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(360) 296-4020
5614 Starry Rd 
Bellingham WA 98226-9714
Inspector: Curtis C Brown
Licensed Home Inspector DOL#368
Licensed Structural Pest Inspector WSDA# 76712

WSDA Inspection Control Number (ICN)XXXXXBKXXX

Client(s):  Happy Client
Property address:  1234 Some St
Bellingham WA 98765
Inspection date:  Thursday, July 9, 2020

This report published on Saturday, May 15, 2021 12:07:28 PM PDT

Curtis C Brown, Owner
Washington State Licensed Home Inspector DOL #368
WSDA Licensed Structural Pest Inspector #76712

Thank you for using CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC for your Home inspection. I understand how important your home inspection is to you and your family. Buying a home is probably the most expensive purchase you will ever make, and your business is very important to me, and my family. If there is any way I can help you after your home inspection, please do not hesitate to contact Curtis at the phone number or email provided on this report. If you find this report useful and informative please refer CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC to your friends, your Realtor and anyone you believe could benefit from my services. CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC not only performs inspections for purchasers, but also for people planning to sell a home who wish to estimate the amount of work that needs to be completed before listing the house.

A site diagram is NOT prepared as part of a standard home inspection report. However, if wood destroying insects or potential evidence of their activity was seen at the time of the inspection, then a complete wood destroying organism inspection was conducted (WAC 16-228-2045). If such a report was required, a Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) inspection control number will be present, above the client's name, at the top of this report. WAC 16-228-2045 REQUIRES THAT A DIAGRAM BE PREPARED FOR WOOD DESTROYING ORGANISM (WDO) INSPECTION REPORTS. A COPY IS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST.

A home inspection is not invasive, it is a visual assessment. The inspection is, as limited by the tight time-lines of real estate transactions, it is not technically exhaustive and the inspector spends limited window time on premises. An inspector is looking for significant safety and defect issues to the components of a home. Pointing out minor or cosmetic deficiencies is at the discretion and courtesy of the inspector. Never the less, please understand that some recommendations made on a home inspection report include enhancements or upgrades that are optional and are, by all means, not "mandatory" repairs. Since the appearance of a home, especially interior decor, is a matter of personal taste, the client is responsible for determining that finish surfaces, colors, cleanliness and design features meet his or her expectations. In a related matter, any fog that might be inside thermal-pane windows is largely weather dependent and an inspector may not be able to identify glazing problems as a result of variations in temperature, humidity, weather and lighting conditions.

The inspector cannot see through or into wallpaper, walls, siding, concrete or floors, insulation, carpets, ceilings, under roofing materials, down into soil, tight-lines, drains, vent or waste pipes, floor/toilet /sink connections, ducting, gutters or downspouts that are full of debris or behind creosote or soot. Areas that are not accessible or the view is obscured because of furniture, appliances, storage or other belongings and coverings are excluded. Overflows at sinks and tubs are not tested -- doing so could cause water damage inside wall cavities. A home inspector does not guarantee that a roof will withstand a heavy windstorm nor ascertain that it has not leaked in the past nor that it will not leak at some time in the future. In a related matter, gutters may not withstand heavy snowfall or compacted ice. The roof covering may conceal roofing defects. Solar roofing systems, including any components on the roof or in an attic, are excluded.

Standard procedures: Only normal controls are operated (thermostats, light switch, faucets, etc). Wood stoves, fireplaces and pilot lights will not be lit. Devices that are not functional will not be plugged-in, nor will circuit breakers, or main shut-off valves be operated. Furniture, storage and appliances will not be moved or disassembled during the home inspection -- with the exception of (1) the "dead front" cover will usually be removed from the electric panel; (2) front panels may be removed at some HVAC appliances. Care and caution is taken in removing fronts or covers, from electric panels or openings into attics, but sometimes the procedures can unavoidably leave minor cosmetic marks on finished surfaces.

CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC makes every effort to perform a thorough inspection, within reasonable time-lines and the limitations specified, but makes no warranties about the home other than reporting on the conditions that were noted and apparent at the time of the inspection. Some defects may have been concealed or intermittent so those problems might go unreported. It is not possible, in the course of an inspection, to check every component at a home or to identify every problem. The standards of practice for home inspection state that the inspector shall view, operate or test a representative number of components at the exterior and the interior: readily accessible siding and trim, windows, doors, walls, light switches, receptacles, etc. An inspector does not get on furniture to view or operate windows or other components. High exterior locations at the home, such as siding, trim or soffit areas below eaves, due to safety and typical access issues, may be viewed from the ground and not from a ladder. High electrical receptacles, under eaves, may not be evaluated. Complex mechanical devices, such as freezer icemakers or fresh water systems are excluded. Washing machines and dryers are excluded. Sewage related septic/private disposal systems including septic tanks, sewage grinders/ejector pumps are usually fully or partially concealed from view or below grade and the components and mechanisms are not opened or inspected for performance or function. The exclusion includes air pumps, ultraviolet systems and all related electronics, alarms and wiring. Remote electric distribution (sub) panels may be concealed from view and may not be apparent to the inspector. If such systems are known to be present, or are later found to be on premises, recommend that the tanks, pumps/grinders, panels and related components be, as required, further evaluated/serviced by qualified professionals.

An inspector is assessing systems or components to determine if they are functional. An inspector will not suggest that a new system or component be installed simply for the sake of updating if it appears that the old system is functional or would be operational if repaired or maintained. It is not reasonable to expect every system or component in every home to be in new or perfect condition. Systems and components age. Older systems are often serviceable -- they operate but they are typical of a home of a given age. In any home, systems and components require at least some ongoing maintenance. Comments or observations involving household appliances are at the discretion of the inspector. The state standards of practice do not require the inspector to report on the condition of household appliances -- exceptions being that the inspector will, when possible, report on the operation of most HVAC equipment and water heaters. Conditions at a home and with appliances can, and will, change from day to day. It is assumed that the buyer wishes to purchase the home and the seller wishes to sell. The inspector must act in an unbiased manner. It is not the role of the inspector to create unreasonable concerns in an effort to influence the negotiations.

Clients ask if service or repairs should be performed prior to, or after, closing. That decision is left to the client. But please realize that the inspection is not exhaustive and the inspector is a generalist and not an expert in other licensed trades. The inspector is looking for clues as to problems and an inspector cannot predict when it might be more practical to replace a problematic component or system. At times a repair can be as expensive as replacement costs and sometimes undetected or hidden damage may lead to unexpected expense. A defect in one component can cause an unanticipated but related problem at another location: a marginal roof or failed sump pump could result in moisture issues and fungal concerns elsewhere. Rot, wood destroying organisms or even a missing, or failed, flashing might lead to concealed damage. Therefore, it is recommended that, prior to closing, client(s) have in hand estimates from qualified professional contractors or specialists for service/repairs or replacement of problematic components or systems. That would include, but is not limited to, decks, siding, structure, rot and wood destroying organisms, roofs, water leaks or water intrusion, drainage, skylights, gutters, chimneys, fireplaces, wood stoves, electrical systems, plumbing and heating.

It is the recommendation of Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC that all work be completed by qualified and, as applicable, licensed contractors, builders, remodelers, plumbers, pest control applicators, electricians, roofers, HVAC and chimney professionals. Since an inspector cannot foresee the future and will not attempt to predict all of the ramifications or potential costs associated with any given problem, consultation with a qualified specialist is worthwhile. If this protocol is adhered to, the client has more options should the workmanship later be found to be sub-standard. Additionally, I recommended that all qualified parties or specialists, when on-site, be asked to not only make essential repairs but to also further evaluate a system or component and to make recommendations as to other beneficial repairs, improvements or upgrades.

Buyers often allow sellers to make repairs, or the repairs may be deferred until after closing. Those options are at the discretion of the parties involved and any governmental agency that might oversee the process. If repairs are completed in a suitable manner, by qualified parties prior to closing, the client minimizes the chances of unexpected surprises after closing. Regarding buyer or homeowner repairs, it is not the intent of a report to specify the exact means of repair for any given problem. Again, consulting with a qualified professional is required. A client performs, or accepts the work of another non-professional, at his or her own risk. And, of course, all appropriate city, county or municipal building permits should be acquired when work is done.

A home inspection is a practical approach to evaluating visual deficiencies. With few exceptions, the inspector does not know, nor confirm, if prior remodeling or construction work was performed with, or without, building permits. A home inspector is not checking for compliance with codes or verifying compliance with manufacturer's specifications. In fact, codes evolve over the years. For example, in homes that are not of recent construction, escape routes and window sizing may not be in compliance with modern emergency egress requirements. An inspector does not count bolts in the sill plate at any home. It may be unfair, except in the matter of critical safety issues, to expect a home built under previous standards to conform to recent codes. A professional or specialist, when performing service or making other repairs, is in a good position to determine if systems and components are installed per manufacturer's guidelines or the applicable building codes.

Mold, mildew and microbial growths are excluded substances per the standards of practice for home inspection. The inspector is searching for wood destroying organisms (rot) and conducive conditions. Fungus (or yeasts) are common and sometimes present in bathrooms, attics or crawl spaces. However, the report will not identify species of fungus other than wood decay fungi or rot. Microbial growths are the result of excess moisture or a lack of ventilation. Therefore, any fungal issues reported, with the exception of rot, will be referred to as conducive conditions. A client who wishes to have a mold or mildew inspection should, in addition to the standard home inspection, contract with a firm that specializes in locating and/or identifying microbial growths and mold. If remodeling is done, where walls and ceilings are opened, wallpaper removed, homeowners might find concealed issues, related to moisture that will have to be addressed during the remodel.

A home Inspection is NOT an environmental survey; therefore, a qualified specialist or environmental testing firm should be hired by the client if he or she wishes to have further evaluation/testing for any excluded substances such as asbestos, radon, lead, urea formaldehyde, odors; noise, toxic or flammable chemicals, water or air quality, PCB’s or other toxins, electro-magnetic fields, underground storage tanks, proximity to toxic waste sites, carbon monoxide, vermin, pet urine. Any comments, related to these matters, that are offered in the report are provided as a professional courtesy and they do not alter the limitations that are established in the state standards of practice and the executed home inspection contract.

This report confines itself to conditions apparent at the time of the inspection. The inspector is not an arborist and is not assessing the condition of trees on the property. Seasonally there may be more ground or runoff water than at other times of the year. It is usually not possible to predict flooding. Therefore, if seasonal moisture problems develop, recommend consultation with a drainage professional. When mechanical means is utilized to control runoff water, the inspector will attempt to locate and view the pump(s) and, if possible, operate them. Inspector does not guarantee the adequacy or performance of any drainage system that might be in place to control flooding or runoff water. It is possible that the inspector will not locate all pumps (sump or ejector) on premises if they are partially covered, submerged and not readily apparent.

Thank you for using Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC for your home inspection. I know your home inspection is important to you. If I can help after the inspection, please contact me. If you are happy with Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC please refer my company to anyone who you believe could benefit from my services. Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC performs inspections for purchasers and, also, for homeowners and sellers.

CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC adheres to the standards of practice of the state of Washington WAC 308-408C) These standards are established to encourage high ethical standards and professionalism in the home inspection industry. To read the standards please visit:


This report is the exclusive property of CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized person

How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas. Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type. Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Concern typeCautionaryA recommendation to enhance safety. Not necessarily urgent but, in some instances, it might be
Concern typeReplace/RepairPlan on replacement,, or repair, with work to be done by qualified parties
Concern typeRepair/MaintainRecommended repairs that may involve ongoing upkeep. Work to be completed by qualified parties
Concern typeReview/EvaluateQualified professional to service/repair/replace/evaluate. Or, as applicable, clients to evaluate information and determine their level of concern
Concern typeMaintenance/Service (repair)Requires maintenance, professional service or appropriate repair
Concern typeVisual limitationsCondition that, potentially, conceals moisture-related issues or damage. At client's option, accept as is/maintain or arrange for further evaluation or invasive contractor review
Concern typeMonitorKeep an eye on (periodically monitor) the condition or device. Maintain, repair or replace as might be required
Concern typeOn-site notesObservations, comments or suggestions noted by the inspector
Concern typeInformationalInformational comment, but might include recommendations for small repairs or upgrades
Concern typeInfestationEvidence of the presence of, or damage from, wood destroying organisms
Concern typeDamageDamage caused by weathering, deterioration or wood destroying organisms
Concern typeConducive conditionsConditions conducive for wood destroying insects or organisms (Wood-soil contact, shrubs in contact with siding, roof or plumbing leaks, etc.)

