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(360) 296-4020
5614 Starry Rd 
Bellingham WA 98226-9714
Inspector: Curtis C Brown
Licensed Home Inspector DOL#368
Licensed Structural Pest Inspector WSDA# 76712

Standard Multi-unit Residential Inspection

Client(s):  Happy Investor
Property address:  1234 Neighborhood Loop
Bellingham WA 98765
Inspection date:  Friday, March 2, 2018

This report published on Saturday, May 15, 2021 12:16:52 PM PDT

Curtis C Brown, Owner
Washington State Licensed Home Inspector DOL #368
WSDA Licensed Structural Pest Inspector #76712

Thank you for using CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC for your Home inspection. I understand how important your home inspection is to you and your family. Buying a home is probably the most expensive purchase you will ever make, and your business is very important to me, and my family. If there is any way I can help you after your home inspection, please do not hesitate to contact Curtis at the phone number or email provided on this report. If you find this report useful and informative please refer CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC to your friends, your Realtor and anyone you believe could benefit from my services. CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC not only performs inspections for purchasers, but also for people planning to sell a home who wish to estimate the amount of work that needs to be completed before listing the house.

A site diagram is NOT prepared as part of a standard home inspection report. However, if wood destroying insects or potential evidence of their activity was seen at the time of the inspection, then a complete wood destroying organism inspection was conducted (WAC 16-228-2045). If such a report was required, a Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) inspection control number will be present, above the client's name, at the top of this report. WAC 16-228-2045 REQUIRES THAT A DIAGRAM BE PREPARED FOR WOOD DESTROYING ORGANISM (WDO) INSPECTION REPORTS. A COPY IS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST.

A home inspection is not invasive, it is a visual assessment. The inspection is, as limited by the tight time-lines of real estate transactions, it is not technically exhaustive and the inspector spends limited window time on premises. An inspector is looking for significant safety and defect issues to the components of a home. Pointing out minor or cosmetic deficiencies is at the discretion and courtesy of the inspector. Never the less, please understand that some recommendations made on a home inspection report include enhancements or upgrades that are optional and are, by all means, not "mandatory" repairs. Since the appearance of a home, especially interior decor, is a matter of personal taste, the client is responsible for determining that finish surfaces, colors, cleanliness and design features meet his or her expectations. In a related matter, any fog that might be inside thermal-pane windows is largely weather dependent and an inspector may not be able to identify glazing problems as a result of variations in temperature, humidity, weather and lighting conditions.

The inspector cannot see through or into wallpaper, walls, siding, concrete or floors, insulation, carpets, ceilings, under roofing materials, down into soil, tight-lines, drains, vent or waste pipes, floor/toilet /sink connections, ducting, gutters or downspouts that are full of debris or behind creosote or soot. Areas that are not accessible or the view is obscured because of furniture, appliances, storage or other belongings and coverings are excluded. Overflows at sinks and tubs are not tested -- doing so could cause water damage inside wall cavities. A home inspector does not guarantee that a roof will withstand a heavy windstorm nor ascertain that it has not leaked in the past nor that it will not leak at some time in the future. In a related matter, gutters may not withstand heavy snowfall or compacted ice. The roof covering may conceal roofing defects. Solar roofing systems, including any components on the roof or in an attic, are excluded.

Standard procedures: Only normal controls are operated (thermostats, light switch, faucets, etc). Wood stoves, fireplaces and pilot lights will not be lit. Devices that are not functional will not be plugged-in, nor will circuit breakers, or main shut-off valves be operated. Furniture, storage and appliances will not be moved or disassembled during the home inspection -- with the exception of (1) the "dead front" cover will usually be removed from the electric panel; (2) front panels may be removed at some HVAC appliances. Care and caution is taken in removing fronts or covers, from electric panels or openings into attics, but sometimes the procedures can unavoidably leave minor cosmetic marks on finished surfaces.

CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC makes every effort to perform a thorough inspection, within reasonable time-lines and the limitations specified, but makes no warranties about the home other than reporting on the conditions that were noted and apparent at the time of the inspection. Some defects may have been concealed or intermittent so those problems might go unreported. It is not possible, in the course of an inspection, to check every component at a home or to identify every problem. The standards of practice for home inspection state that the inspector shall view, operate or test a representative number of components at the exterior and the interior: readily accessible siding and trim, windows, doors, walls, light switches, receptacles, etc. An inspector does not get on furniture to view or operate windows or other components. High exterior locations at the home, such as siding, trim or soffit areas below eaves, due to safety and typical access issues, may be viewed from the ground and not from a ladder. High electrical receptacles, under eaves, may not be evaluated. Complex mechanical devices, such as freezer icemakers or fresh water systems are excluded. Washing machines and dryers are excluded. Sewage related septic/private disposal systems including septic tanks, sewage grinders/ejector pumps are usually fully or partially concealed from view or below grade and the components and mechanisms are not opened or inspected for performance or function. The exclusion includes air pumps, ultraviolet systems and all related electronics, alarms and wiring. Remote electric distribution (sub) panels may be concealed from view and may not be apparent to the inspector. If such systems are known to be present, or are later found to be on premises, recommend that the tanks, pumps/grinders, panels and related components be, as required, further evaluated/serviced by qualified professionals.

An inspector is assessing systems or components to determine if they are functional. An inspector will not suggest that a new system or component be installed simply for the sake of updating if it appears that the old system is functional or would be operational if repaired or maintained. It is not reasonable to expect every system or component in every home to be in new or perfect condition. Systems and components age. Older systems are often serviceable -- they operate but they are typical of a home of a given age. In any home, systems and components require at least some ongoing maintenance. Comments or observations involving household appliances are at the discretion of the inspector. The state standards of practice do not require the inspector to report on the condition of household appliances -- exceptions being that the inspector will, when possible, report on the operation of most HVAC equipment and water heaters. Conditions at a home and with appliances can, and will, change from day to day. It is assumed that the buyer wishes to purchase the home and the seller wishes to sell. The inspector must act in an unbiased manner. It is not the role of the inspector to create unreasonable concerns in an effort to influence the negotiations.

Clients ask if service or repairs should be performed prior to, or after, closing. That decision is left to the client. But please realize that the inspection is not exhaustive and the inspector is a generalist and not an expert in other licensed trades. The inspector is looking for clues as to problems and an inspector cannot predict when it might be more practical to replace a problematic component or system. At times a repair can be as expensive as replacement costs and sometimes undetected or hidden damage may lead to unexpected expense. A defect in one component can cause an unanticipated but related problem at another location: a marginal roof or failed sump pump could result in moisture issues and fungal concerns elsewhere. Rot, wood destroying organisms or even a missing, or failed, flashing might lead to concealed damage. Therefore, it is recommended that, prior to closing, client(s) have in hand estimates from qualified professional contractors or specialists for service/repairs or replacement of problematic components or systems. That would include, but is not limited to, decks, siding, structure, rot and wood destroying organisms, roofs, water leaks or water intrusion, drainage, skylights, gutters, chimneys, fireplaces, wood stoves, electrical systems, plumbing and heating.

It is the recommendation of Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC that all work be completed by qualified and, as applicable, licensed contractors, builders, remodelers, plumbers, pest control applicators, electricians, roofers, HVAC and chimney professionals. Since an inspector cannot foresee the future and will not attempt to predict all of the ramifications or potential costs associated with any given problem, consultation with a qualified specialist is worthwhile. If this protocol is adhered to, the client has more options should the workmanship later be found to be sub-standard. Additionally, I recommended that all qualified parties or specialists, when on-site, be asked to not only make essential repairs but to also further evaluate a system or component and to make recommendations as to other beneficial repairs, improvements or upgrades.

Buyers often allow sellers to make repairs, or the repairs may be deferred until after closing. Those options are at the discretion of the parties involved and any governmental agency that might oversee the process. If repairs are completed in a suitable manner, by qualified parties prior to closing, the client minimizes the chances of unexpected surprises after closing. Regarding buyer or homeowner repairs, it is not the intent of a report to specify the exact means of repair for any given problem. Again, consulting with a qualified professional is required. A client performs, or accepts the work of another non-professional, at his or her own risk. And, of course, all appropriate city, county or municipal building permits should be acquired when work is done.

A home inspection is a practical approach to evaluating visual deficiencies. With few exceptions, the inspector does not know, nor confirm, if prior remodeling or construction work was performed with, or without, building permits. A home inspector is not checking for compliance with codes or verifying compliance with manufacturer's specifications. In fact, codes evolve over the years. For example, in homes that are not of recent construction, escape routes and window sizing may not be in compliance with modern emergency egress requirements. An inspector does not count bolts in the sill plate at any home. It may be unfair, except in the matter of critical safety issues, to expect a home built under previous standards to conform to recent codes. A professional or specialist, when performing service or making other repairs, is in a good position to determine if systems and components are installed per manufacturer's guidelines or the applicable building codes.

