiler system is 25-40 years. It is normal to have issues with systems as they age. Be sure to have regular maintenance done.

As of January 2006, air conditioning manufacturers are no longer allowed to manufacture products, or certain individual components (condensers, evaporator, compressors) for systems with less than a 13 SEER rating. As existing inventories of older efficiency style components are depleted, replacement of the A/C unit may be required in place of repairs.

Note: R22 has been the standard refrigerant used in air conditioners for many years. The problem with this refrigerant is that it is both less efficient and less environmentally friendly than R410a refrigerant. The government-mandated shift away from R22 refrigerant is an attempt to make homes more efficient and reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses into the environment. As of 2010 R22 is no longer allowed to be used in newly-manufactured air conditioners. R-22 can not be added to current systems after Jan 2019. MO99 is a refrigerant that can be used to replace R-22. Identifying the type of refrigerant used in a system is not within the scope of the home inspection.

Crawl Spaces
Crawl spaces should all be viewed periodically. Although not desirable it is common for moisture levels to be higher here than in other areas of the home. Recommend quarterly viewing so as to catch water intrusion and moisture related issues quickly.

Roof materials
It is beyond the scope of the inspection to give the life expectation of roofing materials. There are many factors that effect the aging process such as color, angle, orientation, ventilation and type of material. Any mention of age is a rough estimate based upon experience and is in no way an guarantee of the actual age. We recommend asking seller if you want specific age information. It is also beyond the scope to determine if a roof has more than one layer of materials. lower layer can be concealed by drip edges and flashings.

Roofs are designed to shed water like an umbrella and are not “waterproof”. In events of wind driven rains, and periods of intense rain, water can sometimes blow into areas such as ridge vents, roof vents and valleys and present leaking conditions. This occurrence is rare, but can possibly happen in severe storm events. Unless it is raining at the time of inspection, some roof leaks may not be identified during the inspection process.
As prescribed in the inspection authorization and agreement, this is a visual inspection only. Roofing life expectancies can vary depending on several factors. Any estimates of remaining life are approximations only.

Ceiling fans cannot be checked for proper mounting inside attic spaces where concealed by insulation.

The accuracy of breaker labeling is beyond the scope of the inspection.

Please be aware that inspecting for rodents is outside the scope of home inspections. If we see obvious indications of activity we will note it. If we note it that should not be taken that we conducted a pest inspection. It is also very common for mice and similar sized critters to enter all homes at sometime. Please do not be alarmed if you have such house guests at sometime.

What are Molds?
Molds are simple, microscopic organisms, present virtually everywhere, indoors and outdoors. Molds, along with mushrooms and yeasts, are fungi and are needed to break down dead material and recycle nutrients in the environment. For molds to grow and reproduce, they need only a food source and any organic material, such as leaves, wood, paper, or dirt and moisture. Because molds grow by digesting the organic material, they gradually destroy whatever they grow on. Sometimes, new molds grow on old mold colonies. Mold growth on surfaces can often be seen in the form of discoloration, frequently green, gray, brown, or black but also white and other colors. Molds release countless tiny, lightweight spores, which travel through the air.
Everyone is exposed to some mold on a daily basis without evident harm. It is common to find mold spores in the air inside homes, and most of the airborne spores found indoors come from outdoor sources. Mold spores primarily cause health problems when they are present in large numbers and people inhale many of them. This occurs primarily when there is active mold growth within home, office or school where people live or work. People can also be exposed to mold by touching contaminated materials and by eating contaminated foods.
Molds produce health effects through inflammation, allergy, or infection. Allergic reactions (often referred to as hay fever) are most common following mold exposure. Typical symptoms that mold-exposed persons report (alone or in combination) include: Respiratory problems, such as wheezing, difficulty breathing, and shortness of breath
Nasal and sinus congestion, Eye irritation (burning, watery, or reddened eyes) Dry, hacking cough, Nose or throat irritation, Skin rashes or irritation Headaches, memory problems, mood swings, nosebleeds, body aches and pains, and fevers are occasionally reported in mold cases, but their cause is not understood.
Molds will grow and multiply whenever conditions are right and sufficient moisture is available and organic material is present. Be on the lookout in your home for common sources of indoor moisture that may lead to mold problems: If you suspect that you may have mold, contact a specialist.