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at

Table of Contents

General Information
Exterior & Site
Electric System
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)
Fireplace(s), Insert(s), Freestanding Stove(s)
Water Heater
Plumbing System & Laundry
Crawl Space-Foundation
Interior Areas

View summary

General InformationTable of contents
Inspection overview: This is a visual inspection performed to meet with the Washington Standards of Practice and applicable state guidelines. Issues, concerns and recommendations are referenced in appropriate report sections. Various limitations and exclusions are described in both the inspection contract and the report.
Clickable hyperlinks make it possible for clients to navigate to photos, videos and additional information. Links are operational if a report is accessed from an "online" computer: Lesser operating systems in Smartphones and mobile devices may not support full functionality. When reports are saved and viewed in PDF format, access to hyperlinks will be restricted as a result of limitations in Adobe software.
Prior to sending a report to a client, all external hyperlinks are electronically checked to verify that they are working and not broken. Unfortunately, the internet being as it is, at times a link may be unavailable or temporarily out of service as a result of maintenance at a website or a server.
Report number: XXXXX07092029
Water "on" to the site: Yes
Electricity "on" to the site and at the service panel(s): Yes
Gas "on" to the site: Not applicable
Structures inspected: One house
Start time: 9:15 am
Ending time: 1:15 pm
Present during inspection: Buyer, Real estate agent
Client(s) present for discussion at the end of inspection: Yes
Form of payment: Cash paid onsite, Thank you
Type of building: Single family
Age of building: 1963 Build (57years old)
Source of information utilized when estimating building age: County assessor / municipal records
Occupied and/or furnished: Furnished, belongings and storage present, but unoccupied
Front of building faces: Westerly
Main entry: Southerly
Secondary entrance(s): Northerly
Directions verified by mapping service: Yes, Google
To see a map or aerial view of the property and neighborhood, click on this link: (map disabled for client privacy)
Weather conditions: Cloudy, Rain
Temperature: Mild
Ground condition: Wet
Recent weather: Rain
Overnight temperature: Mild
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: engineering (geotechnical or structural), building or landscape architecture, identifying bearing points and bearing walls or calculating loads, classifying specific manufacturers’ products or the composition of building materials, product recalls, compliance with installation specifications or various building codes, tracking permits, all components or systems excluded by the Washington Standards of Practice, extent of damage or deficiencies, environmental survey, identifying hazardous wastes/materials (lead or lead-based paints, asbestos products, radon gas, urea-formaldehyde/formaldehyde, residue or toxins as a result of drug use, microbial bodies-mold, etc.), insulation R-values, life expectancy or remaining life of appliances/components or systems, flood zones, potential for flooding or slides, runoff water, erosion, sufficiency of drainage, presence and operation of septic or private sewage systems and/or ejector-grinder pumps/components including wiring-electronics/alarms, warning/safety labels, emergency lighting, security/alarm systems, fire extinguishers and fire suppression or sprinkler systems and associated equipment, adequacy of attachment of shelves, cabinets, cupboards, brackets, etc.
1) Visual limitations: The inspection process may be impeded by various factors, e.g., building materials, paint and finished surfaces, plants growing near a building, intrinsic design elements, marginal lighting. Inspector cannot see into, through or behind, walls, roofing, vegetation, flashings, etc. Every problem cannot be identified in the course of a visual home inspection, concealed or undiscovered deficiencies may exist. The report provides a general overview of onsite conditions. If issues of significance are reported, clients should arrange for contractor review (testing or invasive investigation) into areas of concern. When clients arrange for repairs, vs. sellers hiring contractors, purchasers are usually in a stronger bargaining position if work is later found to be substandard.

State law has classified specific conditions as "deficient." A licensed inspector will report state mandated deficiencies although remedying such problems might prove to be difficult, impractical, or unpopular with sellers or property owners. This is not an environmental survey: The presence of potentially hazardous substances or microbial bodies-mold are excluded per the Washington Standards of Practice.
2) PNW region pests: Pests such as rodents (mice, rats or squirrels), aggressive species of insects (hornets or wasps), nesting birds or potentially destructive woodpeckers, bats in some areas, and ants (often carpenter ants) and other wood destroying insects are often seen in this region. A mouse can squeeze through a hole the size of a dime. A rat can pass or gnaw through a hole the size of a quarter and a squirrel can go through a 1 1/2" diameter opening. If observed onsite, I report signs of pests or vulnerabilities that might lead to infestation. Access and view are often restricted, property owners should be on the lookout for pest activity. As might be necessary, block any potential entry points. Correct conditions that are conducive to attracting pests: establish sufficient clearances between plants and the exterior, eliminate wood to soil contact, excess moisture and/or access to food sources. Pests are opportunistic, nomadic and rodents can be a health concern. If an infestation becomes apparent or is suspected, implement corrective measures and/or consult with a licensed pest management specialist. Carpenter ants are more active seasonally, typically in warm weather than at other times of the year.
3) Lead-based paints and/or asbestos products might be present at a building of this age. Structures built before 1983 could have, on outside or inside surfaces, lead-based paint. The manufacture of lead-based paint was discontinued in 1978, but existing product was used through 1982. In a related matter, up into the 1980's, most copper water supply pipes were sweated together with solder that contained lead. As a precaution, when older copper pipes are in use, run water for a minute or longer (in the morning) prior to drinking water.

Asbestos products were in use for many years and they could be found in properties that were built through the mid-1980's. Common older building materials that may contain asbestos include certain textured ceilings such as popcorn or acoustic tiles, early generations of fiber cement board that was often installed as fireproofing, asbestos cement siding, corrugated roofing, linoleum or vinyl floor coverings and associated mastic, vermiculite insulation, tape or insulation that was wrapped around heating ducts or boiler piping, and insulation/sheathing on older electric wires, etc. Asbestos products and lead-based paints are often covered over and they may remain undiscovered and unreported. Such materials are not usually considered to be major concerns as long as the substances are in sound condition, not flaking or airborne.

Insulation requirements have changed over the years. The presence of insulation will be noted if the material is observable. However, many older buildings have little to no insulation in exterior wall cavities and marginal, if any, insulation elsewhere. Determining the presence of insulation in inaccessible areas, or identifying the R-value of insulation, is not within the scope of a visual inspection.

Bedroom windows might not be in accordance with today's finite and strict secondary egress, emergency escape-rescue, window sizing and height guidelines. Furthermore, window panes at older residences often do not comply with current safety protocols that mandate shatter resistant glass at no fewer than eleven different locations. The inspector is not a code enforcement official. In fact, in most situations, codes are not retroactive. If clients wish to modify the present arrangement, consult with a general contractor.

At properties built prior to 1978, primarily a concern due to the common use of lead-based paint, specific safety guidelines must be adhered to when remodeling or completing certain repairs. An inspection is NOT an environmental survey. At client's discretion, choose to contract with qualified specialists to evaluate/test for potentially hazardous materials such as lead-based paint, asbestos, mold, radon, etc. Removal or cleanup of these substances, when/if it is necessary to do so, may involve obtaining permits and abatement can be costly.
4) Procedures and general limitations: This home is furnished; therefore, numerous spaces and surfaces were obstructed from view by personal belongings. Items at the exterior or the interior, appliances, breakables, window coverings, rugs, storage under sinks or in cabinets or closets will not be moved to gain access. If the view is restricted, or if any areas were not readily accessible, those locations are excluded. When belongings have been removed, concerns that were not readily apparent, at the time of inspection, might be revealed.

Inspector attempts to locate various attic and crawl space accesses. In some circumstances, points of entry might remain undiscovered due to storage and/or insufficient access or view. At client's discretion, ask property owners if they know of additional, or concealed, access hatches other than those that are described in the report. If so, have those areas opened and inspected.
5) Scope: The inspection is non-invasive, not exhaustive, and it does not include destructive testing, removing or moving building materials or components, itemizing all damage that might be present, or providing estimates of repair costs, verifying certificates of occupancy or permit/code compliance. Inspector assesses, operates or tests a representative number of components, e.g., cladding, roof, windows, doors, skylights, lights, receptacles, heat sources, plumbing fixtures, cabinets and interior surfaces. Seldom do I identify a specific manufacturers' products or speculate as to the composition of building materials. Thousands of items have been produced, and then painted, over the years. Any attempt to classify products, by manufacturer or composition, is a good faith guesstimate on the part of inspector based on available view. If a report references issues of significance, prior to closing or setting a final sales price, clients should arrange for further evaluation and obtain cost and repair estimates from qualified parties. In professional trades, qualified parties are those persons who were trained to work in a specialized field and they have appropriate contractor's licenses; for example, licensed electrical contractor, licensed plumbing contractor, licensed HVAC contractor, licensed roofing contractor, etc. When a job can legally be carried out by an unlicensed person, that individual should be capable of providing further guidance. Prompt follow-up, by seeking the advice of qualified professionals, diminishes the chances of discovering unpleasant or costly surprises after completing price negotiations or closing.
6) Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) compliant reporting: Indications of wood destroying insect activity were apparent at visible areas of the crawlspace, see "Crawlspace - Foundation" section for further information. The inspection not only conforms to the state standards of practice for home inspection but, also, to WSDA rules that regulate structural pest inspectors. This is a complete wood destroying organism (WDO) inspection -- a good faith effort on the part of the inspector to identify wood decay fungi (rot) and wood destroying insects. Additionally, "conducive conditions," deficiencies that contribute to the probability of WDO infestation, will be described. Since only destructive testing would pinpoint each location where a wood destroying organism might be, or might have been, the extent of damage or infestation cannot be itemized. When conducive conditions, issues involving wood destroying organisms or structural concerns are cited, clients are advised to consult with qualified professionals: Obtain estimated repair costs from licensed general contractors and/or licensed pest management specialists. This report is limited to those conditions that were observed at the time of the inspection. The WSDA inspection control number, specifically assigned to this structure, is at the top of the report above client name(s) and the address of the subject property.
7) Form 17: The home inspection is only part of the process that purchasers participate in when buying a property. Clients should study Form 17 (the real property disclosure statement) and, as applicable, follow-up on the information therein. Sellers, an exception being at some bank owned properties, are obligated to disclose known deficiencies with the building or the lot. Those deficiencies may not be observable at the time of the inspection; for example, signs of past moisture, flooding or matters involving pests. Due diligence on the part of clients includes studying Form 17, verifying listing information and data that is available from the Whatcom County Assessor's Office:
8)  Throughout the body of this report, there will be multiple references (links to videos and/or articles, and specific language) to "King of the House Inc." Steven L Smith, owner and operator of King of the House Inc., is my mentor, friend, and associate in the home inspection industry. Steven has provided this content to me with his permission to assist in the quality of information in this report.
Exterior & SiteTable of contents
Foundation wall/stem wall material (where observed): Poured concrete
Footing material (where observed): Poured concrete (most footings are at/below grade and minimally or not visible)
Foundation cracks or irregularities noted: Yes, settlement crack(s), typical of concrete foundations. Keep any cracks sealed, from the outer side, to protect against moisture entry
Wall structure (assumed structure, since wall cavities are inaccessible): Wood frame
Exterior trim and/or fascia: Wood
Transition flashings (protection against moisture) over horizontal trim at observable locations: Sporadic, flashings in place at some locations but not at others. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage. The view of many design elements/flashing details is obscured by building materials
Apparent exterior wall covering: Wood lap siding
Entry/exterior door(s): Metal-clad hinged with window, Fiberglass and/or composite hinged with window
Exterior window(s) type and/or material: Double pane synthetic (vinyl, composite and/or fiberglass) sashes/frames
Entryway landing(s): Concrete surface
Secondary landing(s): Covered entry over concrete slab
Driveway material: Gravel/grass
Walkway/sidewalk material: Concrete
Exterior faucet(s)/hose bibb(s): Leak(s) noted. Faucet(s) are of frost-free design, but no backflow preventers are present. Qualified party to repair
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: fences, storm/screen doors and window screens, motorized shades, shutters, awnings, detecting fog in-between double pane window or door glazing, adequacy of all flashings, unattached garages, outbuildings, greenhouses, gazebos, pergolas, trees on the property, detached stairways and walkways, tightlines, drain lines, catch basins, irrigation systems, backflow prevention devices, ponds, water features, retaining walls, sufficiency of onsite drainage, erosion control, properties of soil
9) DamageConducive conditionsWood decay fungi (rot) was apparent at wood trim, most notably at the fascia on the south side and the south east corner of the barge board. In a related matter, siding is close to earth and various areas of the siding. I recommend removing any materials in contact siding around the perimeter of the structure to prevent premature deterioration at siding and further evaluation by general contractor: Locate and remove any compromised siding or trim, replace with sound materials. Clean and prep (caulk and/or flash, as applicable, to protect against seepage) and complete the job by applying an appropriate exterior finish. Eliminate conditions that are conducive to the development of rot. Establish at least 6" of clearance between earth and wood, a 4" gap between earth and fiber cement or masonry products, and approximately 2" of separation between flat surface paving and exterior trim or cladding. As applicable, grade soil at a slope ratio of 1" per foot, for a minimum 6 ft out from the building, so runoff water is directed away from the structure. An online video, produced by King of the House Inc. on the topic of rot, may be accessed at this link:

Photo examples:
Photo 9-1 
Photo 9-2 
Photo 9-3 
Photo 9-4 
10) DamageConducive conditionsSiding:Damage, buckling, cupping was present at wood siding. I recommend further evaluation by general contractor: Locate and remove any compromised siding or trim, replace with sound materials. Clean and prep (caulk and/or flash, as applicable, to protect against seepage) and complete the job by applying an appropriate exterior finish. Contractor, while onsite, to suggest other beneficial repairs or upgrades. An online video, produced by King of the House Inc. on the topic of rot, may be accessed at this link:

Contractor to repair or replace siding on a case-by-case basis as necessary. Photos below are an example of damaged siding:
Photo 10-1 Cracks at lap siding and gaps at butt joints can allow moisture behind material, promoting premature deterioration.
Photo 10-2 To prevent premature deterioration, any damaged siding should be repaired or replaced prior to caulk and paint maintenance
11) Conducive conditionsThe faucet/hose bibb(s) leaked during a standard water pressure test. This test puts back pressure on a faucet, not unlike having a nozzle in the "off" position on the end of a hose. The faucet at side of the structure appeared to have freeze damage, excessive water flowed through the wall when the valve was turned on. I recommend replacing the damaged hose dim faucet at the East side of the structure, work to be performed by qualified plumber. The faucet west side of the structure leaked at stem while under pressure. I suggest tightening the bonnet (looks like a nut) at the valve stem. If any complications arise that go beyond the scope of routine maintenance, consult with a plumber. Based on appearance, the device(s) is probably of frost-free design (less likelihood of seasonal freezing) but, since no means of backflow prevention was apparent, anticipate an elevated risk of gray water entering the potable water system. Inexpensive backflow prevention devices that screw on faucets are available at home stores. If hoses are left on faucets in winter, or if the piping runs through unheated space, even frost-free hose bibbs and pipes are susceptible to seasonal freezing. For additional information on hose bibb leaks, follow this link:

An informative article on backflow prevention and various types of frost-free faucets, is available here:
Photo 11-1 Hose bibb at the east side of the structure appeared to be frost damaged excessive water flowed from the wall when turned on. I recommend a qualified plumber replace East exterior faucet
Photo 11-2 The hose bibb at the west side of the structure leaked at the stem while under pressure . Typically this can be corrected by tightening the bonnet, or replacing gaskets inside the valve.
Additionally, the valve handle was loose at the faucet at time of inspection. Work should be performed by qualified party
12) Conducive conditionsCracking (size 1/8" to 3/4" wide and considered to be to moderate) was noted in the foundation. This type of cracking is often caused by settling and it is difficult to determine if additional movement will take place. Although commonly seen at older homes, settlement can be ongoing and a structural concern. I recommend further evaluation, consult with a structural engineer or a foundation repair contractor: trained specialists who are prepared to assess present conditions, suggest corrective measures or provide insight into the future. To safeguard against seepage, locate and seal any existing cracks and monitor foundation for cracks that might develop/require maintenance in years to come. Some property owners monitor cracks by attaching glue-on foundation wall crack monitors. An article that describes different types of foundation cracks can be accessed here:

This online video, produced by a manufacturer of concrete sealant products, explains a technique for repairing small to moderate sized foundation cracks:

Inspector assesses a poured concrete foundation from the exterior and, when practical to do so, from substructure areas. Visibility at the outside may be obscured by design elements, vegetation or earth. At substructure interior space, the inspection could be limited by multiple factors: lack of access or marginal lighting, tight clearances, architecture and building materials themselves that restrict viewing, stored belongings, etc.
Photo 12-1 Exterior view of a typical foundation crack at the South Stem wall along the sidewalk
Photo 12-2 Crawlspace view of a typical foundation crack at the north stem wall
13) Conducive conditionsFinish-paint: The exterior finish is deteriorating at various locations. Failed paint is conducive to moisture absorption and can result in swelling or wood decay fungi (rot). I recommend further evaluation: Where/as necessary, refinish the exterior. When work takes place, if damage is noted, replace materials. Then clean-prep and, if applicable, apply caulking and/or install flashing to protect against seepage. Complete the job by sealing surfaces with a durable exterior finish. All work to be performed by qualified painting and/or general contractor. For detailed information on applying exterior preservatives, please visit:

To learn more about effective caulking techniques, please visit:

Photo examples:
Photo 13-1 Both of these photos are from the west side of the home as examples of failed paint. Qualified party such as a painting contractor should clean, prep, install caulking and primer prior to paint finishing at the entire exterior as necessary to prevent premature deterioration
Photo 13-2 
14) Conducive conditionsVegetation (plants, trees, shrubs, vines) is close to/in contact with the exterior. Vegetation, situated near the building, is conducive to the onset of rot or attracting wood destroying insects. Cut back or remove vegetation, establish a minimum 6" to 12" gap between plants and the exterior. All work to be completed by qualified party. Vegetation, near the building, obstructs access, obscures the view and might conceal damage from, or activity by, wood destroying organisms. When pruning takes place, if any damage is noted, qualified professional to repair/replace materials. An online video, descriptive of other commonly seen "conducive conditions," is available here:
Photo 14-1 
Photo 14-2 
15) The concrete pad at the north entry has been undermined. If the issue is not extensive, typically, ready-mix concrete is poured, below undermined paving, down to undisturbed soil. Other times, correcting the problem might involve significant repairs or even replacement of paving. I suggest assessment, repairs as necessary, with work to be performed by a flat work-paving contractor.
Photo 15-1 At time of inspection, the undermining of the concrete pad was not significant, but continual erosion can cause settlement. I recommend filling in voids as necessary to prevent further erosion around the concrete pad at the north entry
16) Windows: all accessible windows were functional at time of inspection. Windows, access to and view, may be obstructed by belongings, window coverings, breakables, height, etc. Inspector evaluates a number of windows, not necessarily every window, and looks for discernibly cloudy double pane glazing. Sometimes, fog can be elusive and less noticeable, depending on temperature, humidity, sunlight, shade and cleanliness of panes. I do not provide an inclusive list of potentially fogged or compromised windows. Client(s) should verify personal satisfaction with windows. If need be, clean glass prior to making a definitive determination. Any repairs should to be completed by qualified contractor.

Since materials and design elements are obscured from view by trim, siding, etc., it is usually not possible to assess the sufficiency of all flashings, caulking or flanges at window or door installations.
17) Entry/exterior door(s): Doors were operational at the time of the inspection.
18) Any cracks, or variations in height, at flat surface paving do not appear to be tripping hazards. Over time, most paved surfaces will settle and develop cracks. Depending on exposure and water penetration, it could become necessary to eventually replace materials. Cracks can often be sealed to protect against the negative effects of moisture. This online video, produced by a manufacturer of concrete sealant products, describes a method of waterproofing cracks in flat surface paving:
Photo 18-1 
19) No outbuildings or detached structures were evaluated. They are excluded from this inspection.
Photo 19-1 
20) Exterior & site (general information and limitations): Procedurally, inspector views a representative number of accessible components at the exterior -- siding, trim, fascia, windows, doors, etc. In the interest of safety, soffit and high exterior areas will be viewed from the ground. Where the view is restricted, for any reason, that location is excluded: Inspector is, per state law, exempted from traversing areas beneath decks-porches with less than 60" of clearance from the underside of joists to grade. Critical design elements are often obscured from view; therefore, it is impossible to assess the integrity of all transition flashings, window flanges and windows. If exterior issues are reported, clients should obtain cost and repair estimates from general contractors. Further review, by specialists, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Roof inspection method: Traversed
Roof type: Sloped (Approximately 4/12 pitch)
Roof felts present (moisture resistant underlayments beneath roofing materials): Yes, verified at one, or more, location(s)
Drip edge flashings (protection against moisture) at eaves: No, drip edge flashings did not become common until recent years. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage at roof sheathing and fascia
Drip edge flashings (protection against moisture) at rake of roof: Yes, verified at one, or more, location(s). Flashings, when present, guard against seepage at rafters/fascia and roof sheathing
Plumbing stack flashings: Boot type (rubber)
Gutter and downspout material(s): Plastic
Debris in gutters/downspouts: Yes, require cleaning. Maintain as might be required seasonally and over time
Apparent roof covering: Architectural-grade composition (estimated 25-30 year life from the time of installation. Actual lifespan may vary)
Apparent multi-layer roof (old roofing in place below roof surface): Does not appear to be where I checked it, and based on restricted view. Multiple layers are not always readily apparent and they might be present at some locations but not at others. If a roof is multi-layer, it will require a "tear-off" of existing materials when re-roofing
Roof ventilation system(s) based on exterior/roof view: Roof box vent(s), Soffit venting, Gable venting (gable vents accompanied by upper ventilation may restrict airflow to some degree. Monitor attic conditions)
Estimated age of roof: Undetermined
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: flashings, underlayments, sufficiency of roofing fasteners (length, sizing and quantities), multiple layers of roofing, detailed analysis of materials-composition, sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members, absolute adequacy of roof ventilation, guarantee or life expectancy of materials and components
21) Conducive conditionsPlastic gutters and downspouts were installed. They're often installed by homeowners rather than qualified contractors because they're inexpensive and easy to install. Gutters are more likely to overflow due to a substandard slope when installed by homeowners. Most professional contractors install seamless metal gutters and metal downspouts. Plastic gutters and downspouts eventually degrade and become brittle when exposed to sunlight. Plastic gutters are often undersized, are more likely to come apart and leak, and are more easily damaged by extreme cold, snow, ice, tree branches and ladders. Consider having a qualified contractor replace plastic drainage system components with metal.

Gutters contain accumulated debris. That condition impedes drainage and can result in overflowing, seepage at ends/corners/where downspouts attach, and even deterioration of roof sheathing at the eaves. Clean/maintain gutters, downspouts and any associated drains and connections. If necessary, reseal ends and corners and/or adjust slope. As applicable, consult with a gutter and downspout repair or installation contractor.

Downspouts or fittings are loose/detached. Uncontrolled water runoff is conducive to the onset of rot or attracting other wood destroying organisms. Upgrade/repair downspouts and gutters if/as required. If necessary, consult with a gutter and downspout installation contractor.

Depending on length, overall exposure and runoff water, gutters with open ends, or downspouts that empty onto the roof, exert stress on roofing materials, fascia and/or cladding and contribute to moss growth.

Photo examples:
Photo 21-1 It was raining and the beginning of the inspection, at that time water was noted to seep out of the upper connection of the downspout near the front entry in the downspout itself terminated next to the foundation.
Photo 21-2 Downspout at the northeast corner was missing, water damage has occurred to the siding that corner and uncontrolled roof runoff can contribute to water in the substructure. This photo illustrates the necessity for gutter and downspout repair and siding repair and maintenance.
Photo 21-3 Another example of uncontrolled roof runoff is the missing downspout at the northwest corner. Ideally, gutters should be continuous at lower edges of the roof and downspouts installed, drinking water away from the foundations
22) Conducive conditionsCompeting ventilation: This roof has gable vents, soffit vents and high vents. Best practices, based on current data, discourage mixing gable vents with other types of ventilation. Roof-attic ventilation is most effective when it is balanced, approximately 60% of airflow (intake) from low soffit vents and about 40% of airflow (exhaust) from high vents such as ridge or roof box vents. The gable openings might interfere with primary (high and low) venting. Inadequate airflow can contribute to overheating in an attic, lessen the life of roofing materials, or result in moisture condensing on the underside of roof sheathing. Discuss this venting configuration with a roofing contractor. In some cases, gable vents are blocked and overall roof-attic ventilation is actually improved upon. For a detailed description of issues that might develop as result of "competing ventilation," please visit:

A simple calculator, designed to estimate the sufficiency of ventilation, may be accessed at this link:
Photo 22-1 Roof box vents
Photo 22-2 With box vents installed, typical recommendation is to block open gable vents to eliminate competing ventilation.

Also, gable vents were noted on both ends of the structure, this photo is the West end, and was noted to be missing a screen at the louvers which can allow vermin into the attic. I recommend blocking both vents for the aforementioned improved ventilation and to deter vermin intrusion
23) Rubber plumbing stack flashings have a lifespan of about 10 to 12 years. Exposure to the sun, age and weathering eventually leads to cracks in rubber or even seepage. In light of the age, discoloration and deterioration of rubber flashings, I recommend repair/replacement as necessary, work to be completed by roofer. Qualified professional, while onsite, to evaluate the roof covering, appurtenances and associated flashings, roof-attic ventilation if applicable, and offer suggestions as to other beneficial repairs or upgrades.
Photo 23-1 No significant damage was noted at the rubber boot flashing at time of inspection, however sealants and has been applied. Sealants or mastic used at roof appurtenances is an ongoing maintenance item.
24) Conducive conditionsThe electric service mast/flashing is rusty/oxidized. Over time rusty metal can further deteriorate, become weak or contribute to seepage and leaks. I recommend further evaluation: Replace/repair, with work to be performed by licensed electrician.
Photo 24-1 
25) Conducive conditionsMoss, growing here, obscures the view of roofing materials-components and makes for a slippery roof surface. This condition is conducive to premature deterioration of roofing materials. Remove and/or control moss with Moss B Ware, or a similar product, sold at home stores. Follow manufacturers' recommendations. Work to be completed by roofer. This may be primarily a cleaning and maintenance issue but, when all of the roof is clear, visible and readily accessible, qualified professional to review the roof covering, appurtenances and associated flashings, roof-attic ventilation if applicable, and offer suggestions as to other beneficial repairs or upgrades.
26) The age of the roof was undetermined/unknown to inspector. An estimate of remaining life or certification of any roof or associated components is beyond the scope of this process. No assurances are provided that a roof is immune to damage resultant from extreme weather or strong winds. Determining that no leaks exist would necessitate further inspections during a variety of conditions including heavy rainfall and gusty wind. Roof-attic ventilation may be referenced, but I cannot guarantee adequacy of venting, since doing so would require monitoring over time. If a client wishes to obtain a roof certification (warranty against future problems-damage or a guesstimate of remaining life) contact a roofing firm that participates in such programs. With the exception of maintaining moss from the roof, shingles appeared to be in good condition at time of inspection.

Annual review: Roofs are exposed to severe weather and adverse conditions. Defects develop quickly, with little warning, and minor failings can turn into big problems. On a periodic basis, hire a professional to clean and assess the roof surface, flashings, penetrations, etc. to make sure that they're watertight. As applicable, depending on circumstances, enter attic space to obtain a supplementary view. Regularly cleaning a roof prolongs surface life and a roofing contractor is best prepared to not only clean but, also, identify and correct, subtle deficiencies. Annual roof cleaning is ancillary to resolving any other issues referred to in this report.
27) Roof (general information and limitations): Reportable issues include damage or excessive wear at roofing, loose flashings or fasteners, accumulated organic debris and moss, problems at penetrations and appurtenances. Roofing materials restrict the view of flashings, fasteners and underlayments. I attempt to identify observable deficiencies at accessible locations, but I cannot foresee all problems that might develop. If roof (or attic) issues are reported, clients are advised to obtain detailed cost and repair estimates from a licensed roofing contractor. Further review, by a specialist, could uncover irregularities that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Inspection method: Viewed from the attic access point(s). Attic spaces have inaccessible areas where view, ingress and maneuverability are restricted by minimal clearances, insulation, piping, ducts, etc.
Location(s) of attic access hatch/door cover(s) that were observed and/or inspected: Kitchen closet
Roof structure (where observed): Trusses
Ceiling structure (where observed): Trusses
Roof-attic sheathing (where observed): Plywood/laminated wood
H-clips installed at roof sheathing joints: No, inspector did not see H-clips in areas that were checked. H-clips, when present, are a deterrent to sag of roof sheathing
Roofing nails or other fasteners visible under roof-attic sheathing: Yes, when fasteners penetrate through roof-attic sheathing, it is indicative of improved attachment of roofing materials. Visual limitations apply, inspector is unable to verify the absolute sufficiency of all fasteners or the means of securing roofing and/or flashings
Roof-attic ventilation system(s) based on attic view: Roof box vent(s), Soffit venting, Gable venting (gable vents accompanied by upper ventilation may restrict airflow to some degree. Monitor attic conditions)
Attic humid/musty: No
Attic excessively hot: No
Moisture staining (at observable areas) on roof-attic sheathing: Yes
Insulation at/over ceiling at habitable-heated space: Yes, insulation is present, but it is thin, compacted or missing. Properly insulate over habitable-heated space
Apparent insulation material at habitable-heated space: Cellulose loose fill
Baffles apparent at vented soffit (observable areas): No, may result in impaired soffit ventilation. Clear soffit area and/or install baffles
Estimated R-value of insulation over habitable space, may vary in some locations (today, over habitable space, insulation is installed R-38 to R-49): See body of the report
Insulation installed over/behind attic access hatch/door cover(s): Yes, insulation enhances energy efficiency over habitable space
Gasket material (weatherstripping) around attic access hatch/door cover(s): No
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: structural components, wiring/ducts obscured from view by insulation or lack of access, behind covers at walls or ceilings if hatches are obscured from view or of undetermined purpose or if removal could cause cosmetic damage, calculating insulation R-values, loads or sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members, absolute adequacy of overall attic ventilation, identifying bearing points and walls, minor cosmetic disruptions at walls and ceilings caused by truss uplift or similar condition, microbial bodies-mold
28) Conducive conditionsThe kitchen exhaust fan duct terminates in the attic, not vented to the outdoors. This deficiency can result in excess humidity and moisture-related problems. I recommend further review: Repair/replace, so exhaust air is ducted outside. All work and evaluation to be completed by qualified party. For information on connecting and/or insulating ducts, please visit:

An air handling ducts -- kitchen and bath exhaust -- were not insulated in the unheated attic. Lack of insulation wrap, depending on air temperature, can result in sweating at the outside, or inside, ducts. I recommend further review: Install R-4 insulation, blanket, batt or sleeve around exhaust/air handling ducts. All work to be completed by qualified party. For information on insulating and/or connecting ducts, please visit:
Photo 28-1 
Photo 28-2 
29) Conducive conditionsGasket material (weatherstripping) was not installed at/around attic access hatch cover(s). For improved energy efficiency at habitable-heated space, and enhanced fire-resistance, install weatherstripping around cover(s). Any work to be completed by qualified party.
30) Attic insulation was less than an R-38 rating. For improved energy efficiency, clients should consider adding more insulation. As a guideline, based on today's recommendations, insulation over heated space would be installed at R-38, minimum, to R-49. Any work to be completed, by qualified party, in a manner that does not restrict the airflow of any attic ventilation that might be present.