Mold, mildew and microbial growths are excluded substances per the standards of practice for home inspection. The inspector is searching for wood destroying organisms (rot) and conducive conditions. Fungus (or yeasts) are common and sometimes present in bathrooms, attics or crawl spaces. However, the report will not identify species of fungus other than wood decay fungi or rot. Microbial growths are the result of excess moisture or a lack of ventilation. Therefore, any fungal issues reported, with the exception of rot, will be referred to as conducive conditions. A client who wishes to have a mold or mildew inspection should, in addition to the standard home inspection, contract with a firm that specializes in locating and/or identifying microbial growths and mold. If remodeling is done, where walls and ceilings are opened, wallpaper removed, homeowners might find concealed issues, related to moisture that will have to be addressed during the remodel.

A home Inspection is NOT an environmental survey; therefore, a qualified specialist or environmental testing firm should be hired by the client if he or she wishes to have further evaluation/testing for any excluded substances such as asbestos, radon, lead, urea formaldehyde, odors; noise, toxic or flammable chemicals, water or air quality, PCB’s or other toxins, electro-magnetic fields, underground storage tanks, proximity to toxic waste sites, carbon monoxide, vermin, pet urine. Any comments, related to these matters, that are offered in the report are provided as a professional courtesy and they do not alter the limitations that are established in the state standards of practice and the executed home inspection contract.

This report confines itself to conditions apparent at the time of the inspection. The inspector is not an arborist and is not assessing the condition of trees on the property. Seasonally there may be more ground or runoff water than at other times of the year. It is usually not possible to predict flooding. Therefore, if seasonal moisture problems develop, recommend consultation with a drainage professional. When mechanical means is utilized to control runoff water, the inspector will attempt to locate and view the pump(s) and, if possible, operate them. Inspector does not guarantee the adequacy or performance of any drainage system that might be in place to control flooding or runoff water. It is possible that the inspector will not locate all pumps (sump or ejector) on premises if they are partially covered, submerged and not readily apparent.

Thank you for using Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC for your home inspection. I know your home inspection is important to you. If I can help after the inspection, please contact me. If you are happy with Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC please refer my company to anyone who you believe could benefit from my services. Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC performs inspections for purchasers and, also, for homeowners and sellers.

CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC adheres to the standards of practice of the state of Washington WAC 308-408C) These standards are established to encourage high ethical standards and professionalism in the home inspection industry. To read the standards please visit:


This report is the exclusive property of CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized person

How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas. Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type. Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Concern typeCautionaryA recommendation to enhance safety. Not necessarily urgent but, in some instances, it might be
Concern typeReplace/RepairPlan on replacement,, or repair, with work to be done by qualified parties
Concern typeRepair/MaintainRecommended repairs that may involve ongoing upkeep. Work to be completed by qualified parties
Concern typeReview/EvaluateQualified professional to service/repair/replace/evaluate. Or, as applicable, clients to evaluate information and determine their level of concern
Concern typeMaintenance/Service (repair)Requires maintenance, professional service or appropriate repair
Concern typeVisual limitationsCondition that, potentially, conceals moisture-related issues or damage. At client's option, accept as is/maintain or arrange for further evaluation or invasive contractor review
Concern typeMonitorKeep an eye on (periodically monitor) the condition or device. Maintain, repair or replace as might be required
Concern typeOn-site notesObservations, comments or suggestions noted by the inspector
Concern typeInformationalInformational comment, but might include recommendations for small repairs or upgrades
Concern typeConducive conditionsConditions conducive for wood destroying insects or organisms (Wood-soil contact, shrubs in contact with siding, roof or plumbing leaks, etc.)

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at

Table of Contents

General Information
Exterior & Site
Electric System
Heating & Ventilation
Fireplace(s), Insert(s), Freestanding Stove(s)
Water Heater
Plumbing System & Laundry
Crawl Space(s)-Foundation
Interior Areas

View summary

General InformationTable of contents
Inspection overview: Commercial building (>4x units per SOP) multi-unit residential: Since state law does not regulate inspections at commercial non-residential or multi-unit residential buildings, as a basis for reporting, the inspection will be performed in general accordance with the Washington Standards of Practice for Home Inspection and applicable state guidelines. Issues, concerns and recommendations are referenced in appropriate report sections. Various limitations and exclusions are described in both the inspection contract and the report. If present, any elevators and fire safety devices (fire extinguishers, fire escapes, fire alarms and sprinkler systems, etc.) are excluded.
Clickable hyperlinks make it possible for clients to navigate to photos, videos and additional information. Links are operational if a report is accessed from an "online" computer: Lesser operating systems in Smartphones and mobile devices may not support full functionality. When reports are saved and viewed in PDF format, access to hyperlinks will be restricted as a result of limitations in Adobe software.
Prior to sending a report to a client, all external hyperlinks are electronically checked to verify that they are working and not broken. Unfortunately, the internet being as it is, at times a link may be unavailable or temporarily out of service as a result of maintenance at a website or a server.
Report number: XXXXXIvestments030118S
Water "on" to the site: Yes
Electricity "on" to the site and at the service panel(s): Yes
Gas "on" to the site: 5 gas meters are located at the south side of the structure. 2 of the 5 were locked off, presumably to units 101 and 103
Structures inspected: One multi-unit (5-unit) structure
Start time: 9:00 am
Ending time: 2:00 pm
Present during inspection: Buyer, Real estate agent(s), Tenant(s)
Client(s) present for discussion at the end of inspection: Yes
Form of payment: Client's check delivered onsite, Thank you
Type of building: Multi-unit residential
Age of building: 2011 Build (7 years old)
Source of information utilized when estimating building age: County assessor / municipal records
Occupied and/or furnished: Yes, occupied and furnished. Significant quantities of stored items, belongings, etc. to varying degrees in all units
Front of building faces: East
Main entry: East
Directions verified by mapping service: Yes, Google
To see a map or aerial view of the property and neighborhood, click on this link: (Map disabled for client privacy)
Weather conditions: Partly cloudy
Temperature: Cool
Ground condition: Wet (recent rain)
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: engineering (geotechnical or structural), building or landscape architecture, identifying bearing points and bearing walls or calculating loads, classifying specific manufacturers’ products or the composition of building materials, product recalls, compliance with installation specifications or various building codes, tracking permits, all components or systems excluded by the Washington Standards of Practice, extent of damage or deficiencies, environmental survey, identifying hazardous wastes/materials (lead or lead-based paints, asbestos products, radon gas, urea-formaldehyde/formaldehyde, residue or toxins as a result of drug use, microbial bodies-mold, etc.), insulation R-values, life expectancy or remaining life of appliances/components or systems, flood zones, potential for flooding or slides, runoff water, erosion, sufficiency of drainage, presence and operation of septic or private sewage systems and/or ejector-grinder pumps/components including wiring-electronics/alarms, warning/safety labels, emergency lighting, security/alarm systems, fire extinguishers and fire suppression or sprinkler systems and associated equipment, adequacy of attachment of shelves, cabinets, cupboards, brackets, etc.
1) PNW region pests: Pests such as rodents (mice, rats or squirrels), aggressive species of insects (hornets or wasps), nesting birds or potentially destructive woodpeckers, bats in some areas, and wood destroying insects are frequently seen in this region. Rodents will climb and a mouse can squeeze through a hole the size of a dime. A rat can pass or gnaw through a hole the size of a quarter and a squirrel can go through a 1 1/2" diameter opening. If observed onsite, I report signs of pests and vulnerabilities that might lead to infestation. Access and view are often restricted, property owners should be on the lookout for pest activity. As necessary, block any potential entry points. Correct conditions that are conducive to attracting pests: establish sufficient clearances between plants and the exterior, eliminate wood to soil contact, excess moisture and/or access to food sources. Pests are opportunistic, nomadic, and rodents can be a health concern. If an infestation is suspected, implement corrective measures and/or consult with a licensed pest management firm. Carpenter ants are more active seasonally, typically in warm weather than at other times of the year.

At time of inspection, signs of past or present rodent activity were noted in the form of odors, droppings, seed shells and or damaged insulation in all crawl spaces. Often it is not possible to determine the current status of pests. Rodents are commonly seen, often moving around from one location to another, and they can cause extensive damage. If pests gain access to one area, they are likely to be active at other locations as well. I recommend further evaluation, consulting with a pest management professional. A qualified person should make repairs to seal openings in the structure, set traps, and clean rodent waste as necessary. Recommend following guidelines in these Center for Disease Control articles:

See crawlspace section for further comments regarding rodents.

The photos below illustrate wasp or hornet nests, found in locations such as exterior electric panels, crawlspace entrance, soffits, etc.I recommend qualified party, such as a pest control operator maintain aggressive insect activity as necessary.
Photo 1-1 Wasp or hornet nest at main disconnect breaker at exterior panel
Photo 1-2 Wasp nest at entrance to crawlspace.
Photo 1-3 Chew marks on pipe insulation. See crawlspace section for further comments regarding Grodin access
2) Visual limitations: The inspection process may be impeded by various factors, e.g., building materials, paint and finished surfaces, plants growing near a building, intrinsic design elements, marginal lighting. Inspector cannot see into, through or behind, walls, roofing, vegetation, flashings, etc. Every problem cannot be identified in the course of a visual home inspection, concealed or undiscovered deficiencies may exist. The report provides a general overview of onsite conditions. If issues of significance are reported, clients should arrange for contractor review (testing or invasive investigation) into areas of concern. When clients arrange for repairs, vs. sellers hiring contractors, purchasers are usually in a stronger bargaining position if work is later found to be substandard.