When Things Go Wrong
There may come a time that you discover something wrong with the house, and you may be upset or disappointed with your home inspection.

Intermittent Or Concealed Problems.
Some problems can only be discovered by living in a house. They cannot be discovered during the few hours of a home inspection. For example, some shower stalls leak when people are in the shower, but do not leak when you simply turn on the tap. Some roofs and basements only leak when specific conditions exist. Some problems will only be discovered when carpets were lifted, furniture is moved or finishes are removed.

No Clues.
These problems may have existed at the time of the inspection but there were no clues as to their existence. Our inspections are based on the past performance of the house. If there are no clues of a past problem, it is unfair to assume we should foresee a future problem.

We Always Miss Some Minor Things
Some might say we are inconsistent because our reports identify some minor problems but not others. The minor problems that are identified were discovered while looking for more significant problems. We note them simply as a courtesy. The intent of the inspection is not to find the $200 problems; it is to find the $2,000 problems. These are the things that affect people's decisions to purchase.

Contractors' Advice
The main source of dissatisfaction with home inspectors comes from comments made by contractors. Contractors' opinions often differ from ours. Don't be surprised when three roofers all say the roof needs replacement when we said that, with some minor repairs, the roof will last a few more years.

Last Man In Theory
While our advice represents the most prudent thing to do, many contractors are reluctant to undertake these repairs. This is because of the "Last Man In Theory". The contractor fears that if he is the last person to work on the roof, he will get blamed if the roof leaks, regardless of
whether the roof leak is his fault or not. Consequently, he won't want to do a minor repair with high liability when he could re-roof the entire house for more money and reduce the likelihood of a callback. This is understandable.

Most Recent Advice Is Best
There is more to the "Last Man In Theory". It suggests that it is human nature for homeowners to believe the last bit of "expert" advice they receive, even if it is contrary to previous advice. As home inspectors, we unfortunately find ourselves in the position of "First Man In" and consequently it is our advice that is often disbelieved.

Why Didn't We See It
Contractors may say "I can't believe you had this house inspected, and they didn't find this problem". There are several reasons for these apparent oversights:

1. Conditions During Inspection
It is difficult for homeowners to remember the circumstances in the house, at the time of the inspection. Homeowners seldom remember that it was snowing, there was storage everywhere in the basement or that the furnace could not be turned on because the air conditioning was operating, et cetera. It's impossible for contractors to know what the circumstances were when the inspection was performed. Contractors also rarely understand the standards home inspectors are to follow.

2. The Wisdom Of Hindsight
When the problem manifests itself, it is very easy to have 20/20 hindsight. Anybody can say that the basement is wet when there is 2 inches of water on the floor. Predicting the problem is a different story.

3. A Long Look
If we spent 1/2 an hour under the kitchen sink or 45 minutes disassembling the furnace, we'd find more problems too. Unfortunately, the inspection would take several days and would cost considerably more.

4. We're Generalists
We are generalists; we are not specialists. The heating contractor may indeed have more heating expertise than we do.

5. An Invasive Look
Problems often become apparent when carpets or plaster are removed, when fixtures or cabinets are pulled out, and so on. A home inspection is a visual examination. We don't perform any invasive or destructive tests.

6. Taking advantage of a situation
Contractors may be desperate or eager for extra work. Is is too tempting for some to attempt to get work approval asap by telling the home owner that someone else will be paying for it.

Not Insurance In conclusion, a home inspection is designed to better your odds. It is not designed to eliminate all risk. For that reason, a home inspection should not be considered an insurance policy. The premium that an insurance company would have to charge for a policy with no deductible, no limit and an indefinite policy period would be considerably more than the fee we charge. It would also not include the value added by the inspection.