Additionally, attic insulation is thin, uneven, compacted or missing at some areas over the ceiling. I recommend further review: Repair, where/as necessary, by installing additional insulation. As a guideline, based on today's recommendations, insulation over heated space would be installed at R-38, minimum, to R-49. If client chooses to add more insulation, qualified party to do so in a manner that does not restrict the airflow of any attic ventilation (soffit).
Photo 30-1 
31) Conducive conditionsRoof sheathing is lightly stained on the underside in some areas, in the inspector's opinion, due to past roof leaks. At time of inspection, moisture readings at wooden structural components were low, no elevated moisture readings noted. I recommend monitoring attic, if leaks or further staining is noted, I recommend consulting with qualified parties such as a licensed roofer
Photo 31-1 Staining at sheathing was sporadic and noted in various areas, presumed to be past roof issues. As with any roof structure, I recommend monitoring for future damage, if noted consult with a qualified party such as a licensed contractor or roofer
32) When it is practical and safe to do so, I will partially traverse the attic. This attic does not have flooring in place over structural members and insulation obstructs the view. An accidental misstep would damage the ceiling. Furthermore, tramping on insulation reduces R-values and vulnerable components (wiring, pipes, lights, ducts), are often concealed under insulation. Taking into consideration those factors, the interior of the attic was viewed from the hatch. Unavoidably, several locations are excluded such as low clearance soffit-eave areas. Space with less than 30" of headroom is considered to be inaccessible. Unseen problems may exist at difficult to reach or inaccessible locations.

Any building owner should, on a regular basis, check inside attic space. The sufficiency of ventilation involves air changes, relative humidity, and factors that are not easily assessed during the course of a single inspection. Clients are advised to look for indications of condensation-moisture on roof sheathing, overheating, bird or insect/bee entry, etc. If problems become apparent, when monitoring attic conditions over time, consult with a qualified service provider.
33) Attic/roof (general information and limitations): Manufactured trusses, present here, are designed by engineers. Since trusses are engineered, it is disallowed for anyone other than an engineer to modify or cut structural members (chords and webs). Observable attic areas are viewed to see if trusses appear to be compromised. I describe attic-roof ventilation, but do not guarantee adequacy of venting: Doing so would require consistent monitoring over time and years. Problems may go undiscovered at inaccessible locations, and any areas that were not traversed are excluded. Usually, inspector is unable to assess sufficiency of combustible clearances between vents/chimneys and flammable materials. If attic (or roof) issues are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates from licensed contractors. Further review, by specialists, could uncover irregularities that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. At wood roof structure such as trusses and, lesser so, rafters, seasonal differentials in humidity can cause "uplift," small wall or ceiling cracks in drywall at seams, joints, finished corners. Typically, uplift is a cosmetic matter, not considered to be a structural concern of significance.
34) Based on areas I observed, H-clips have not been installed at the butt-joints of roof sheathing. This circumstance is commonly seen in attics but, over time, missing H-clips can contribute to sheathing sag.
Electric SystemTable of contents
Location of electric meter: Exterior, northerly
Overload protection type (primary service): Circuit breakers
Service entrance type: Overhead (service drop)
Make of main service panel/disconnect(s): Square D
Location of main service panel(s): Kitchen
Location of main service disconnect(s): No "main" disconnect noted. This is a safety concern. Consult with an electrician
Estimated service amperage: Undetermined, I recommend further evaluation by a qualified electrician
Main disconnect rating (amps): Split bus panel, no main disconnect. Shutting-down power involves turning-off "sub-main" breaker and certain other breakers
Service grounding conductor-electrode rod verified: Not seen, system might be lacking a grounding conductor. Electrician to review adequacy of onsite grounding
System bonding connections verified (protection against electrical shocking hazards): No, sufficiency of bonding connections was undetermined. Bonding requirements vary, depending on plumbing and/or gas piping and plastic fittings that might be present. Verifying the continuity of electrical bonding would entail an exhaustive inspection. To obtain a detailed evaluation, consult with licensed electrician
Main service panel(s) front cover(s) removed: Yes
Conductors service entrance (type of metal) at main panel(s): Stranded aluminum (normal and acceptable)
Arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection, safeguard against arcing and fires, present/functional: No, typical of the age of the house, devices were not installed to meet current safety guidelines. Consider upgrading to AFCI protected circuits
Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protected receptacle(s), safeguard against shocks in damp areas, present/functional: Some devices are present, but they were not installed to meet current safety guidelines. Further assess and upgrade-replace components as necessary
Nominal onsite voltage: 120/125-240
Estimated nominal onsite utilization voltage read at 120/125V circuit (240 volt power is calculated/approximate): 122 v
Branch circuit wire type or types (where/as observed) onsite: Non-metallic sheathed, Solid-strand copper, Stranded copper and/or stranded aluminum (typically employed at circuits for larger appliances)
Aluminum solid-strand branch circuit wiring noted (Commonly used from 1965-1978): None seen/observed
Sub (remote distribution) panel(s) noted on the premises: Not seen/verified
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: outdoor lighting and associated wiring/photo cells/motion sensors/mercury vapor lights, AFCI protection and hardwiring to smoke/consumer alarms, visual identification of copper-clad aluminum (CCA) circuits or any concealed branch circuit wiring, non-standard receptacles (240 volts at dryers/ranges, electric vehicle power sources, compressors, power generators/transfer switches and wiring, any circuits that are not 120/125 volts, all low voltage and 3-phase circuits and transformers, battery power or battery backup), difficult to access receptacles or switches (floor mounted, out in the yard, high on ceilings, walls, behind appliances or machinery, under eaves, in attics, in crawl spaces) or any devices that are obstructed from view or at excluded areas, placement of tamper-resistant receptacles, sub-panels and/or junction boxes (other than those referenced), condition or presence of wiring under or over insulation
35) Split bus electrical panel: The panel is old-fashioned, split bus type, with no "main" breaker. Usually, such a system is controlled by six breakers near the top of the panel: Shutting-down ALL power involves turning off any breaker labeled as the "main" or the "sub-main" and, ALSO, turning off certain other breakers. These panels are no longer being manufactured or installed, but they are still commonly seen. Since the "sub-main" does not turnoff all power, uncertainty may exist as to whether or not the power has really been shutdown. Use precautionary measures if turning off circuits -- make sure the power is really off! I recommend further review. Discuss panel, and whether to keep it or replace, with licensed electrician. This contractor produced online video provides an overview into the operation of a split bus electrical panel:

To read an article that describes in detail the operation of a split bus electrical panel, please click on this link:
36) The panel is overcrowded. This condition makes it difficult to carefully inspect the wiring, trace circuits, add circuits or work in the panel in the future. I recommend further evaluation: Licensed electrician to repair. While onsite, electrician to assess the electrical system, verify accuracy of legends, report any concealed defects/safety concerns and suggest potentially beneficial system upgrades.
37) The "main" service panel was inspected after first removing the front cover. A lockout device was not installed at the circuit for the baseboard. Lockouts should be in place at circuit breakers that control any appliances that are not within sight of the panel/disconnect AND if the appliances cannot be unplugged or switched off. Lockouts customarily "snap in" easily and they protect service personnel by making it possible to render appliances inoperable. I recommend repairs as necessary, work to be completed by licensed electrician.
Photo 37-1 Cover was removed from electrical panel and wiring was observed
Photo 37-2 Normal line voltage was observed while on-site
38) Ground fault (GFCI) protection: Receptacles that were readily accessible, and are situated at many locations that require GFCI protection, were tested. Those evaluated were operational and GFCI protected circuits were present at the bathroom. No other GFCI protected receptacles were found while on-site. Typical for the age of the house, there are fewer GFCI protected receptacles than would be installed today. The inspector does not test receptacles that are in excluded locations, obstructed from view, out in the yard, high on ceilings, walls, under eaves or in crawl spaces. GFCI receptacles or breakers reduce the likelihood of serious electrical shocks in damp environments. In 2014, GFCI protection requirements were expanded upon: Now the devices are installed at multiple 120 volt branch circuits. If wiring is modified in the future, depending on the scope of the project, the permitting process may trigger mandatory upgrades. State law compels an inspector to suggest updating GFCI protection to meet with present guidelines, which are more stringent than when the house was built. However, whether or not a client follows through on that recommendation is optional. A diagram, illustrative of current placement for GFCI and AFCI (arc fault) protection, is available at this link:

Below is a list, not necessarily comprehensive, that describes a number of locations that require GFCI protection:

- Outdoor receptacles (120V), except those designated for ice melting equipment (must be dedicated circuits)
- Receptacles (120V) in garages, shops, outbuildings, crawl spaces, unfinished basements, mechanical rooms
- Receptacles (120V) in bathrooms, laundry rooms, kitchen countertop areas (including islands, desks, kitchen sinks)
- Any receptacles (120V) within 6 ft of the outside edge of any sink (utility, wet bar, laundry, kitchen, etc.)
- Circuits (receptacles/outlets) at dishwashers
- Receptacles (120V) supplying power to jetted tub pumps, motorized pool equipment and most other such devices, e.g., sump, ejector/grinder, well pumps)
Photo 38-1 Kitchen and exterior receptacles were not GFCI protected
39) Earth grounding: I could not verify the presence or the integrity of a service grounding electrode conductor and rod (based on era of construction, grounding would be typical, but sometimes difficult to confirm). A proper ground enhances overall electrical safety. I recommend electrician review and, if necessary, alterations or improvements to grounding system. While onsite, licensed electrician to evaluate the electrical system including bonding (requirements vary depending on piping, fittings) and report any concealed defects/safety concerns and suggest potentially beneficial system upgrades.
40) Circuit breaker(s), at least one location, is "double tapped" -- two or more wires are clamped in a circuit breaker lug that was designed for a single wire. Underwriters Laboratories has identified this as a safety hazard, since the conductors may loosen and arc or overheat. I recommend further evaluation: Licensed electrician to repair. While onsite, electrician to assess the electrical system, verify accuracy of legends, report any concealed defects/safety concerns and suggest potentially beneficial system upgrades.
41) This service, older house typical, amperage was not determined. Over the years, multiple appliances, computers, video systems, etc. have led to an increased demand for receptacles and power. At the present time, panels are typically, at a minimum, 100 amps and most panels are rated at 150-200 amps. I recommend review of the panel and the overall electric requirements, with work to be completed by licensed electrician. While onsite, electrician to evaluate the full system, verify accuracy of legends, report any concealed defects/safety concerns and suggest potentially beneficial system upgrades.
42) Covers at wet location exterior receptacles (outdoor outlets at exposed areas) are insufficiently weather resistant. To better protect against moisture and rain, on a case by case basis, install while in use hooded covers at wet location receptacles. Work to be completed by qualified party such as licensed electrician. To obtain additional information on outside receptacle covers, please follow this link:
Photo 42-1 Cover missing and receptacle at North exterior
Photo 42-2 I recommend upgrading exterior receptacle covers to in use covers for convenience of use and increment weather
43) Electric cables are situated near the attic access point of entry. Conductors, in close proximity to an attic opening, should be protected (run in conduit, armor clad cable, routed through framing) or be positioned, 6 ft minimum, away from the attic entry. I recommend repair: protect or reroute wiring. If, in the course of work, any energized wiring will be exposed, job to be completed by licensed electrician.
44) Exposed wiring: Wires are not properly terminated, or contained in covered junction box, were seen at the north entry. Exterior light fixture wire is not properly terminated and cover is missing at junction box at interior near back injury. I recommend further evaluation: Licensed electrician to repair/replace. While onsite, electrician to assess the electrical system, verify accuracy of legends, report any concealed defects/safety concerns and suggest potentially beneficial system upgrades.
Photo 44-1 Improperly terminated wire at North exterior. I recommend either is completing installation of exterior light and interior switch or properly terminating conductors in junction boxes with covers
45) The legend for the overcurrent protection breakers, in the "main" service panel, is missing, difficult to read or incomplete. Correct/update the legend, so it is easy to understand.
46) 2 screws that hold the front cover on the electrical service panel are missing, which can result in wire damage or arcing. Install screws, with blunt tips, that are manufactured for the purpose. Since live wiring exists inside electric panels, work should be completed by qualified party such as licensed electrician.
47) Some wires in the main panel require re-identification. When conductors with white sheathing are used as "hot" wires, they should be marked (re-identified) with black or red paint or tape. Re-identify wires, work to be performed by licensed electrician.
48) Typical, for the age of the residence, AFCI breakers (arc fault circuit interrupters) and/or receptacles are not present. AFCI protection reduces the risk of house fires by safeguarding against overheating or arcing at specific circuits such as bedroom receptacles, lights and hardwired bedroom consumer alarms. Back in 2014, AFCI protection guidelines were expanded upon and now standards require the devices at most 120 volt household branch circuits. Rule changes are typically not retroactive but, depending on the scope of the project, if wiring is modified in the future, the permitting process could trigger compulsory upgrades. A diagram, illustrative of the recommended placement of AFCI and GFCI (ground fault) protection, is available at this link:
49) Lighting: The inspection of lights and lighting is not inclusive, nor an analysis of all such devices, nor of 3-way and 4-way switches, switched receptacles, motion detectors and dimmers. At this home some switches were taped over. Often, if a light or a switch does not function, a bulb will be burned-out or missing. It is not uncommon to find wall switches that are abandoned, or they remotely control switched/split receptacles or outdoor fixtures with built in motion detectors or photocells. An inspector does not troubleshoot circuits, replace or swap-out bulbs. I recommend testing switches and replacing any burned-out or missing light bulbs and/or defective fixtures, switches or wiring. Electrical work, when/if necessary, should be completed by licensed electrician. Note: At fixtures in general, and if recessed or "can" ceiling lights are present, always put in replacement bulbs of the recommended size. With recessed lights, typically those made prior to 1982 and depending on manufacturer specifications, the metal fixtures may have to be separated from attic insulation.
Photo 49-1 
Photo 49-2 Some switches were taped over, I recommend asking homeowner why this is necessary
Photo 49-3 Lights at the living room fan/overhead light were nonfunctional at time of inspection. If replacing bulbs do not remedy this issue, I recommend consulting with a qualified electrician
Photo 49-4 Two of the three lights at the bedroom fan were also out at time of inspection
50) Electric system (general information and limitations): A representative number of receptacles (outlets), switches and light fixtures are inspected. Receptacles or switches situated at difficult to access locations such as behind appliances, under eaves or high on the building are excluded, as are 240 volt, low voltage or other non-standard outlets, and those with childproof covers. Inspector will comment on GFCI (ground fault) and AFCI (arc fault) protected receptacles, but seldom is it possible to locate and test all such receptacles. Inspector does not verify specific placement of tamper-resistant receptacles: protection against shocks and electrical burns. Whenever a receptacle is replaced, tamper-resistant receptacles are now a mandatory upgrade at most locations. I do not trip overcurrent protection devices to verify accuracy of legends or count receptacles/switches to determine if circuits are overloaded. A report may reference electric service sizing, but capacity could be diminished by under-rated components in a system. Breaker sizing guidelines have changed over the years, so, except at new construction, amperage might be lesser than what would be installed today. Even simple electrical projects can pose safety risks, so always consult with licensed professionals. While onsite, an electrician should evaluate the system, report deficiencies and provide recommendations as to potentially beneficial upgrades or repairs. If significant issues are reported, I advise obtaining detailed cost and repair estimates. Specialized review, by a licensed electrician, could reveal deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. I attempt to locate sub (remote distribution) panels in non-excluded locations. If incorrectly wired, sub-panels can be unsafe. All panels that were inspected, not excluded, are referenced in the report. If additional panels that were not readily apparent to inspector are later found to be present, they should be reviewed by a licensed electrician.
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)Table of contents
Whole house ventilation/exhaust system with automatic timer present: No, inspector did not identify a ventilation system
Heat source(s) at habitable/livable space: Yes
Heat system type(s): Electric baseboard(s), Electric fan-assisted heater in the bathroom
Distribution system heating and/or cooling: None, individual heaters
Energy source(s): Electricity
Gas "on" to HVAC appliance(s): Not applicable
Electricity "on" at electric heat: Yes, With the exception of baseboard heater at back entry, not operable at time of inspection
Electric disconnect or panel lockout at/for indoor heating appliance(s): No, an electric power disconnect (or a circuit breaker "lockout") is required if the heating appliance is not within sight of the electric panel. Consult with a licensed electrician
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of appliances or systems, rust or wear, continuity of ducts or exhaust vents, heating appliance filters and electronic air cleaners, humidifiers-dehumidifiers, fresh air systems, in-home ventilation including sufficiency of passive systems, motors and exhaust-circulation fans/blowers, thermostats and flue/duct terminations, sufficiency of backdraft dampers and screens, in-wall manifolds at boilers/hydronic heating systems, portable or window mount air conditioners, electric fireplaces, gas meters, propane tanks, outdoor gas hookups, condition or presence of sediment traps, operation of (in some cases presence of) shutoff valves at gas-fired or oil burning appliances, underground storage tanks (oil, gasoline, propane)
51) Electric heaters: The heaters were turned on. The baseboard heater at the south wall of the living room was loose to the wall. I recommend qualified party re-secure heater to wall. The thermostat at South bedroom was loose to the wall, I recommend a qualified party such as an electrician thermostat as necessary. Grill discoloration can be caused by concentrated heat as a result of dirt or lint at heating elements. Airborne particles in the environment enter heaters and partially burn, leaving behind carbon material that clings to grills. Exposure to burning candles or logs in fireplaces, cooking, cleaning supplies, pets, and plants can exacerbate the matter. In the case of all electric heaters, the devices are manufactured with long design lives, but they require periodic cleaning. Lint, dust and debris can block airflow, negatively impact efficiency, and increase the risk of fire. High voltage is present inside electric heaters: If covers are removed, circuit breakers to heaters must be TURNED OFF and "locked-out" prior to opening heaters.

Non-operational electric heater(s). The baseboard heater at the north entrance, when turned on, failed to warmup. I recommend further evaluation: Replace/repair as necessary, with work and professional review to be completed by licensed electrician.

Bathroom heat: A manufacturer produced online video, general information applicable to cleaning electric wall heaters, is available here:

Baseboard heaters: An instructional online video, descriptive of maintaining and cleaning electric baseboard heaters, can be accessed at this link:

Inspection procedure: Detailed analysis of heaters is not provided, e.g., calibration of thermostats, condition of internal heating elements. The inspector does not estimate remaining life or track product recalls. Flammables, including furniture, towels, towel racks, linens, drapes, appliance cords, etc. should not be situated in close proximity to, or installed directly over, electric heaters. Maintain, as minimums, 6" of open space above and at least 2"-3" of clearance in front of heaters. Licensed electricians are prepared to work on electric heaters.
Photo 51-1 Thermostat at the south bedroom was loose to the wall and knob was damaged
Photo 51-2 Baseboard heater at south side of living room was loose to the wall
Photo 51-3 Baseboard heater at North entry vestibule was not operational at time of inspection
Photo 51-4 An infrared imaging thermometer was utilized to determine heat at baseboard heaters
Photo 51-5 An infrared Imaging example of baseboard heaters turned on
Photo 51-6 An infrared imaging thermometer was utilized to determine heat at electric fan assisted wall heater in bathroom
Photo 51-7 An infrared imaging thermometer view of fan assisted heater in bathroom turned on
52) Electric receptacles (outlets) were installed above electric heaters, which was a common practice many years ago. If appliance or lamp cords are run in close proximity to operational heaters, this arrangement can result in a safety hazard. Flammables, including towels, towel racks, linens, drapes and furniture should not be positioned near/directly over heaters. Maintain, as minimums, 6" of clearance above and at least 2"-3" of clearance in front of heaters. I recommend further evaluation: Licensed electrician to repair accordingly by moving receptacles and/or heaters. Alternatively, some clients choose to monitor conditions and make sure that power cords and combustibles are kept well away from heaters.
Photo 52-1 This condition occurs at multiple locations
53) Over the past decade, and in prior years, many brands of heating appliances (furnaces, electric and gas heaters, gas fireplaces, wood burning appliances) and cooling equipment have been recalled. It is not practicable for an inspector to identify all recalled consumer products. An easy to use search feature intended to identify, upon inputting brands and/or model numbers, recalled heating-cooling systems, electric heaters and other defective household appliances may be accessed at:
54) HVAC/heating system (general information and limitations): The heating and/or cooling system inspection is basic, visual and limited in scope. Inspector does not disassemble HVAC appliances nor assess heat exchangers, thermostat calibration, system sufficiency, all venting, ducts, supply registers and airflow to rooms. A heating professional has access to specialized equipment that will locate defective heat exchangers, identify vent deficiencies, and fully evaluate balance, sufficiency and continuity of ducting. If inspector reports any problems, or recommends service, all work and full system evaluation should be performed by licensed HVAC professional or, in some instances, a licensed electrician or plumber. Further assessment by specialists could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. Gas meters, fuel storage tanks (propane, heating oil), or associated piping, valves and connectors are excluded.
55) Basic exhaust-ventilation systems such as bathroom fans, laundry fans or range hoods will be described in the "Interior Areas" report section. Exterior vent hoods should be equipped with backdraft dampers (flappers) and screens (1/4"-1/2" wire mesh). Due to the complexities involved in doing so, inspector does not verify sufficiency of dampers or screens.
Fireplace(s), Insert(s), Freestanding Stove(s)Table of contents
Fireplace/insert/freestanding stove type(s): Metal insert (wood burning)
Energy/fuel type: Solid fuel (wood)
Heat-circulating fan-blower(s) present: Yes, but fan controls are usually temperature sensitive so fans are not tested. Excluded
Wood burning chimney type(s): Masonry
Combustible clearances, wood/solid fuel burning metal chimney(s), to insulation or flammables: Not applicable, metal chimney runs through a masonry chimney
Hearth extension/non-combustible floor present at wood/solid-fuel burning device(s): Yes, typically sized
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of systems or components, rust or wear, continuity of exhaust vents or ducts, sufficiency of chimney flues-vents, combustible clearances, motors and exhaust-circulation fans/blowers and terminations, dampers, placement of gas shutoff valves, glass at fireplaces or stoves, gas logs, electric fireplaces, compliance with EPA or any governmental agency emission-safety certification requirements
56) Conducive conditionsThe chimney crown is cracked or damaged. Water intrusion to the top of the chimney structure is apparent. I recommend qualified party such as a chimney mason repair crown as necessary to prevent further damage.
Photo 56-1 
57) Conducive conditionsMissing chimney cap/spark arrestor: Lack of a raincap can result in water intrusion into the flue and deterioration of mortar, masonry materials and moisture damage. A missing spark screen increases the risk of a house fire by allowing hot embers to exit a flue.
Photo 57-1 
58) Wood burning device: Inspector does not light fires; therefore, no determination was made as to proper operation of the device. This is a basic visual examination of a chimney and any associated wood burning accessories. The National Fire Protection Association contends that, when a wood burning device is present, an in-depth Level 2 chimney inspection should be part of every real estate sale. I recommend following through on that suggestion: All work, and further evaluation, to be completed by licensed chimney sweep. The invasive process might reveal unidentified or latent deficiencies. For detailed information on chimney inspections, please visit:
Photo 58-1 Limited view of the fireplace flue from the roof. Level II chimney inspection is strongly recommended at the transition of occupancy
Photo 58-2 The interior of the fireplace insert appeared to have some damage. I recommend further evaluation by a chimney sweep and a level II inspection performed prior to use
59) Wood and solid fuel burning fireplaces, inserts, or freestanding stoves (general information and limitations): Inspector is not a chimney sweep. Only normal controls are operated and I offer a visual inspection of wood and solid fuel burning devices. As prescribed by state law, an inspector will not start a fire at any fireplace or stove. A licensed and certified chimney sweep is qualified to complete an invasive evaluation of wood, solid fuel or wood pellet burning systems. If issues involving appliances or components are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates. Further review by specialists could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. Any blowers-heat circulating fans and their controls are excluded. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) states that 140,000 accidental fires, involving wood burning accessories, occur each year. When a wood burning fireplace or stove is present, NFPA recommends scheduling an in-depth Level 2 chimney inspection as part of every real estate transaction.
Water HeaterTable of contents
Manufacturer: Bradford White
Model number of water heater: MS50S6DS5
Serial number of water heater: CD7649838
Estimated age of water heater(s) based on serial number(s) or other data: 14 years old (manufactured in 2006 as per code on the data plate))
Capacity in gallons: 50
Type: Conventional tank(s)
Energy source(s): Electricity
Electricity "on" to the water heater(s): Yes
Water heater(s) operational: Yes
Water shutoff valve(s): Yes, but valve(s) is not shutoff to test it, nor is there a detailed analysis of function
Water temperature at fixtures as verified by inspector (hot water at fixtures should not exceed 120 degrees F): 121°F
Hot water taps properly positioned at sink(s): Yes, hot at left side or as marked-identified on lever handle
Combustible clearances, from metal gas-fired appliance vent(s), to insulation or flammables: Not applicable
Seismic restraints in place at tank water heater: Yes, strut/bracket(s). Instead, current safety guidelines suggest installing seismic straps or bands (one near the top and another near the bottom)
Temperature pressure relief valve(s) installed: Yes
Drain line(s) at relief valve(s): Yes
Relief valve(s) drain line material: Copper
Relief valve(s) drain line discharge point(s) noted: Yes, terminates in crawl space. Qualified party to modify so the installation conforms to standard plumbing guidelines
Catch pan(s) under water heater(s): Yes
Drain line(s) from catch pan(s): Yes
Discharge point(s) of catch pan drain line(s) noted: Yes, but would drain into the crawl space. Reroute it to an approved location
Water pressure reducing valve observed in system: Inspector did not see/identify a pressure reducer. Pressure reducing valves might be installed at various locations so they are not always readily observable. Pressure reducers should be accessible, not concealed, enclosed in walls, or otherwise obstructed from view. When a pressure reducer is present, a thermal expansion tank is usually placed in supply piping by the water heater
Thermal expansion tank(s) installed: No, if a pressure reducing valve is present, a thermal expansion tank is usually placed in supply piping by the water heater
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of appliances or systems, rust or wear, continuity of exhaust vents or heating elements, recirculation-circulation pumps, calibration or function of thermostats, concealed components at temperature pressure relief valves or drain lines, presence/function of mixing or anti-scald valves, point of use instant hot water dispensers/tanks/taps
60) The water heater lacks seismic straps/bands. Therefore, the tank is vulnerable to tipping. I recommend installing seismic straps/bands, near the top and the bottom of the tank. All work to be completed by HVAC technician or plumber. A diagram, illustrative of the currently preferred method of bracing a water heater, is available here:
Photo 60-1 Struts (blue arrows) were installed at the top of the water heater, however better building practices recommends installing straps at upper and lower thirds of the appliance (as illustrated with yellow arrows) for more assured stability in the occurrence of a seismic event
61) Thermal expansion tank missing: In most circumstances an onsite water pressure reducer creates a "closed plumbing system." At a closed system, a thermal expansion tank will be put in place at water heater supply piping. Water expands when it is heated and backflow prevention, built into many water pressure reducers, restricts water from passing back into the main supply piping. That condition can result in unnecessary discharge from temperature pressure relief valves. A few water pressure reducers have built in bypass features that negate the need for thermal expansion tanks. I recommend further review: Qualified plumber or HVAC professional to assess pressure reducer/system and, if/as necessary, install thermal expansion vessel(s). Adding a thermal expansion tank is typically not a costly upgrade.
62) Conducive conditionsThe water heater was manufactured in 2006. The anticipated useful life for a tank water heater, according to manufacturers' estimates, is 8 to 12 years. Actual lifespan will vary and, depending on corrosivity of water and other difficult to predict factors, electric tanks might outlast gas-fired tanks. Regardless, future life expectancy of this appliance and associated components cannot be determined. An aging water heater may fail unexpectedly, which can result in leakage and insufficient, or no, hot water. Due to the complications involved in dealing with a failed or leaking water heater, client(s) should consider contractor replacement of the appliance prior to more significant problems becoming apparent.