State law has classified specific conditions as "deficient." A licensed inspector will report state mandated deficiencies although remedying such problems might prove to be difficult, impractical, or unpopular with sellers or property owners. This is not an environmental survey: The presence of potentially hazardous substances or microbial bodies-mold are excluded per the Washington Standards of Practice.
3) Procedures and general limitations: This multi-unit structure is occupied and furnished at all 5 units; therefore, numerous spaces and surfaces were obstructed from view by personal belongings. Items at the exterior or the interior, appliances, breakables, window coverings, rugs, storage under sinks or in cabinets or closets will not be moved to gain access. If the view is restricted, or if any areas were not readily accessible, those locations are excluded. When belongings have been removed, concerns that were not readily apparent, at the time of inspection, might be revealed.
4) Scope: The inspection is non-invasive, not exhaustive, and it does not include destructive testing, removing or moving building materials or components, itemizing all damage that might be present, or providing estimates of repair costs, verifying certificates of occupancy or permit/code compliance. Inspector assesses, operates or tests a representative number of components, e.g., cladding, roof, windows, doors, skylights, lights, receptacles, heat sources, plumbing fixtures, cabinets and interior surfaces. Seldom do I identify a specific manufacturers' products or speculate as to the composition of building materials. Thousands of items have been produced, and then painted, over the years. Any attempt to classify products, by manufacturer or composition, is a good faith guesstimate on the part of inspector based on available view. If a report references issues of significance, prior to closing or setting a final sales price, clients should arrange for further evaluation and obtain cost and repair estimates from qualified parties. In professional trades, qualified parties are those persons who were trained to work in a specialized field and they have appropriate contractor's licenses; for example, licensed electrical contractor, licensed plumbing contractor, licensed HVAC contractor, licensed roofing contractor, etc. When a job can legally be carried out by an unlicensed person, that individual should be capable of providing further guidance. Prompt follow-up, by seeking the advice of qualified professionals, diminishes the chances of discovering unpleasant or costly surprises after completing price negotiations or closing.
5) Standard Home Inspection (WAC 308-408C-010) compliant inspection: If observed, I report wood decay fungi (rot) and "conducive conditions" -- deficiencies defined by the state as contributing to the likelihood of attracting wood destroying organisms. It is not possible for the inspector to document every instance of wood decay fungi or all conducive conditions that might be present. Therefore, when conducive conditions (wood to soil contact, vegetation growing near or against cladding, etc.) or rot are referenced in the report, clients should arrange for qualified professionals to evaluate the conditions/damage and to provide cost and repair estimates. This report is limited to those conditions that were observed at the time of the inspection.

Note: This standard home inspection conforms to the Washington State Standards of Practice that regulate home inspectors. The report is not defined as a complete wood destroying organism inspection. In accordance with state law, if the presence of wood destroying insects-damage had been identified or suspected, I would have recommended contacting a licensed pest management firm.
6) Form 17: The multi-unit inspection is only part of the process that purchasers participate in when buying a property. If/as applicable to this transaction, clients should study Form 17 (the real property disclosure statement) and, as applicable, follow-up on the information therein. Sellers, an exception being at some bank owned properties, are obligated to disclose known deficiencies with the building or the lot. Those deficiencies may not be observable at the time of the inspection; for example, signs of past moisture, flooding or matters involving pests. Due diligence on the part of clients includes studying Form 17, verifying listing information and data that is available from the Whatcom County Assessor's Office:
7) Throughout the body of this report, there will be multiple references (links to videos and/or articles, and specific language) to "King of the House Inc." Steven L Smith, owner and operator of King of the House Inc., is my mentor, friend, and associate in the home inspection industry. Steven has provided this content to me with his permission to assist in the quality of information in this report.
Exterior & SiteTable of contents
Apparent foundation type: Crawl space
Foundation wall/stem wall material (where observed): Poured concrete
Footing material (where observed): Poured concrete (most footings are at/below grade and minimally or not visible)
Foundation cracks or irregularities noted: If observed, any cracks appeared to be unremarkable
Wall structure (assumed structure, since wall cavities are inaccessible): Wood frame
Exterior trim and/or fascia: Wood
Transition flashings (protection against moisture) over horizontal trim at observable locations: Yes, flashings apparent but visual limitations apply
Apparent exterior wall covering: Fiber cement lap siding, Fiber cement panel and batten at gables
Butt joints of fiber cement lap siding flashed or caulked: Yes, where checked, flashing was noted as present
Entry/exterior door(s): Synthetic (fiberglass, vinyl and/or composite) hinged at entrance & Fiberglass and/or composite hinged with window at balconies
Exterior window(s) type and/or material: Double pane synthetic (vinyl, composite and/or fiberglass) sashes/frames
Drip cap flashings (moisture protection) over weather exposed window trim and/or windows: Yes, flashings apparent but visual limitations apply. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage. The view of many design elements/flashing details is obscured by building materials
Entryway landing(s): Concrete surface
Metal transition flashing (protection against moisture) at landings/porches/decks and exterior walls: Yes, flashings apparent but visual limitations apply. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage. The view of many design elements/flashing details is obscured by building materials
Driveway/Sidewalk & Parking material: Concrete driveway, walking and parking surfaces & Asphalt at adjoining driveway
Driveway/garage entry of sufficient size to maneuver a vehicle: Yes
Exterior faucet(s)/hose bibb(s): Faucet(s) operable and of frost-free design with backflow preventers
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: fences, storm/screen doors and window screens, motorized shades, shutters, awnings, detecting fog in-between double pane window or door glazing, adequacy of all flashings, unattached garages, outbuildings, greenhouses, gazebos, pergolas, trees on the property, detached stairways and walkways, tightlines, drain lines, catch basins, irrigation systems, backflow prevention devices, ponds, water features, retaining walls, sufficiency of onsite drainage, erosion control, properties of soil
8) Conducive conditionsThe fiber cement lap siding is loose, insufficiently attached-nailed to the house and or damaged at multiple locations. I recommend further review: General contractor, familiar with installing fiber cement siding, to repair accordingly. Here's an instructional online video that describes the best methods for installing and attaching fiber cement siding:

Further review and repair is recommended, photos below are examples of this condition:
Photo 8-1 Broken siding above crawlspace access at West side of structure
Photo 8-2 The laminated lap siding at West side of structure
Photo 8-3 Loose siding at West side of structure
Photo 8-4 Tenant damage to siding at unit 104 in the form of I-screw attachments.
Photo 8-5 Broken and loose lap siding at unit 105 entry.
9) Conducive conditionsCaulking has not been applied, or it is shrinking/deteriorating, at some locations such as around wires, pipes or conduits that pass through the exterior wall. Periodically, at any building, caulking must be maintained or replaced. Missing or failed caulking is contributory to moisture penetration, pest entry or the onset of wood decay fungi (rot).
At fiber cement lap siding butt joints where flashings have been installed, as present here at the structure, butt joints should be left open, not caulked.
I recommend further review: Apply, replace or upgrade caulking as necessary. If/where caulking is not a suitable filler-sealant, gap wider than 1/4", repair, patch or fill in an appropriate manner. Upon completion of repair, apply a durable exterior finish. All work to be performed by qualified party. To learn more about effective caulking techniques, please visit:

Finish-paint: The exterior finish is deteriorating at some locations such as at the wood corner trim, window trim, fascias, belly-bands, etc. Failed paint is conducive to moisture absorption and can result in swelling or wood decay fungi (rot). I recommend further evaluation: Where/as necessary, refinish the exterior. When work takes place, if damage is noted, replace materials. Then clean-prep and, if applicable, apply caulking and/or install flashing to protect against seepage. Complete the job by sealing surfaces with a durable exterior finish. All work to be performed by qualified painting and/or general contractor. For detailed information on applying exterior preservatives, please visit:

To learn more about effective caulking techniques, please visit:

Photos below are examples:
Photo 9-1 Penetrations, such as pipes and wires should be caulked and maintained
Photo 9-2 Any gaps in trim, where siding needs trim should be repaired and maintained
Photo 9-3 Example of a failed caulk where siding meets trim and failed paint at trim. Caulking should be installed prior to paint. Any wood components where paint has failed and exposed wood, should be scraped, sanded and primed prior to paint.
Photo 9-4 Current recommendations for fiber cement lap siding insulation would be to have flashings behind butt joints. At time of expection, observed at various locations, flashings appeared to be installed behind butt joints. Therefore, caulking is not necessary at these locations.

Note, white staining visible in this picture, West side of structure, appears to be a foreign material, not damage to the siding
Photo 9-5 Failed or deteriorated paint noted and barge rafter at a roof transition
10) Conducive conditionsVegetation (plants, trees, shrubs, vines) is close to/in contact with the exterior. Vegetation, situated near the building, is conducive to the onset of rot or attracting wood destroying insects. Cut back or remove vegetation, establish a minimum 6" to 12" gap between plants and the exterior. All work to be completed by qualified party. Vegetation, near the building, obstructs access, obscures the view and might conceal damage from, or activity by, wood destroying organisms. An online video, descriptive of other commonly seen "conducive conditions," is available here:
Photo 10-1 
Photo 10-2 
11) Entry/exterior doors: All exterior doors were operational at the time of the inspection. However, with the exception of maybe unit 102, weatherstripping at front entry doors was substandard, gaps were evident. Damage or substandard weatherstripping is a loss of energy and potential entry point for moisture and/or insects. I recommend a qualified contractor review exterior doors on a case-by-case basis and repair weatherstripping as necessary to avoid gaps.
Photo 11-1 For example: this is an inside view of unit #105 entry door. The gap visible at the bottom corner of the latch side of the door is atypical condition with most entry doors at this structure. The gap at the top portion of the door was most notable at this unit.
12) Metal snap-ties at the North side of the structure were not "snapped-off." Ties are remnants from when the foundation was poured. Exposed metal can lead to scrapes, cuts and personal injury: Break/remove metal ties with a hammer, pliers or vice-grips. Proceed in a cautious manner, including donning eye protection. Afterwards, any cosmetic damage at concrete can be patched with repair mortar. All work to be completed by qualified party. Here's a contractor produced online video that demonstrates an effective method of breaking-off snap-ties:
Photo 12-1 
13) Windows: All inaccessible windows at time of inspection were functional. At all occupied units, windows access to and view, was obstructed by belongings, window coverings, breakables, etc. in some rooms. Therefore, limitations are unavoidable, not all windows were evaluated as a result. Inspector evaluates a number of windows, not necessarily every window, and looks for discernibly cloudy double pane glazing. Sometimes, fog can be elusive and less noticeable, depending on temperature, humidity, sunlight, shade and cleanliness of panes. I do not provide an inclusive list of potentially fogged or compromised windows. Client(s) should verify personal satisfaction with windows. If need be, clean glass prior to making a definitive determination. Any repairs should to be completed by qualified contractor.

Since materials and design elements are obscured from view by trim, siding, etc., it is usually not possible to assess the sufficiency of all flashings, caulking or flanges at window or door installations.
Photo 13-1 Visual limitations due to window coverings, stored items, furniture etc. not all windows could be evaluated. At time of inspection, no failed windows were noted however, when windows are cleaned, staining or fog between panes of glass would be an indication that the window has been compromised.
14) Foundations (general information and limitations): Inspector assesses a poured concrete foundation from the exterior and, when practical to do so, from substructure areas. Visibility at the outside may be obscured by design elements, vegetation or earth. At substructure interior space, the inspection could be impeded by multiple factors: lack of access or marginal lighting, tight clearances, architecture and building materials themselves that restrict viewing, stored belongings, etc. Often, at foundation walls or footings, some cracking will be observed. In fact, most foundations will eventually develop a few settlement and/or shrinkage cracks. If observed by inspector, issues that might constitute material defects will be referenced -- significant cracking/structural concerns or moisture intrusion. To safeguard against seepage, locate and seal any existing cracks and monitor foundation for cracks that might develop/require maintenance in years to come. All work to be completed by qualified party. At time of inspection, any foundation cracks noted were found to be insignificant.

This online video, produced by a manufacturer of concrete sealant products, explains a technique for repairing small to moderate sized foundation cracks that might develop in the future:
15) Any cracks, or variations in height, at flat surface paving do not appear to be tripping hazards. Over time, most paved surfaces will settle and develop cracks. Depending on exposure and water penetration, it could become necessary to eventually replace materials. Cracks can often be sealed to protect against the negative effects of moisture. This online video, produced by a manufacturer of concrete sealant products, describes a method of waterproofing cracks in flat surface paving:
16) At this property, at time of inspection one hose bibb (exterior faucet) was located at the northeast corner of the structure. Access to the exterior faucet is difficult due to a steep slope at the northeast corner location. At time of inspection it was muddy.
The hose bibb was operational and, based on appearance, probably of frost-free design -- lesser likelihood of seasonal freezing. Also, backflow prevention was apparent, which decreases the risk of gray water entering the potable water system.

At time of inspection, a hose was connected to the faucet and was left on. The hose was removed and a pressure test was performed, no defects were noted at the faucet. However, as per comments by the property owner at time of inspection the hose was put back on and left in the position it was found. The hose connection had a small leak, and the surrounding grounds were saturated, presumed by the inspector to be partly contributed from the leak and partly from weather. I recommend while not in use, the faucet is put in the shut-off position and hose removed from exterior faucet, especially in freezing conditions. If hoses are left on faucets in winter, or if the piping runs through unheated space, even frost-free hose bibbs and pipes are susceptible to seasonal freezing.
Photo 16-1 Water pressure was taken at the exterior hose bibb, pressure was noted to be approximately 52 psi
Photo 16-2 An ongoing week was noted at the hose connection. As per property owner comments, hose was left as it was found by the inspector. As visible in this photo, staining and siding damage has occurred I apparent leak at hose connection.
17) Some degree of ponding is present at junction of the two adjoining driveways. This is inevitable since both driveways properly so slope away from the two buildings. This is simply noted, correcting this matter would probably require one or both property owners to install a parking lot drainafe system. This condition is simply noted for clients consideration, inspector has no recommendation.
Photo 17-1 
18) A full evaluation of the fenced trash and recycle containment area is excluded from this inspection. However it was noted that the fencing is significantly weathered, some portions of the wood is in the onset of rot, and some of the fencing boards were loose at the enclosure at time of inspection and I recommend further evaluation and repair by qualified party
Photo 18-1 
19) Exterior & site (general information and limitations): Procedurally, inspector views a representative number of accessible components at the exterior -- siding, trim, fascia, windows, doors, etc. In the interest of safety, soffit and high exterior areas will be viewed from the ground. Where the view is restricted, for any reason, that location is excluded: Inspector is, per state law, exempted from traversing areas beneath decks-porches with less than 60" of clearance from the underside of joists to grade. Critical design elements are often obscured from view; therefore, it is impossible to assess the integrity of all transition flashings, window flanges and windows. If exterior issues are reported, clients should obtain cost and repair estimates from general contractors. Further review, by specialists, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Roof inspection method: Viewed from eaves and/or rake while standing on a ladder due to access and safety concerns on the part of the inspector, Zoom photos. (The latter was not used at the West side of the structure due to sloped terrain)
Roof type: Sloped (Approximately 8.5/12 pitch)
Roof felts present (moisture resistant underlayments beneath roofing materials): Yes, verified at one, or more, locations
Drip edge flashings (protection against moisture) at eaves: No, drip edge flashings did not become common until recent years. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage at roof sheathing and fascia
Drip edge flashings (protection against moisture) at rake of roof: No, rake flashings did not become common until recent years. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage at rafters/fascia and roof sheathing
Plumbing stack flashings: Boot type (rubber and metal)
Gutter and downspout material(s): Aluminum
Debris in gutters/downspouts: No, they were clean where viewed. Maintain as might be required seasonally and over time
Apparent roof covering: Architectural-grade composition (estimated 25-30 year life from the time of installation. Actual lifespan may vary)
Roof ventilation system(s) based on exterior/roof view: Ridge vent(s), Soffit venting
Estimated age of roof: Estimated, Original to building
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: flashings, underlayments, sufficiency of roofing fasteners (length, sizing and quantities), multiple layers of roofing, detailed analysis of materials-composition, sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members, absolute adequacy of roof ventilation, guarantee or life expectancy of materials and components
20) Conducive conditionsRubber plumbing stack flashings have a lifespan of about 10 to 12 years. Exposure to the sun, age and weathering eventually leads to cracks in rubber or even seepage. I recommend monitoring rubber boot flashings at plumbing stacks and as damage occurs, repair/replacement as necessary, work to be completed by roofer. Qualified professional, while onsite, to evaluate the roof covering, appurtenances and associated flashings, roof-attic ventilation if applicable, and offer suggestions as to other beneficial repairs or upgrades.
Photo 20-1 
21) Conducive conditionsMoss, At time of inspection, minimal amounts of moss was noted on visible portions of the roof. However over time moss will likely grow on the roof and if not maintained, as moss grows, this condition is conducive to premature deterioration of roofing materials. I recommend that the roof be monitored, and when Moss becomes evident, remove and/or control moss with Moss B Ware, or a similar product, sold at home stores. Follow manufacturers' recommendations. Work to be completed by roofer. This may be primarily a cleaning and maintenance issue but, when all of the roof is clear, visible and readily accessible, qualified professional to review the roof covering, appurtenances and associated flashings, roof-attic ventilation if applicable, and offer suggestions as to other beneficial repairs or upgrades.
22) Conducive conditionsDrip edge flashings were not installed at the eave(s) and gable ends (rake). Over time, lack of flashing can lead to rot at fascia and/or roof sheathing. I recommend monitoring conditions or, at client's option, have a roofer install flashing. A photo of a composition roof, with drip edge eave and rake flashings, is accessible here:

Prior to July 2014, when standard guidelines changed, drip edge eave and rake flashings were often not installed at the time of construction.
Photo 22-1 Drip edge flashings do not appear to be installed
23) Downspout(s) on the roof, discharges runoff water near the exterior wall. This is commonly seen but, over time, runoff water stresses roofing materials, cladding and/or trim and contributes to moss growth. Some property owners choose to extend downspouts to nearby gutters. At client's option, modify the present arrangement. Any work to be completed by qualified party.
Photo 23-1 To better preserve the roof surface at the overhangs over front entries, a downspout extension directing water to the Lord gutter is recommended
24) The age of the roof was, based on age of structure and on-site view is presumed by the inspector to be original. An estimate of remaining life or certification of any roof or associated components is beyond the scope of this process. No assurances are provided that a roof is immune to damage resultant from extreme weather or strong winds. Determining that no leaks exist would necessitate further inspections during a variety of conditions including heavy rainfall and gusty wind. Roof-attic ventilation may be referenced, but I cannot guarantee adequacy of venting, since doing so would require monitoring over time. If a client wishes to obtain a roof certification (warranty against future problems-damage or a guesstimate of remaining life) contact a roofing firm that participates in such programs.