As we discussed on the site, electric water heaters tend to last longer than gas-fired water heaters, but nevertheless, due to the unpredictability of failure, I recommend budgeting for replacement in the near future.
63) Conducive conditionsThe temperature pressure relief valve drain line has been routed into the substructure/crawl space. If the valve should discharge water, the substructure area would be subject to moisture damage. I recommend further evaluation and appropriate repairs. Since strict guidelines apply to TPR valves and drain lines, all work to be completed by plumber or HVAC technician. While onsite, professional to offer suggestions at to potentially beneficial corrections or upgrades. An online video, produced by King of the House Inc., on the topic of temperature pressure relief valves and drain lines, may be accessed at this link:

Additionally: catch pan, under the water heater drain line is also directed to substructure. A leak could result in moisture damage at finished interior space. I recommend further evaluation by professional, plumber or HVAC technician to install a catch pan with a drain line to the exterior. An article, descriptive of other potential remedies for water heaters that could leak and cause interior damage, is available at:

I apologize for not having a photo of this concern, I had camera issues when I entered the crawlspace. The termination of the pipes noted above are directly below the water heater.
64) The hot water temperature at fixtures reads as a minimum of 121degrees Fahrenheit. (Not necessarily a high enough temperature to be a safety concern, but nevertheless I am adding this information to the report.): The risk of scalding increases when temperature is set higher than 120°F I recommend adjusting/limiting the water temperature at fixtures to 120°F. Water temperature is regulated by thermostatic controls at/inside water heaters. Temperature may vary throughout the day, depending on when the appliance last heated water. Even though temperature at fixtures should be limited to 120°F, maintaining a higher tank temperature reduces the probability of bacterial growth inside the water heater. Therefore, a preferred means of lowering temperature involves installing a thermal mixing valve: Water at fixtures is restricted to 120°F, yet water in the tank will maintain a temperature of 130-140°F At client’s discretion, qualified party to adjust thermostat(s) or have a plumber install thermal mixing valve. To obtain more information on hot water safety, please visit:

An article, descriptive of thermal mixing valves, is available at this link:
65) Water heaters (general information and limitations): Inspector does not evaluate pipes-tubing or vents that run inside walls, or valves, thermostats or burners-heating elements and other components that are not readily accessible. Undiscovered corrosion of a tank could be present, yet go unreported, as a result of lack of visibility or access. When issues with a system are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates. Due to the complexities of such devices, and a number of potential safety issues, any work and evaluation of water heater/plumbing system should be performed by a licensed plumber and/or an HVAC professional. Timely service, and specialized review, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Plumbing System & LaundryTable of contents
Water pressure (40-80 PSI "pounds per square inch" is normal range): 80 psi
Water pressure reducer observed in system: No
Location of "occupant accessible" main water shutoff valve: Undetermined. Not located, inspector only identified municipal or street shutoff. Occupant accessible shutoffs, when present, may be obscured from view or difficult to find. Consult with plumber, property owner or otherwise locate or install shutoff
Location(s) of assumed plumbing (waste/drain line) cleanout(s): Crawl space drain/waste piping
Plumbing vent stack or vent stacks present: Yes, multiple vents noted. The inspector verifies that vents are present, but does not perform detailed analysis of the adequacy of stacks
Water service: Municipal/city
Service pipe/tubing material (where observed): Not verified. Typically underground, limited access and view
Supply pipe/tubing material (where observed): Copper
Water supply pipes/tubing wrapped or insulated in substructure areas: Sporadic, pipe insulation is missing and or appears to be largely damaged by rodents. Wrap water lines to protect them against freezing
Waste/drain pipe material (where observed): Modern plastic (ABS and/or PVC), Metal (galvanized steel and/or cast iron or lead), Copper
Transition dryer duct type (observable) at/behind dryer: Semi-rigid aluminum flex duct, typically considered to be acceptable at/behind a dryer but may not penetrate into/through a floor, a wall or ceiling
Washing machine catch pan and drain installed: No, seldom seen but a good idea
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: Water filters-filtration systems, aerators, softeners, under sink instant hot water dispensers/connections, recirculation-circulation or pressure booster and sump pumps, sewage ejector-grinder pumps or private sewage disposal systems and related electronics/alarms (may be present onsite unbeknownst to inspector), PEX by brand or fittings, presence/function of anti-scald or mixing valves and tub-shower pans and traps (usually obstructed from view) in substructure areas, life expectancy of appliances or components, washing machines and dryers, municipal or community shutoffs and water meters, water quality or potability, yard sprinklers/irrigation systems and associated wiring/controls/backflow prevention, floor and outdoor drains and drain lines
66) The exterior dryer hood is damaged and contains an accumulation of lint. As the problem worsens, a blockage could lead to fire, or damage the thermal devices inside the dryer. I recommend replacing exterior hood, and cleaning associated ducting, now and clean as necessary in the future. Work to be completed by qualified party. To obtain additional information on dryers and ducting, please visit:
Photo 66-1 
67) Accessible shutoff: The inspector did not identify-locate a dedicated "occupant accessible" main water shutoff valve. (This excludes any municipal, community or "street shutoff" that might have been present onsite.) Occupant accessible main water shutoffs can be situated at a number of locations. Per standard guidelines, although shutoff valves need not be conveniently located, they must be readily accessible. I suggest further review, consult with the property owner or search for a shutoff. If the building is lacking an occupant accessible shutoff valve, have a qualified plumber install a shutoff. When a main valve is not present, turning off the water at the time of an emergency, or when plumbing projects take place, will be more difficult.

In lieu of no homeowner accessible shutoff located at time of inspection, and alternate shutoff is at the municipal meter. Located at the southeast corner of the property. At the meter, the water can be shut off at the valve using a Curb-Key, this tool is sold at most hardware or plumbing supply retailers.

Shutoff valve(s) exclusion: Water supply shutoff valves, including any occupant accessible "main," municipal or street "mains," and dedicated shutoffs under/behind fixtures or appliances are not routinely operated. Only normal controls are tested such as sink and tub faucets. Prior to moving in belongings, client(s) should verify that shutoff valves are functional, readily accessible and situated at standard locations. Often, infrequently used shutoff valves are difficult to turn or they leak at valve stems. If problems become apparent, consult with plumber.
68) Inaccessible water pressure reducer. A water pressure reducing valve and associated piping and unions should be visible and accessible so, as applicable, the device can be inspected, repaired, etc. I suggest making the pressure reducer and/or fittings accessible. All work and review to be performed by qualified plumber.
69) Pipe-wrap is missing/not installed or damaged at water supply lines in the crawl space. To guard against freezing in frigid weather, and to enhance energy efficiency, cover supply pipes-tubing with foam pipe wrap. Any work to be completed, on a case by case basis, by qualified party. When water lines are wrapped, foundation vents can be left open most of the year, except during times of extreme cold.
Photo 69-1 
70) Rubber water supply hoses, as is often the case, are installed at the washing machine. Rubber hoses are prone to eventual deterioration and leaks. I recommend replacing rubber supply hoses with long-lasting stainless steel braided washing machine hoses. Alternatively, consider an upgrade to "FloodSafe" auto-shutoff connectors: designed to stop the flow of water if leakage occurs. A wide assortment of hoses are available at hardware and home stores. A manufacturer produced online video that explains the operation of FloodSafe specialty hoses is available at this link:
Photo 70-1 
71) Proper function of waste/drain pipes is beyond the scope of a visual inspection. Problems that are unknown to seller or the inspector may exist, especially so at buried piping such as supply, drain and waste pipes. I suggest that client(s) consider consulting with a plumbing firm that has the capability to inspect inside drain and waste pipes with a remote camera.
72) Washing machines and/or dryers are not routinely operated and they are not included in the inspection: Briefly running appliances does not establish reliability. Furthermore, associated supply lines, drain lines, plumbing and electric connections are excluded. Often laundry appliances are not part of a real estate transaction. In situations where they are included, prior to purchase, clients are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations. A washer and dryer were present at time of inspection.

Due to potential pitfalls involved in doing so (detaching ducts, loosening fittings or hoses), inspector does not move appliances. Upon taking occupancy, clients are encouraged to move appliances to obtain improved access and view. If any issues are noted, consult with qualified repair professional. On a regular basis, clean ducting, outside vent hood and the dryer lint filter.
73) Plumbing system (general information and limitations): When it is possible to do so, I check a plumbing system by running a limited quantity of water. Service, supply, drain, waste piping, components or valves that are inside walls, ceilings, buried (or otherwise unobservable) are excluded. As a result of these limitations, concealed problems may become apparent when occupants run water and use facilities on a consistent basis. Inspector does not assess underground service-supply, drain-waste piping, publicly owned components, private water systems and/or filtration, determine the presence, or functionality, of any sewage ejector-grinder pumps or private sewage systems. Even simple plumbing repairs can, unexpectedly, turn into complicated projects. Whenever work is required, consult with licensed professionals. While onsite, plumber should evaluate the system including fixtures, supply, drain and waste lines, venting, etc., and provide recommendations as to potentially beneficial upgrades or repairs. If significant issues with system/components are reported, I advise obtaining detailed cost and repair estimates. Specialized evaluation, by a plumbing contractor, could reveal deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
74) Plumbing fixtures inspected, including tubs, showers, toilets and sinks (possible exception being laundry sinks, which might be in this report section), are described in the "Interior Areas" report section. Outside hose bibbs/faucets that were inspected are usually referenced in the "Exterior & Site" report section.
Crawl Space-FoundationTable of contents
Foundation wall/stem wall material (where observed): See "Exterior & Site" report section
Footing material (where observed): See "Exterior & Site" report section
Foundation cracks or irregularities noted: See "Exterior & Site" report section
Inspection method: Partially traversed (most crawl spaces have inaccessible areas where the view is blocked by insulation, ducts, piping, etc.)
Location(s) of crawl space hatch(es) that were observed and/or inspected: North side of structure
Bolts/anchors (observable locations) to secure structure to foundation: Undetermind, not verified due to methods of construction. When present, bolts anchor structural members to the foundation
Crawl space design: Unconditioned (should be ventilated) space
Foundation vents at crawl space: Yes, but too few. Cross-ventilation may be restricted. Consider installing additional vents
Number of walls with crawl space vents: Multiple sides
Foundation vents in crawl space open: No, presently blocked. Vents should be open except during extremely cold weather
Insulation installed underside of floor(s) situated above unheated crawl space: Yes, insulation is present, but it has fallen or is damaged. Properly insulate under the floor. When present, underfloor insulation obstructs the view of many areas and is a limitation to the inspection
Insulation material (type) underneath floor: Fiberglass batt
Estimated underfloor insulation R-value, may vary in some locations (today crawl spaces are typically insulated to R-30 minimum): See body of the report
Structural components: Joists-Beams and posts
Support post and footing/pier pad materials: Wood posts on concrete piers and/or footings
Tops of posts/columns tied (positive connections): No, when present positive connections better secure tops of posts/columns to beams or other structural members
Bottoms of posts/columns tied (positive connections): No, when present positive connections better secure bottoms of posts/columns to pier blocks or footings
Sill plate lumber pressure-treated: Yes, pressure-treated lumber is more resistant to rot than untreated lumber
Beam material: Wood
Floor structure above: Tongue and groove planks (subflooring)
Plastic vapor barrier ground cover present over earth: Yes, but requires replacement
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: inaccessible areas such as sill plates, ceiling-floor joists, beams, wiring, pipes, ducts, etc., areas obscured from view by insulation or other components, under slabs/footings/substructure locations that are not readily accessible, behind covers at walls or ceilings if hatches are obscured from view or of undetermined purpose or if removal could cause cosmetic damage, sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members such as posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, calculating loads, placement of bolts and anchors, squash blocks, web stiffeners, insulation R-values, identifying microbial bodies-mold, sump pumps (except as reported), absolute adequacy of overall substructure ventilation
75) InfestationDamageConducive conditions "Anobiid beetle" exit holes and resultant damage were noted at wood components around the crawlspace access and at visible support posts. Visual limitations existed due to the excessive amount of fallen insulation. Exit holes are tiny, so insect activity may be present at undiscovered locations. This pest works slowly over the years but, long-term, it is destructive. The species is attracted to damp substructure areas, living in wood that has 13% or higher moisture content. Poor ventilation and high humidity are conducive to sustaining an infestation. Wood that displays signs of beetle activity does not always require replacement, but it may be necessary to apply a chemical treatment. I recommend further evaluation by qualified professionals. A general contractor, knowledgeable of the biology of wood boring beetles, should locate and remove compromised (insect damaged and/or rotted) wood, put in place sound materials. If/where necessary, pull out insulation to obtain improved access and a better view. Eliminate conditions that are conducive to infestation by wood destroying insects, arrange for a pest management professional to treat the area with a legally approved chemical that controls wood boring beetles. An online video, produced by King of the House Inc., on the topic of anobiid beetles may be accessed at this link:
Photo 75-1 Anobiid exit holes in structural lumber at crawlspace access
Photo 75-2 Anobiid exit holes in the support post the crawlspace access. The extent cannot be fully determined due to significant amount of fallen insulation
76) InfestationDamageConducive conditionsSigns of carpenter ants and/or resultant damage was apparent at the crawl space. Pests are often concealed, so it's seldom possible to locate all ant activity or tunneling without invasive testing. I recommend further evaluation by general contractor: Locate and remove any compromised (insect damaged and/or rotted) wood, put in place sound materials. If/where necessary, pull out insulation to obtain improved access and an unimpaired view. Eliminate conditions that are conducive to infestation by wood destroying insects. A pest management professional should evaluate the conditions and determine if chemical treatment is required. This species is opportunistic, typically more active seasonally in warm weather. An online video, produced by King of the House Inc., on the topic of carpenter ants may be accessed at this link:

Below are examples of the evidence found. As per a conversation with the buyers agent, she was informed that a pest control treatment has recently been applied for carpenter ants. This information would explain why evidence of frass (frass a byproduct of insect tunneling) was apparent but no live ants were noted at time of inspection. However, to properly treat for wood destroying insects in substructure, insulation should be removed to a a full view and access to all components for treatment. I recommend further review once the crawlspace is cleaned out, prior to re-insulating.
Photo 76-1 
Photo 76-2 
Photo 76-3 In these three photos, the appearance of sawdust is assumed to be frass caused by Carpenter and activity.
77) DamageSigns of past or present rodent activity were noted in the form of odors, droppings, seed shells, damaged insulation, traps and/or poison. Often it is not possible to determine the current status of pests. In some instances, traps and bait indicate that occupants are trying to prevent infestations. Rodents are commonly seen, often moving around from one location to another, and they can cause extensive damage. Mice and rats are able to pass through small (3/4" to 1") openings. If pests gain access to one area, they are likely to be active at other locations as well. I recommend further evaluation, consulting with a pest management professional. A qualified person should make repairs to seal openings in the structure, set traps, and clean rodent waste as necessary. Further information is available with the following guidelines in these Center for Disease Control articles:
Photo 77-1 As a result, significant and widespread damage has occurred to crawlspace insulation
Photo 77-2 
78) Conducive conditionsCrawlspace vents have been intentionally blocked, many crawl space vents are at, or below, grade and have missing vent wells. When properly installed, wells keep openings into substructure space free from blockages. The present situation impedes ventilation and could allow rain or run-off water to enter substructure space. I recommend further review repair/alter accordingly onsite: Put in wells that provide separation (3"- 4") from earth to the bottom of any vent. Purchase metal or plastic wells at a home store or, a less desirable option, build wells made from pressure-treated lumber. All work to be completed by qualified party such as general contractor.

Crawl space vents are intentionally blocked. This condition restricts crawl space ventilation and is conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. Remove plugs/covers. When/if water pipes are wrapped, vents can be left open most of the year, except during extremely cold weather. If vents are closed in frigid weather, they should be reopened immediately after cold weather subsides. When uncovering vents, confirm that screens are intact (1/8"-1/4" corrosion-resistant wire mesh) to protect against pest entry.
Photo 78-1 All foundation vents were intentionally covered, some covers were damaged and can allow vermin into the crawlspace. Vents that are at or below grade without wells can allow water into crawlspace
Photo 78-2 
79) Some pier block do not appear to have proper footings below. A pier block, to reduce the probability of settling or erosion, should have a poured concrete footing at the underside. I recommend further evaluation and appropriate repairs. All work to be performed by qualified party such as licensed contractor. Contractor, while onsite, to offer suggestions as to other potentially beneficial repairs or upgrades. For additional information on footing stability, please follow this link:
Photo 79-1 An example of less than professional installation. Support posts should have positive attachment at the beam, post should be centered on lower bracket and proper nails installed and pier block should be dug to undisturbed soil
80) Conducive conditionsINACCESSIBLE LOCATIONS: The scope of the inspection is limited. Large portions of the space areas are inaccessible or difficult to access due to excessive amounts of fallen insulation and other debris. Washington law requires a structural pest inspector to report that inaccessible substructure space is vulnerable to concealed problems, including structural damage, rot and wood destroying insects. Accessible is defined as at least 12" of space between earth and beams and a minimum 18" of space between earth and joists. Earth, when closer to wood than those recommended clearances, restricts access and the condition is conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. Piping and ductwork can contribute to tight clearances, diminish air movement-ventilation, and further limit access. Unless it is impossible or impractical to do so, inspector is obligated to call for making any inaccessible substructure areas fully accessible. I recommend further evaluation and repairs/modifications: Establish sufficient clearances from wood to earth and, as applicable, under any piping or ductwork. All work to be performed by qualified and experienced general contractor. If/when excavation takes place, the work must not compromise foundation, footings or pier blocks. Once inaccessible areas have been opened up, contact inspector and arrange to have all parts of the substructure space assessed. Or, at client's discretion, when onsite repairs commence, have a licensed general contractor locate and correct any substructure issues that might become apparent.
81) Conducive conditionsScraps and debris: Nonessential materials (wood and/or paper, cardboard, insulation, etc.) were left in the crawl space -- conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. Collect and dispose of any unnecessary, and nonstructural, materials including wood, paper, cardboard, insulation or other debris that might be found under a vapor barrier ground cover. All work to be completed by qualified party.
82) Conducive conditionsEarth is uncovered/exposed at some areas of the crawl space: inadequate vapor barrier ground cover. Evaporation from the ground can result in a damp/humid crawl space and high humidity at interior space -- conditions that are conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. The NW Clean Air Agency estimates that as much as 40% of the air inside a residence has evaporated up from substructure areas. I recommend further review: Repair/replace vapor barrier, as might be necessary, so all earth is covered. If additional material is required, employ 6 mil non-translucent polyethylene (black is preferred) with plastic installed to lay as flat as is possible and seams should overlap by a minimum of 24". Fold or cut ground cover, so it is not in contact with posts/structural lumber -- moisture that collects between plastic and the wood can lead to decay. All work to be completed by qualified party.
83) Underfloor insulation has fallen down or it is damaged/missing. (damage is largely caused by rodent infestation as noted in separate concerns in this section) As a guideline, based on today's standards, underfloor insulation at floors above unheated space is rated at R-30 or better. I recommend further review and appropriate repairs: Install/re-install, or custom fit, insulation. Insulation should be tight to the underside of the floor above and the vapor barrier paper backing, on most modern batt insulation, is designed to face the warm side. Upside down insulation can result in moisture retention. All work to be completed by qualified professional. Underfloor insulation, when present, obscures the view including at structural lumber such as subfloor/floor, sill plate, joists, rim joist, etc. Inspectors do not pull down or move insulation; therefore, some areas are excluded from the inspection.
84) The support posts are lacking positive connections, they are not "tied" at the beams. Positive connections reduce the likelihood of lateral displacement. I recommend further evaluation, repair by nailing two suitable pieces of wood, or installing metal connectors, at junctions of beams and posts. All work to be completed by qualified general contractor.
85) Seasonal conditions: In the PNW, typically in fall and winter, we experience more rainfall and runoff water than at other times of the year. Since conditions change, on a regular basis, crawl spaces should be entered and checked for standing water, plumbing leaks, fallen or damaged insulation, rodent activity and indications of insects such as wood shavings on the foundation wall, the sill or the crawl space floor. If any problems are seen, consult with appropriate contractors/service providers.
86) At this building, based on the view at a few observable locations, inspector cannot verify the presence of sill plate bolts or structural anchors. Bolts might be obstructed from view by intrinsic design elements, a second sill plate, finish surfaces and/or insulation. When present, bolts attach a siil plate or structural lumber to the foundation. Up until about thirty years ago, bolts were not commonly installed. Therefore, depending on the build date, homes both with and without bolts are often seen. If a client wishes to add bolts-anchors, discuss options with a general contractor.
87) This crawlspace evaluation and comments from the inspection are based on significantly limited view due to large quantities of damaged insulation. As a courtesy to the client, once the crawlspaces is cleaned out, upon request, I would be happy to return and complete the substructure evaluation.

Unconditioned crawl space (general information and limitations): When present, underfloor insulation, ducting, piping or wiring can limit access and view. I report standing water and sump pumps that I see, or otherwise become aware of, during the course of the inspection. Since sump pumps are usually partially buried, they might go undiscovered. I do not guarantee that a crawl space has been dry in the past or assume that it will remain dry in the future. Any such assurances could only be provided after long-term monitoring, e.g., during varying seasonal conditions including heavy rainfall and melting snow. If a report references crawl space deficiencies, clients are encouraged to obtain cost and repair estimates. Professional contractors, after full assessment, should offer suggestions as to potentially beneficial repairs or upgrades. Further evaluation, by a licensed general contractor, could uncover problems that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Interior AreasTable of contents
Status of secondary egress-ingress at bedroom(s): Egress-ingress is not in general accordance with current safety guidelines
Permanently installed kitchen appliances present during inspection: Range, Dishwasher, Refrigerator, Under-sink food disposal
Properly designed/installed traps at sinks: Yes, P-traps
Water shutoff valves seen at sink(s): Yes
Water shutoff valves for all toilet(s): Yes
Shutoff valve for dishwasher(s): Yes
Air-gap anti-backflow device(s) at dishwasher(s): Yes, typically minimally visible, so not verified as to connections
Dishwasher(s) opened, inside viewed: Yes
Range(s) opened, inside viewed: Yes
Range(s) prone to tipping forward: Yes, range is "tippy, " a deficiency that can result in injury. Install anti-tip bracket(s)
Stains or imperfections (past or present) noted at ceilings and/or walls: None observed or notable
Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm(s) present: None identified. Verify that working CO alarm(s) are present in required locations. If not, install alarms where/as required
Smoke alarm(s) present: Yes, not tested. Limitations apply
Ceiling fan(s) operable: No, qualified party to repair fan(s). Visual limitations apply. Inspector cannot verify the means of attachment
Main entry doorbell operable: Doorbells, if/when present, are low voltage devices that are excluded
Floor surfaces/finishes: Common and typical such as:, vinyl/linoleum, carpet
Wall surfaces/finishes: drywall, textured
Ceiling surfaces/finishes: drywall, textured
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: telephone, satellite, cable, antennas, sound systems, intercoms, low voltage wiring, media centers, trash compactors, life expectancy of products, behind appliances, identifying Chinese drywall, small cracks in tiles/adequacy of support under tile floors, suitability of floor covering for specific purpose, moisture and odors at inaccessible floor coverings and walls, surfaces behind wallpaper, inside covers at walls/floors or ceilings if hatches are obstructed or of undetermined purpose, shower pans, steam showers-baths, bidets, window coverings, blinds and power blinds, thermal seals at windows, safety glass placement, adequacy of emergency egress, determining insulation R-values, gas shutoff valves at stationary appliances, cosmetic issues, minor visual disruptions at walls and ceilings caused by truss uplift or a similar condition, oven doors and temperature/timer function, convection and warming drawers-ovens and burners, grills, griddles, appliance lights, refrigerator-freezer temperature, ice makers, fresh water or water filtration systems, ceiling fans, sufficiency of exhaust fans or vent hoods, central vacuum systems, overflows at fixtures, appliances except as referenced in the report, microbial bodies-mildew and mold, identifying bearing walls and calculating loads
88) Emergency escape & rescue openings: Current requirements, related to secondary EGRESS, are onerous and complicated compared to the standards of years gone by. At this time, protocols allow quick egress for residents and provide ready ingress for firefighters and their safety apparatus. Based on standard recommendations, bedroom windows are too high off the floor to provide adequate emergency egress-ingress. Inspector is not a code enforcement official, nor verifying compliance with past-present codes. Codes are not retroactive, but fire safety is of importance. I recommend further evaluation, establishing sufficient egress at any bedrooms or rooms that will be used, even on an occasional basis, as sleeping areas. Client(s) should discuss repair options with a general contractor. A diagram, illustrative of recommended egress window sizing and height guidelines, is available at this link:

The following standards currently apply to bedrooms:

- On the interior side, if the window is 44" or less off the floor (maximum height to opening allowed) the net clear space requirement is, minimum, 5.7 sq ft. The minimum window opening (height) must be 24" and the minimum opening (width) must be 20". A window, if the dimensions are of minimum height and width, will not comply with the overall size requirements for net clear space. Therefore, at least one of these dimensions must, significantly so, exceed the minimum specifications
- At grade floor exits, defined as windows a maximum of 44" over both interior floors AND grade/landing at the exterior, require a net clear space no smaller than 5.0 sq ft. The minimum window opening (height) must be 24" and the minimum opening (width) must be 20". See the reference to windows that are of minimum dimensions, explained directly above.
- Windows should be installed with the bottom of the window opening no higher than 44" off the floor. (When the opening is higher than suggested, often a window seat, a stair or a similar permanent object, can be installed under the window to effectively decrease height above the floor)
- Windows, or doors, designed for emergency egress, must easily open from the inside, with no keys or tools required. Any storm windows must be of sufficient size, readily open and not restrict egress
- A door to the outside may, depending on location, provide secondary egress
89) Conducive conditionsToilet(s) inspection: At time of inspection elevated moisture readings were noted around the base of the toilet in comparison to assumed dry areas. I recommend qualified plumber pull toilet, inspect surrounding area, if damage is noted to the floor than repair should be performed prior to reinstalling a new wax ring in securing the toilet to the floor.
Caulking has deteriorated around the base of the toilet. Preferably, an installer will seal the front and sides of a toilet but leave a gap of a few inches at the back. The seal protects against moisture entry and is, also, hygienic in nature. The back of a fixture is left open so, if the wax ring-seal (under a toilet) leaks, a resident will be more likely to detect seepage and seek professional assistance. I recommend further evaluation, and appropriate repairs, with work to be completed by a qualified plumber.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A non-invasive moisture meter may be employed to check flooring at bases of toilets. Regardless, a slow, intermittent or concealed leak could be undetectable at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at toilets can result in interior damage. Depending on belongings present and flush mechanism attachment, inspector might not remove tank lids. Caulking or grout, around bases of toilets, requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
Photo 89-1 Elevated moisture around the base of the toilet compared to single digit moisture readings at other sections of the bathroom floor
90) Carpeting is damaged in various areas. I recommend that a qualified contractor replace as necessary.
Photo 90-1 This is just one photo of the type of damage noted to the carpet in various areas. Most significant damage is in the living room. Carpet appears to be newer, damage is sporadic
91) Consumer alarms: Smoke alarms(s) were present, but inspector did not identify/locate carbon monoxide (CO) alarm(s). Sometimes dual CO/smoke alarms (both features built into combination units) might be present but go unidentified. By law in Washington, at the time of a real estate sale, an approved CO alarm is required outside or, if necessary to provide sufficient coverage, inside each separate sleeping area and (as applicable) on each floor level. Working smoke alarms, per general safety guidelines, should be put in each bedroom, any adjoining hallways, at every floor level and at enclosed interior staircases that lead to other occupied levels. Today's consumer alarms are inexpensive and, in the case of battery powered devices and those that plug-in, they can be installed by almost anyone. An inspector does not routinely test, count, or determine that an operable alarm is situated in every required location. Prior to assuming occupancy, clients should further assess alarms. If necessary, add/reposition/upgrade alarms so as to comply with state law and all prevailing safety protocols. All consumer alarms must be installed per manufacturers' specifications. Residents are advised to regularly test alarms, change batteries as needed, and replace any old or nonoperational alarms (10 years is the maximum estimated design life). Some fire safety professionals suggest that all smoke alarms should be of the photoelectric type vs. commonly seen ionization alarms that can be slow to react to smoke and fire.
92) The range/cooktop is electric. Main burners heated, as did the oven and broiler elements. However, the range tipped forward when pressure was applied. This is a safety concern, especially so for children, who might pull on or climb on the range. I recommend further review and appropriate repair: Install a standard anti-tip bracket to better secure the range. All work to be completed by qualified appliance installation-repair professional.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspector does not verify internal temperatures, the operation of timers, clocks, convection ovens, warmer burners or drawers, appliance lights, or seal/fit of gaskets. Due to potential pitfalls, I do not move appliances, remove drawers to view connections, gas valves, brackets, mounting hardware, etc. Upon taking occupancy, clients are encouraged to move appliances to obtain better access and view. If any issues are discovered, consult with knowledgeable repair persons.
93) Some window screens were damaged or deteriorated. These window(s) may not provide ventilation during months when insects are active. Recommend replacing window screens as necessary.
94) Interior (recommendations, general information and limitations): The inspector views walls, ceilings, floors and assesses the condition of a representative number of windows, doors, cabinets, and electrical components. When belongings are present, access to or the view of numerous areas might be obstructed by appliances, furniture, window coverings and breakables. Inspector does not move appliances or furniture. After personal items have been removed, problems that were not identified at the time of the inspection might become apparent. I am focusing on significant concerns and do not dwell on cosmetic matters that the discerning purchaser is probably already aware of such as nail-pops, scuff marks, blemishes indications of past wear and use, countertops, cupboards and drawers, housekeeping, or subtle household odors. With the exception of new construction, most residences will display signs of previous occupancy. Regardless of the age and condition of a property, often individuals plan to renovate. Design and general appearance of interior decor are matters of personal taste. Therefore, it is client's responsibility to ascertain that interior features -- floor coverings, wall or ceiling surfaces, paint, cabinetry, appliances, etc. -- meet with personal expectations.
95) The dishwasher: the appliance was operated on a short cycle, it was noted to have a proper airgap at the drain and secured to the counter. No leaks were noted during operation.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations. For additional information on air-gaps, please follow this link:

The inspector is otherwise occupied onsite. Therefore, any assessment of the performance of the dishwasher is limited in scope. I may be unable to determine if it is operating properly. If the device is turned on, at inspector's option, a slow or intermittent leak could go undetected.
96) Sinks inspection: kitchen and bathroom sinks were operational at time of inspection, no defects noted.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A slow, intermittent or concealed leak may be undetectable at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at sinks and piping can result in interior damage. Caulk and/or grout around fixtures requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
97) The nonprofit organization "Consumer Reports," estimates that more than 15 million household products, including kitchen appliances, water heaters, furnaces, electric and gas heaters and fireplaces, wood burning appliances, etc., have been recalled in the past decade. It is not possible for an inspector to identify all potentially recalled consumer items. A user friendly search engine that was created to track, upon entering manufacturer specific data, recalled products is available at:

Another online tool, helpful when attempting to identify the age of most of the commonly seen kitchen and household appliances, may be accessed at this link:

Kitchen appliances are excluded per the state standards of practice. Any comments that reference the age/condition of appliances are offered as a courtesy. The status of appliances can change with little or no warning. Areas beside and/or behind appliances are usually not accessible and any such locations, or associated wiring, plumbing or connections, are excluded. Inspector does not determine compliance with manufacturers' specifications or predict remaining life of any appliance.
98) The refrigerator/freezer: the appliances operation at time of inspection. Lights came on when doors was open items in the freezer were frozen, in the refrigerator was cold, door gaskets were intact, but the appliance could use some cleaning.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances and any associated systems meet with personal expectations.

Inspector did not assess the operation or cleanliness of coils, drip pans, appliance lights or the appropriateness of internal temperatures. Appliances will not be unplugged or moved to view connections, water lines or hookups. Periodically, coils, drip pans and interior surfaces require cleaning.
99) The range hood and/or exhaust fan was turned on. It is recirculating -- not vented outdoors through the roof or the exterior wall. However an additional fan was installed in the ceiling between the range and the laundry appliances. I recommend utilizing ceiling fan when operating range and laundry appliances.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Fans might be run to determine functionality. Seldom is it feasible for inspector to verify that every fan is "blowing air" to the outdoors. Conditions change, fans and connections should be monitored to make sure that ducts remain attached in attic or substructure areas. Any work to be completed by qualified party.

The inspector did not locate a timer that could be set to control a simple whole house exhaust fan ventilation system. With a basic home ventilation system, the timer would be setup to automatically turn on a exhaust-circulation fan or, sometimes, an air handler or furnace fan. When the fan runs and expels old air, as pressure equalizes, fresh air is drawn into interior space. With today's tighter built houses, to reduce interior moisture and humidity, a ventilation exhaust fan should be set to turn on and run for at least 8 hours at a time. (Modern theory recommends running the fan continuously.) I recommend further review, consider installing a ventilation system. Any work to be completed by qualified party. A small fan may be lesser capacity than what is typical, but if it moves some air, fan might be better than present situation if a ventilation system is not present, consider upgrade.

At this home, I recommend installing a 24 hour timer at the ceiling fan installed in the kitchen. I recommend utilizing 24 hour timer so the fan comes on at least eight hours a day and also utilizing the fan at this location while cooking or using laundry appliances.

To read more about ventilation systems, follow this link:
100) The food disposal was turned on. The device was operational with the switch at the wall, no defects noted at time of inspection.

Inspection procedure: Inspector might run a disposal to determine if it operates and to check for leaks. I do not put food in a disposal to test grinding capabilities. On occasion, a jammed or bound disposal can be cleared by first turning off the circuit breaker to the device and then inserting a wrench into the underside of the disposal and spinning the mechanism. Any work or repairs to be performed by qualified plumber.
101) Tub(s)/shower(s) inspection: bathtub and shower appeared to be in good condition at time of inspection, no defects noted.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A slow, intermittent or concealed leak might not be readily apparent at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at fixtures can result in interior damage. Caulk and/or grout around fixtures requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
102) Interior exhaust fans that were tested, at bathroom and kitchen/laundry area, ran when they were turned on. To better control moisture-humidity in baths with tubs and/or showers, where 60 minute timer switches are not present, consider installing timer switches in place of ordinary wall switches -- so bath exhaust fans will move air, expel steam, even after occupants have vacated bathrooms. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Periodically, small fans require cleaning, lubrication or, eventual, motor replacement. Any work to be completed by qualified parties.

A representative number of fans are performance tested. Seldom is it feasible for inspector to verify that every fan is "blowing air" to the outdoors. Ducts might be configured in wyes (restrictive and a less than optimal situation) with more than one fan sharing a single hood. Conditions change, fans and connections should be monitored to make sure that ducts remain attached in attic or substructure areas.

Helpful Home Maintenance Check List for a Healthier Home
The following is a general maintenance guide for homeowners, some tips may not be relevant to your home. Recommend a common sense approach to this list and overall home maintenance.


1. Vacuum and clean all return air ducts/grills.
2. Purge garbage disposal by first filling kitchen sink with clean water, then turn on food disposer until water is drained through.
3. Change/clean air conditioning return filters monthly. This will help keep your air cleaner and system running more efficiently. Clogged air filters will make your system operate longer than required, thereby increasing your monthly bills.
4. Wash refrigerator/freezer interior walls and door liner with solution of 1-quart warm water: 2 tablespoons of baking soda and wipe dry.
5. Clean dishwasher filter (if provided), usually at lower spray arm, and wipe door gasket clean with a damp cloth.
6. Inspect lighting fixtures and replace blown light bulbs.
7. Clean clothes drier lint traps and or ducts to reduce fire risk.
8. Clean toaster oven crumb tray.


1.Inspect exterior doors to ensure they are weather tight. Adjust or replace weather stripping as needed.
2. Service doors (incl. garage doors) and drawers, clean and lubricate latches, hinges and guides.
3. Inspect and repair exterior caulking around windows, doors, and siding.
4. Replace/clean central heating system (furnace) filters.
5. Re-tighten knobs on kitchen cabinets, don't overtighten.


1. Have heating and air-conditioning systems inspected and serviced by licensed contractor.
2. Inspect and test smoke alarms and carbon monoxide detectors and replace back up batteries.
3. Check (GFCI) ground fault interrupted circuits.
4. Inspect and maintain proper drainage around home. Clean gutters and down-pipes and ensure water is flowing away from your home.
5. Inspect home for rodent droppings or other pests. Have home treated as needed.
6. Test sump pump for reliable operation, especially before any rainy season.
7. Wash fan housing and metal filter connected to range hood exhaust fans. These can be safely washed by placing them inside the dishwasher.
8. Vacuum coils behind refrigerator/freezer to remove dust; this will improve efficiency of unit.
9. Tap off a bucket of water from the hot water heater until it runs clean.


1. Inspect and repair settling cracks (if necessary).
2. Inspect and lubricate garage door tracks.
3. Inspect exterior paint for cracking and wear. Repaint or seal as needed.
4. Drain and refill water heater.
5. Trip main breaker on electric panel.
6. Inspect all electric cords and replace if necessary.
7. Inspect attic for water damage, birds, and rodents.
8. Inspect basement for moisture/mold and wood rot.
9. Inspect attic for signs of roof leaks or water damage, bird nests, rodent or squirrel nests, and clean if necessary.
10. Change water filters and have water softeners serviced.
11. Inspect roof flashings, chimney caps, shingles(for mold and damage) and caulking for possible damage.
12. Pressure wash deck, walkways and driveway.
13. Reseal wood decks with preservative and inspect and secure nails that may be protruding out. Nails have a tendency to pop out after very cold weather conditions.
14. Clean or replace oil filter(oil fired burner only).
15. Inspect outside electrical service feeder for exposed bare wires and tree interference.
16. Inspect basement/crawl space area for signs of termites and/or other wood-boring insects.
17. Use hose to wash off dirt from coil and fan in heat pump/condenser locate outside of house.
18. Inspect all hoses(and replace if necessary) connected to laundry washer unit.
19. Clean and seal ceramic tile grout lines in bathrooms/toilets/kitchen.
20. Check caulking at tub and shower, and replace if necessary.
21. Wash and blow clean bathroom exhaust fan grill and fan blades.
22. Wash windows(exterior and interior), screens, seals and ledges. Repair if necessary.
23. Clean and lubricate sliding glass door tracks and window tracks.
24. Check stucco joints around doors and windows.
25. Inspect the dishwasher's motor spin seal, and replace if necessary.
26. Inspect laundry washer, water fill hoses for cracks, blisters, corroded fittings and leaks.
27. Place beeswax or paraffin on built-in kitchen cabinets that have wooden guides.
28. Inspect for creosote deposits in the fireplace flue liner, these are black or brown residue of combustion that collects on the inner surfaces. If the buildup is more than 1/8 inch, remove it.
29. Vacuum around the gas hot water heater (especially near furnace) to remove dirt and grime.

Tips for clogged drains:

Keeping the Drains Clear:
1. By pouring a pot of hot water down the drain once a week will melt away any fat or grease that may have built up in the drain line or P-trap.
2. If you have a clogged drain, just pour a 1/2 cup of baking soda and 1/2 cup of white vinegar down the drain. Cover the drain and let the mixture sit for a few minutes, then pour a pot of hot water down the drain. This will break down fats and keep the drains smelling fresh.
3. Every six months, keep your drains clean by using a copper sulfide or sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaner, or other recommended drain cleaner available from your local store.

Other safety tips:

Ensure that you know where the following items are located:
1. Emergency contact telephone numbers.
2. Fire extinguishers and water hose pipes.
3. Heating gas/fuel main shutoff valve.
4. Main electrical disconnect circuit breaker (breaker box/service panel).
5. Main drain line clean out.
6. Main water shut off valve.
7. All window and door exits.

In addition to the above, carry out the following monthly safety checks:
Some of these items may have already be included in the home maintenance list, but these monthly safety checks are advisable for safety reasons:
1. Test ground fault circuit interrupter receptacles(GFCI's).
2. Test smoke and carbon monoxide alarms and replace batteries if necessary.
3. Inspect and lubricate (if necessary) all emergency exits, including windows and doors.
4. Inspection of heating unit and water heater for visual integrity.

Estimated life spans of most Home appliance:

1.Dishwasher water valves: 3-7 years
2.Range and oven: 18-20 years
3.Garbage disposal: 10 years
4.Microwave: 10 years
5.Refrigerator: 18-20 years
6.Laundry washer: 14 years
7.Laundry drier: 14 years
8.Refrigerator/Freezer: 18-20 years
9.Central air conditioner system: 15 years
10.Window mounted air conditioning system: 8 years
11.Bathtub/Sink: 50 years
12.Garage door opener: 10 years
13.Laundry water fill hoses: 3-5 years
14.Trash compactor: 10 years

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