Annual review: Roofs are exposed to severe weather and adverse conditions. Defects develop quickly, with little warning, and minor failings can turn into big problems. On a periodic basis, hire a professional to clean and assess the roof surface, flashings, penetrations, etc. to make sure that they're watertight. As applicable, depending on circumstances, enter attic space to obtain a supplementary view. Regularly cleaning a roof prolongs surface life and a roofing contractor is best prepared to not only clean but, also, identify and correct, subtle deficiencies. Annual roof cleaning is ancillary to resolving any other issues referred to in this report.
25) This roof was not traversed. It was inspected by putting a ladder at the eve of the side of the structure. If getting up onto and/or walking a roof is unsafe, or if walking a roof might damage roofing materials, I do not traverse a roof. This precautionary measure, the inspector not going up onto the roof, was a necessary limitation to the process. Any parts of the roof that were not readily accessible are excluded. Problems may exist in areas that were not accessed. In the future, inaccessible and unobservable locations should be reviewed by professional roofer.
Photo 25-1 Roof configuration is a steep slope, (approximately 8.5/12 slope), therefore, not traversed by the inspector. I recommend qualified roofer to inspect, monitor, repair and maintain as necessary
26) Roof (general information and limitations): Reportable issues include damage or excessive wear at roofing, loose flashings or fasteners, accumulated organic debris and moss, problems at penetrations and appurtenances. Roofing materials restrict the view of flashings, fasteners and underlayments. I attempt to identify observable deficiencies at accessible locations, but I cannot foresee all problems that might develop. If roof (or attic) issues are reported, clients are advised to obtain detailed cost and repair estimates from a licensed roofing contractor. Further review, by a specialist, could uncover irregularities that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Inspection method: Viewed from the attic access point(s). Attic spaces have inaccessible areas where view, ingress and maneuverability are restricted by minimal clearances, insulation, piping, ducts, etc.
Location(s) of attic access hatch/door cover(s) that were observed and/or inspected: Bedroom walk-in closet at all units
Roof structure (where observed): Trusses
Ceiling structure (where observed): Trusses
Roof-attic sheathing (where observed): Oriented strand board (OSB)
H-clips installed at roof sheathing joints: Yes, verified in one, or more, location(s). H-clips, when present, are a deterrent to sag of roof sheathing
Roofing nails or other fasteners visible under roof-attic sheathing: Yes, when fasteners penetrate through roof-attic sheathing, it is indicative of improved attachment of roofing materials. Visual limitations apply, inspector is unable to verify the absolute sufficiency of all fasteners or the means of securing roofing and/or flashings
Roof-attic ventilation system(s) based on attic view: See "Roof" report section
Attic humid/musty: No
Moisture staining (at observable areas) on roof-attic sheathing: No
Insulation at/over ceiling at habitable-heated space: Yes
Apparent insulation material at habitable-heated space: Fiberglass loose fill
Baffles apparent at vented soffit (observable areas): Yes, baffles protect against insulation blocking soffit vents, Yes, but baffles are out of place/fallen. Clear soffit area and reattach baffles
Estimated R-value of insulation over habitable space, may vary in some locations (today, over habitable space, insulation is installed R-38 to R-49): R-38, approximately
Insulation installed over/behind attic access hatch/door cover(s): Yes, insulation enhances energy efficiency over habitable space
Gasket material (weatherstripping) around attic access hatch/door cover(s): Sporadic, present at some locations but not at others. Install additional weatherstripping so as to enhance energy efficiency and/or fire-resistance
Party wall (separation between multi-unit dwellings) observed: Yes, noted as present but not exhaustively inspected as to sufficiency or continuity. A party wall separates dwelling units at the attic level and augments fire-resistance and security between units
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: structural components, wiring/ducts obscured from view by insulation or lack of access, behind covers at walls or ceilings if hatches are obscured from view or of undetermined purpose or if removal could cause cosmetic damage, calculating insulation R-values, loads or sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members, absolute adequacy of overall attic ventilation, identifying bearing points and walls, minor cosmetic disruptions at walls and ceilings caused by truss uplift or similar condition, microbial bodies-mold
27) Gasket material (weatherstripping) was either damaged or not installed at/around attic access hatch covers. ALSO, Gaskets observed appeared to be painted. Painted gasket prohibited sealing ability. For improved energy efficiency at habitable-heated space, and enhanced fire-resistance, install weatherstripping around cover(s). Any work to be completed by qualified party.
Photo 27-1 Gaskets and attic hatches was either substandard and or missing at all 5 hatches
28) When it is practical and safe to do so, I will partially traverse the attic. This attic does not have flooring in place over structural members and insulation obstructs the view. An accidental misstep would damage the ceiling. Furthermore, tramping on insulation reduces R-values and vulnerable components (wiring, pipes, lights, ducts), are often concealed under insulation. Attic insulation, based on the view from the entry point(s), is in new or near new (unspoiled) condition. Therefore, so as to avoid damaging the insulation, I did not traverse this attic. Doing so would have compacted the insulation -- reducing the air trapped in the material and significantly degrading insulative properties. Fluffing insulation, in an effort to repair compacted material, is ineffective. Taking into consideration those factors, the interior of the attic was viewed from the hatches. Unavoidably, several locations are excluded such as low clearance soffit-eave areas. Space with less than 30" of headroom is considered to be inaccessible. Unseen problems may exist at difficult to reach or inaccessible locations.

Any building owner should, on a regular basis, check inside attic space. The sufficiency of ventilation involves air changes, relative humidity, and factors that are not easily assessed during the course of a single inspection. Clients are advised to look for indications of condensation-moisture on roof sheathing, overheating, bird or insect/bee entry, etc. If problems become apparent, when monitoring attic conditions over time, consult with a qualified service provider.
Photo 28-1 Insulation in the attics appeared to be in good condition and undisturbed at time of inspection.
Photo 28-2 At all attics, depth markers were in place indicating approximately 16 inches of loose fill fiberglass insulation.
29) Attic/roof (general information and limitations): Manufactured trusses, present here, are designed by engineers. Since trusses are engineered, it is disallowed for anyone other than an engineer to modify or cut structural members (chords and webs). Observable attic areas are viewed to see if trusses appear to be compromised. I describe attic-roof ventilation, but do not guarantee adequacy of venting: Doing so would require consistent monitoring over time and years. Problems may go undiscovered at inaccessible locations, and any areas that were not traversed are excluded. Usually, inspector is unable to assess sufficiency of combustible clearances between vents/chimneys and flammable materials. If attic (or roof) issues are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates from licensed contractors. Further review, by specialists, could uncover irregularities that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. At wood roof structure such as trusses and, lesser so, rafters, seasonal differentials in humidity can cause "uplift," small wall or ceiling cracks in drywall at seams, joints, finished corners. Typically, uplift is a cosmetic matter, not considered to be a structural concern of significance.
30) Fire (party) wall was noted as present: In recent years, a fire-resistant wall or walls, extending from ceiling structure to roof structure, is/are commonly installed in attics at multi-unit construction. When present, party walls increase fire-resistance and enhance security between units. Inspector does not determine sufficiency of party walls or if they are in compliance with past or present building codes.
Photo 30-1 
Electric SystemTable of contents
Location of electric meter: Exterior, southerly
Overload protection type (primary service): Circuit breakers
Service entrance type: Underground (service lateral)
Circuit breakers that were in the "off" position: All breakers were on at time of inspection. The inspector, per standards and guidelines incorporated into state law, operates ONLY ordinary controls and does not turn on or turn off breakers (with the possible exception of AFCI or GFCI breakers) inside panels.
Location of main service panel(s): Outside
Location of main service disconnect(s): Breaker in outside main service panel
Estimated service amperage: 125 per unit
Main disconnect rating (amps): 125
Service grounding conductor-electrode rod verified: Yes, but absolute continuity of all internal system/panel grounding connections was undetermined
System bonding connections verified (protection against electrical shocking hazards): Noted at rigid gas piping. Bonding is typically not necessary at plastic water piping. Continuity of electrical bonding connections was undetermined as was the status of bonding at any flexible gas lines. To obtain a detailed evaluation, consult with licensed electrician
Main service panel(s) front cover(s) removed: No, outdoor panel was not opened due to lack of sufficient access or safety concerns. Have panel reviewed by an electrician
Arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection, safeguard against arcing and fires, present/functional: Devices were present, but they were not all tested. Doing so would be disruptive to household, killing power to clocks, computers, electronic equipment, etc. Further assess and upgrade-replace components as necessary
Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protected receptacle(s), safeguard against shocks in damp areas, present/functional: See comments below
Nominal onsite voltage: See remarks below, in this report section, explaining common service voltage configurations at multi- unit housing
Estimated nominal onsite utilization voltage read at 120/125V circuit (240 volt power is calculated/approximate): 120 V
Branch circuit wire type or types (where/as observed) onsite: Non-metallic sheathed, Solid-strand copper, Stranded copper and/or stranded aluminum (typically employed at circuits for larger appliances)
Sub (remote distribution) panel(s) noted on the premises: Yes
Make of sub (remote distribution) panel(s): General Electric
Location of sub (remote distribution) panel(s): Laundry/utility area
Sub (remote distribution) panel(s) front cover(s) removed: Yes
Feeder conductors sub (remote distribution) panel(s): Stranded aluminum (normal and acceptable)
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: outdoor lighting and associated wiring/photo cells/motion sensors/mercury vapor lights, AFCI protection and hardwiring to smoke/consumer alarms, visual identification of copper-clad aluminum (CCA) circuits or any concealed branch circuit wiring, non-standard receptacles (240 volts at dryers/ranges, electric vehicle power sources, compressors, power generators/transfer switches and wiring, any circuits that are not 120/125 volts, all low voltage and 3-phase circuits and transformers, battery power or battery backup), difficult to access receptacles or switches (floor mounted, out in the yard, high on ceilings, walls, behind appliances or machinery, under eaves, in attics, in crawl spaces) or any devices that are obstructed from view or at excluded areas, placement of tamper-resistant receptacles, sub-panels and/or junction boxes (other than those referenced), condition or presence of wiring under or over insulation
31) Exposed wiring: Wires or splices that are not properly terminated, and/or contained in covered junction boxes, were seen in the crawl spaces. This is a safety concern. I recommend further evaluation: Licensed electrician to repair/replace. While onsite, electrician to assess the electrical system, verify accuracy of legends, report any concealed defects/safety concerns and suggest potentially beneficial system upgrades.

This condition occurred at all crawlspaces and near the entries. Photo examples:
Photo 31-1 Crawl space below unit #105 had a receptacle connected to the end of the conductor not contained in a junction box. This is significant safety concern
Photo 31-2 All other crawl spaces had life conductors not terminated in junction boxes.
Photo 31-3 Location of this concern is near the entrances of all 5 crawlspaces
32) Ground fault (GFCI) protection testing limitations: During the course of a mandatory ground fault protection evaluation at time of inspection, in unit #105, a GFCI at the kitchen counter to the left of the sink was tripped and failed to reset during a normal test. The receptacle is defective and as a result receptacles in line with of the defective GFCI, multiple receptacles at the kitchen counter and south wall of the kitchen and living room were without power. As per comments by the tenant, power has been lost to the circuits in the past. In addition to any other recommended repairs noted in this report. I recommend a licensed electrician evaluate failed GFCI at unit 105 and repair or replace as necessary.

Additionally, due to stored belongings, some receptacles that currently require GFCI protection were not tested. GFCI receptacles or breakers reduce the likelihood of serious electrical shocks in damp environments. If receptacles are GFCI protected, and they do trip, I may not be able to locate resets and restore power. I recommend further evaluation: When excluded areas are clear of belongings, and resets are readily accessible, check the operation of receptacles. If GFCI protected receptacles are not installed, and fully operational in the typically recommended locations, consult with licensed electrician. Since conditions change, and electrical components can fail, clients should, periodically, verify the functionality of GFCI devices.

With the exceptions noted above, all accessible GFCI receptacles were tested to be functional. This would also include 10 exterior GFCI receptacles found at front entrances and balconies, all tested functional at time of inspection.
Photo 32-1 GFCI outlets at exterior locations were functional when tested
33) At a multi-unit residence, the "main" electric disconnect is often located outdoors. In addition to the main disconnect, there will be a more accessible sub (remote distribution) panel. In an emergency, to turn off all power, trip the "main" electric disconnect. Alternatively, turn off all sub-panel breakers or any breaker that is labeled as the "main." Alert: Simply turning off a sub-panel breaker labeled as "main," or all breakers in the sub-panel, would not disable power to any branch circuits that are fed directly by the exterior "main" disconnect.
Photo 33-1 "Main" electrical disconnect for all 5 units were located near the meters at the south side of the structure
Photo 33-2 "Main" electrical disconnect (X 5) at exterior panels
34) The sub (remote distribution) panels were inspected after first removing the front cover. At a sub-panel, the neutral wires/bus and system grounding should be separated from one another, not bonded together. It was my impression that the panel was wired in that configuration. Visual limitations may apply, depending on accessibility, space and overall observability. A lockout device was not installed at the circuit for the Dishwashers, Water heaters and wall man and fan assisted electric heaters.. Lockouts should be in place at circuit breakers that control any appliances that are not within sight of the panel/disconnect AND if the appliances cannot be unplugged or switched off. Lockouts customarily "snap in" easily and they protect service personnel by making it possible to render appliances inoperable.

Some breakers, as noted in photo captions below had different brand breaker besides General Electric installed. As per manufacturer "Use only GE type breakers, use of other circuit breakers voids warranty and may void a UL listing and could result in property loss or personal injury."

Additionally, breaker labeled water heater in unit #101 had tape over the breaker. The reason for this was undetermined by the inspector and recommend further evaluation.

I case-by-case basis at the 5 separate units, I recommend repairs as necessary, work to be completed by licensed electrician.
Photo 34-1 Unit # 101 Cover was removed. Tape was installed over the breaker labeled water heater (circle) and AFCI was a dissimilar brand breaker (arrow). I recommend further and repair review by a licensed electrician
Photo 34-2 Unit #102 Cover was removed. AFCI breakers are was to similar brand. I recommend further review and repair by a licensed electrician
Photo 34-3 Unit #103. Cover was removed, I recommend removing any non-necessary components such as extra breaker stored in the bottom of the panel
Photo 34-4 Unit 104, Cover was removed.
Photo 34-5 Unit #105 Cover was removed.
Photo 34-6 Additionally, 2 screws were missing from cover panels at units #104 and #105. Install screws, with blunt tips, that are manufactured for the purpose. Since live wiring exists inside electric panels, while on-site for other repairs, work should be completed by qualified party such as licensed electrician.
Photo 34-7 Label on General Electric service panels regarding non-GE breakers
35) Lighting: The inspection of lights and lighting is not inclusive, nor an analysis of all such devices, nor of 3-way and 4-way switches, switched receptacles, motion detectors and dimmers. Some lights were nonfunctional at time of inspection, possibly due to dead bulbs, at locations such as, exterior light at front entrance at unit #101. Light fixture nonfunctional in closet below stairs in #unit 102, bulbs out or missing at fixtures above vanities at various bathrooms and the ceiling fan fixtures. Often, if a light or a switch does not function, a bulb will be burned-out or missing. It is not uncommon to find wall switches that are abandoned, or they remotely control switched/split receptacles or outdoor fixtures with built in motion detectors or photocells. An inspector does not troubleshoot circuits, replace or swap-out bulbs. I recommend testing switches and replacing any burned-out or missing light bulbs and/or defective fixtures, switches or wiring. Electrical work, when/if necessary, should be completed by licensed electrician. Note: At fixtures in general, and if recessed or "can" ceiling lights are present, always put in replacement bulbs of the recommended size.

Photos below are examples of this concern, I recommend further review and necessary repairs by a qualified electrician and or property management:
Photo 35-1 Nonfunctional exterior light at the front entry of unit #101
Photo 35-2 Nonfunctional light in the closet below stairs at unit #102
Photo 35-3 Many bathroom vanity lights were out at time of inspection
Photo 35-4 Apparent dead bulb at ceiling fan, Unit #103

As noted above, if fixtures are nonfunctional after replacing bulbs, I recommend qualified electrician to review and repair or replace as necessary
Photo 35-5 In addition to some light fixtures not operational at time of inspection, many wall switches appeared to be damaged. On a case-by-case basis, while on-site for other electrical repairs, I recommend qualified electrician evaluate and replace any damaged wall switch as necessary
Photo 35-6 Other related issues would include loose receptacles, such as (but not limited to) this one at the north wall of the kitchen counter in unit #104.
36) Voltage configurations at multi-unit housing: It is common at apartment buildings to feed electric sub-panels that are inside the individual dwelling units with 3 phase power (120-208 volts) from the building complex's primary service equipment. Making a determination of the exact service voltage, be it 120/208 or 125/240 (standard at single family homes) is beyond the scope of a home inspection. Suffice to say that both voltage configurations are often seen and are considered to be adequate for operating electrical receptacles, lights and appliances. Note: Electric water heaters, ranges and wall heaters can be a bit slower to recover or to warm-up when the slightly lower nominal voltage of 120/208 is present.
Photo 36-1 Normal line voltage was observed
37) Electric system (general information and limitations): A representative number of receptacles (outlets), switches and light fixtures are inspected. Receptacles or switches situated at difficult to access locations such as behind appliances, under eaves or high on the building are excluded, as are 240 volt, low voltage or other non-standard outlets, and those with childproof covers. Inspector will comment on GFCI (ground fault) and AFCI (arc fault) protected receptacles, but seldom is it possible to locate and test all such receptacles. Inspector does not verify specific placement of tamper-resistant receptacles: protection against shocks and electrical burns. Whenever a receptacle is replaced, tamper-resistant receptacles are now a mandatory upgrade at most locations. I do not trip overcurrent protection devices to verify accuracy of legends or count receptacles/switches to determine if circuits are overloaded. A report may reference electric service sizing, but capacity could be diminished by under-rated components in a system. Breaker sizing guidelines have changed over the years, so, except at new construction, amperage might be lesser than what would be installed today. Even simple electrical projects can pose safety risks, so always consult with licensed professionals. While onsite, an electrician should evaluate the system, report deficiencies and provide recommendations as to potentially beneficial upgrades or repairs. If significant issues are reported, I advise obtaining detailed cost and repair estimates. Specialized review, by a licensed electrician, could reveal deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. All panels that were inspected, not excluded, are referenced in the report. If additional panels that were not readily apparent to inspector are later found to be present, they should be reviewed by a licensed electrician.
Heating & VentilationTable of contents
Whole house ventilation/exhaust system with automatic timer present: Yes, located at laundry area
Heat source(s) at habitable/livable space: Yes
Make of heating appliances: King
Estimated age of heating appliance(s): Based on age of structure, presumed to the original
Heat system type(s): Electric fan-assisted heater(s), Gas fireplace/insert
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of appliances or systems, rust or wear, continuity of ducts or exhaust vents, heating appliance filters and electronic air cleaners, humidifiers-dehumidifiers, fresh air systems, in-home ventilation including sufficiency of passive systems, motors and exhaust-circulation fans/blowers, thermostats and flue/duct terminations, sufficiency of backdraft dampers and screens, in-wall manifolds at boilers/hydronic heating systems, portable or window mount air conditioners, electric fireplaces, gas meters, propane tanks, outdoor gas hookups, condition or presence of sediment traps, operation of (in some cases presence of) shutoff valves at gas-fired or oil burning appliances, underground storage tanks (oil, gasoline, propane)
38) Non-operational electric heater(s). A wall-mounted electric fan assisted heaters in the lower floor bathroom of unit #101, when turned on, failed to warmup. The 2 heaters tied to the thermostat in the kitchen living room area at #unit 102 had been running recently, felt warm to the touch yet the ambient room temperature seem to be lesser than the thermostat setting of 75°F. Additionally, some other wall-mounted electric fan assisted heaters at various locations were slow to respond but did operate. I recommend further evaluation: qualified person such as an electrician to verify operation, repair/replace thermostat or heaters if/as necessary when cleaning and related work takes place.

At this multiunit structure, wall-mounted electric fan assisted heaters were noted to be installed in all livable spaces. In the kitchen living room areas of all units a single thermostat operated two heaters. All other rooms, such as bedrooms and bathrooms, heaters were all on a separate thermostat.

Electric heaters general information: Many wall-mounted electric fan assisted heaters were noted to be dirty. Grill discoloration can be caused by concentrated heat as a result of dirt or lint at heating elements. Airborne particles in the environment enter heaters and partially burn, leaving behind carbon material that clings to grills. Exposure to burning candles, cooking, cleaning supplies, pets, and plants can exacerbate the matter. In the case of all electric heaters, the devices are manufactured with long design lives, but they require periodic cleaning. Lint, dust and debris can block airflow, negatively impact efficiency, and increase the risk of fire. High voltage is present inside electric heaters: If covers are removed, circuit breakers to heaters must be TURNED OFF and "locked-out" prior to opening heaters.

A manufacturer produced online video, general information applicable to cleaning electric wall heaters, is available here:

Inspection procedure: Detailed analysis of heaters is not provided, e.g., calibration of thermostats, condition of internal heating elements. The inspector does not estimate remaining life or track product recalls. Flammables, including furniture, towels, towel racks, linens, drapes, appliance cords, etc. should not be situated in close proximity to, or installed directly over, electric heaters. Maintain, as minimums, 6" of clearance above and at least 2"-3" of clearance in front of heaters. Licensed electricians are prepared to work on electric heaters.
Photo 38-1 Unit #101, lower floor bathroom, wall-mounted fan assisted electric heater did not operate at time of inspection
Photo 38-2 Grill discoloration at multiple wall heaters. I recommend qualified party to clean and maintain as necessary
Photo 38-3 An infrared imaging thermometer is used to measure heat at wall-mounted fan assisted electric heaters
Photo 38-4 An infrared image of a wall-mounted fan assisted electric heater in operation
39) The timer, located in the Laundry rooms of each unit, will control a simple whole house exhaust fan ventilation system. Such devices are noted by the inspector, but they are not assessed as to sufficiency/function, nor is the timer tested. The timers should be set to automatically turn on the exhaust-circulation fan or, sometimes, an air handler or a furnace fan. When the fan runs, and expels old air, interior pressure equalizes and fresh air is drawn into the home. With today's tighter built houses, to reduce interior moisture and humidity, the ventilation exhaust fan should run for at least 8 hours at a time. Placement of fans and controls varies from house to house, but this contractor online video describes the operation of a basic ventilation system:

An online video, produced by the NW Clean Air Agency, that describes the operation of a basic ventilation system is available at this link:

At time of inspection, all but one 24-hour timer was in the on position, all others were at off position. I recommend that tenants be encouraged to utilize the fan timer and instruct to the benefits of operating the fans.
Photo 39-1 
40) HVAC/heating system (general information and limitations): The heating system inspection is basic, visual and limited in scope. Inspector does not disassemble heating appliances nor assess, thermostat calibration, system sufficiency, all venting, and airflow to rooms. A heating professional has access to specialized equipment that will locate defective components. If inspector reports any problems, or recommends service, all work and full system evaluation should be performed by licensed HVAC professional or, in some instances, a licensed electrician or plumber. Further assessment by specialists could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. Gas meters, fuel storage tanks (propane, heating oil), or associated piping, valves and connectors are excluded.
41) Basic exhaust-ventilation systems such as bathroom fans, laundry fans or range hoods will be described in the "Interior Areas" report section. Exterior vent hoods should be equipped with backdraft dampers (flappers) and screens (1/4"-1/2" wire mesh). Due to the complexities involved in doing so, inspector does not verify sufficiency of dampers or screens.
Fireplace(s), Insert(s), Freestanding Stove(s)Table of contents
Estimated age of appliance(s): Based on age of structure, estimated to be original
Fireplace/insert/freestanding stove type(s): Direct vent (horizontal run with termination cap) gas
Energy/fuel type: Natural gas
Occupant accessible fuel shutoff valve(s) observed at gas-fired appliance(s): Yes
Flexible gas connector(s) observed at fireplace(s), etc.: Yes, present. In instances of seismic activity, flexible connectors protect against damage to gas lines
Gas "on" to fireplace/insert(s): Sporadic, "on" at some but not at others. Inspector employs only normal controls and does not ignite pilot lights, turn on gas valves or troubleshoot appliances. Qualified party to further evaluate.
Gas fireplace/insert/freestanding stove(s) operational: Yes, a flame was apparent, Sporadic, some were operational and others were not. This is a limitation to the inspection. Qualified professional to further evaluate
Heat-circulating fan-blower(s) present: Unknown, did not see/verify fan(s) or blower(s)
Location of gas meter: Exterior, southerly
Location of main fuel shutoff: Gas meters
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of systems or components, rust or wear, continuity of exhaust vents or ducts, sufficiency of chimney flues-vents, combustible clearances, motors and exhaust-circulation fans/blowers and terminations, dampers, placement of gas shutoff valves, glass at fireplaces or stoves, gas logs, electric fireplaces, compliance with EPA or any governmental agency emission-safety certification requirements
42) Ceramic glass, front of the gas fireplaces are fogged to some degree at all fireplaces. Mineral residue collects on glass, a by-product of combustion, and fogged glass is indicative of a need for maintenance and cleaning. I recommend further evaluation and service by a heating contractor: Professional review to include burner, combustion chamber, air openings, gas valve, igniter and pilot, venting and combustible clearances for the length of the run, remove and clean glass and inside unit, inspect gasket, and, as applicable, carbon monoxide (CO) testing, operation of fan-blower, thermostat, etc. A gas fireplace/stove that serves as a primary heat source should be professionally serviced annually. If it is used only on an occasional basis, the appliance requires service, at a minimum, every three years. Any heat circulating fans or blowers (usually thermostatically controlled devices) are excluded. I do not disassemble/lift off fronts of fireplaces, if putting parts back together again could be difficult to do. A contractor produced online video, descriptive of general maintenance, cleaning procedures and glass removal, is available at this link:

Here's a link to a consumer bulletin, issued by the nearby B.C. Safety Authority, that emphasizes the importance of regularly scheduling safety checkups at all gas heating appliances and fireplaces:

Ceramic glass, at the front of gas fireplaces, inserts and stoves, should be cleaned twice per year or as specified by manufacturer. Employ specialized cleansers formulated for the purpose, do not use ammonia-based products that could permanently etch glass. If periodic maintenance has been neglected in the past, the glass front may have become perpetually cloudy.
Photo 42-1 I recommend professional servicing to all Gas-fired fireplaces
Photo 42-2 
43) Direct vent, from the gas-fired fireplaces were noted at the east side of the structure at all units. The vent hood at unit #102 appeared to be slightly damaged but does not appear to deter functionality.
Photo 43-1 Some damage noted to the exterior direct vent hood at unit #102
44) The fireplace at unit #105 was turned on and noted to be operational at time of inspection. All other fireplaces were either inaccessible, pilot light off, and or locked off at the meters. An inspector operates only normal controls and, per standards and guidelines incorporated into state law, does not ignite pilot lights or troubleshoot problems. I recommend testing the appliance with further evaluation and service by a heating contractor: Professional review to include burner, combustion chamber, air openings, gas valve, igniter and pilot, venting and combustible clearances for the length of the run, remove and clean glass and inside unit, inspect gasket, and, as applicable, carbon monoxide (CO) testing, operation of fan-blower, thermostat, etc. A gas fireplace/stove that serves as a primary heat source should be professionally serviced annually. If it is used only on an occasional basis, the appliance requires service, at a minimum, every three years. Any heat circulating fans or blowers (usually thermostatically controlled devices) are excluded.
Photo 44-1 Locks were installed at gas meters, appeared to be unit #101 and #103
Photo 44-2 Pilot light was off and gas valve was shutoff at unit #104
Photo 44-3 At least 2 units, fireplaces were inaccessible due to personal belongings/furniture
45) Gas fireplaces and freestanding stoves (general information and limitations): Inspector is not an HVAC technician. Only normal controls are operated and I offer a visual inspection of fossil fuel fired heating devices. As prescribed by state law, an inspector will not ignite pilot lights that are “off”. Service and safety evaluations of natural gas and propane systems are customarily provided by HVAC technicians or similar professionals, who are trained to install or service gas fireplaces. If issues involving appliances or components are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates. Further review by specialists could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. Inspector assumes no responsibility for any fees associated with repairing defects or conditions that could have been discovered by a licensed and qualified HVAC professional. Any blowers-heat circulating fans and their controls are excluded.
Water HeaterTable of contents
Make of water heater: Bradford White
Model number of water heater: M250S6DS, (All 5 water heaters same model number
Serial number of water heater: All 5 water heater serial numbers were in the same series, starting in letters "HG"
Estimated age of water heater(s) based on serial number(s) or other data: All water heaters, 7 years old (manufactured in 2011 as per serial # code on data plate, 1st letter in serial # "H" = manufactured in 2011)
Capacity in gallons: 50
Type: Conventional tank(s)
Energy source(s): Electricity
Electricity "on" to the water heater(s): Yes
Water heater(s) operational: Yes
Water shutoff valve(s): Yes, but valve(s) is not shutoff to test it, nor is there a detailed analysis of function
Water temperature at fixtures as verified by inspector (hot water at fixtures should not exceed 120 degrees F): See comments below
Hot water taps properly positioned at sink(s): See "Interior Areas" report section
Seismic restraints in place at tank water heater: Yes, straps/bands
Temperature pressure relief valve(s) installed: Yes
Drain line(s) at relief valve(s): Yes
Relief valve(s) drain line material: CPVC plastic
Relief valve(s) drain line discharge point(s) noted: Yes, terminates outside
Catch pan(s) under water heater(s): Yes
Drain line(s) from catch pan(s): Yes
Discharge point(s) of catch pan drain line(s) noted: Yes, but would drain into the crawl space. Reroute it to an approved location
Water pressure reducing valve observed in system: Yes, seen in crawl spaces
Thermal expansion tank(s) installed: No, if a pressure reducing valve is present, a thermal expansion tank is usually placed in supply piping by the water heater
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of appliances or systems, rust or wear, continuity of exhaust vents or heating elements, recirculation-circulation pumps, calibration or function of thermostats, concealed components at temperature pressure relief valves or drain lines, presence/function of mixing or anti-scald valves, point of use instant hot water dispensers/tanks/taps
46) The hot water temperature at fixtures reads as a minimum of 129 degrees Fahrenheit at unit #101 and 138 °F at unit #103. (Other 3 units were within recommended ranges, between 110 and 120°F) The risk of scalding increases when temperature is set higher than 120°F I recommend adjusting/limiting the water temperature at fixtures to 120°F. Water temperature is regulated by thermostatic controls at/inside water heaters. Temperature may vary throughout the day, depending on when the appliance last heated water. Even though temperature at fixtures should be limited to 120°F, maintaining a higher tank temperature reduces the probability of bacterial growth inside the water heater. Therefore, a preferred means of lowering temperature involves installing a thermal mixing valve: Water at fixtures is restricted to 120°F, yet water in the tank will maintain a temperature of 130-140°F At client’s discretion, qualified party to adjust thermostat(s) or have a plumber install thermal mixing valve. To obtain more information on hot water safety, please visit:

An article, descriptive of thermal mixing valves, is available at this link:
Photo 46-1 Water over 120°F at unit #101
Photo 46-2 Water over 120°F (138°F) at unit #103
47) Conducive conditionsThe catch pan, under the water heater, drain lines are directed to substructure. A leak could result in moisture damage at finished interior space. I recommend further evaluation by professional, plumber or HVAC technician to install a catch pan with a drain line to the exterior. An article, descriptive of other potential remedies for water heaters that could leak and cause interior damage, is available at:
Photo 47-1 Drain pan at base of water heaters with drain lines protruding through the floor (Consistent application at all 5 water heaters)
Photo 47-2 All 5 water heater drain pan, drain lines terminate in the substructure below
48) Thermal expansion tanks missing: In most circumstances an onsite water pressure reducer creates a "closed plumbing system." At a closed system, a thermal expansion tank will be put in place at water heater supply piping. Water expands when it is heated and backflow prevention, built into many water pressure reducers, restricts water from passing back into the main supply piping. That condition can result in unnecessary discharge from temperature pressure relief valves. A few water pressure reducers have built in bypass features that negate the need for thermal expansion tanks. I recommend further review: Qualified plumber or HVAC professional to assess pressure reducer/system and, if/as necessary, install thermal expansion vessel(s). Adding a thermal expansion tank is typically not a costly upgrade.
Photo 48-1 Typically, a thermal expansion tank would be installed above the water heaters
Photo 48-2 Water pressure reducing valves were located at all 5 crawlspaces
49) Some temperature pressure relief valve drain lines at the West side of the structure is not the correct height above grade. A drain line must pitch in a downward direction and terminate 6" to 24" (above a floor or grade outdoors) at a location where any discharge will be clearly visible. I recommend further evaluation and appropriate repairs. Since strict guidelines apply to TPR valves and drain lines, all work to be completed by plumber or HVAC technician. While onsite, professional to offer suggestions at to potentially beneficial corrections or upgrades. An online video, produced by King of the House Inc., on the topic of temperature pressure relief valves and drain lines, may be accessed at this link: (See comments at the end of the video regarding exterior termination of TPR drain lines)
Photo 49-1 
50) Water heaters (general information and limitations): Inspector does not evaluate pipes-tubing or vents that run inside walls, or valves, thermostats or burners-heating elements and other components that are not readily accessible. Undiscovered corrosion of a tank could be present, yet go unreported, as a result of lack of visibility or access. When issues with a system are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates. Due to the complexities of such devices, and a number of potential safety issues, any work and evaluation of water heater/plumbing system should be performed by a licensed plumber and/or an HVAC professional. Timely service, and specialized review, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Plumbing System & LaundryTable of contents
Water pressure (40-80 PSI "pounds per square inch" is normal range): 52 psi
Water pressure reducer observed in system: See "Water Heater" report section
Location of "occupant accessible" main water shutoff valve: Laundry/utility area
Location of municipal/community connections/shutoffs and/or water meter (customarily located below grade): South side at/below grade
Location(s) of assumed plumbing (waste/drain line) cleanout(s): Crawl space drain/waste piping
Plumbing vent stack or vent stacks present: Yes, multiple vents noted. The inspector verifies that vents are present, but does not perform detailed analysis of the adequacy of stacks
Water service: Municipal/city
Service pipe/tubing material (where observed): Polyethylene plastic
Supply pipe/tubing material (where observed): PEX plastic
Water supply pipes/tubing wrapped or insulated in substructure areas: Sporadic, wrapped, at some locations but not at others. Wrap water lines to protect them against freezing
Waste/drain pipe material (where observed): Modern plastic (ABS and/or PVC)
Vent stack pipe material (where observed): ABS plastic
Transition dryer duct type (observable) at/behind dryer: Semi-rigid aluminum flex duct, typically considered to be acceptable at/behind a dryer but may not penetrate into/through a floor, a wall or ceiling
Main dryer duct type (if/where observed) to exterior dryer hood: Undetermined, not observed. Verify suitability of ducting, which should be approved smooth metal duct
Washing machine catch pan and drain installed: No, seldom seen but a good idea
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: Water filters-filtration systems, aerators, softeners, under sink instant hot water dispensers/connections, recirculation-circulation or pressure booster and sump pumps, sewage ejector-grinder pumps or private sewage disposal systems and related electronics/alarms (may be present onsite unbeknownst to inspector), PEX by brand or fittings, presence/function of anti-scald or mixing valves and tub-shower pans and traps (usually obstructed from view) in substructure areas, life expectancy of appliances or components, washing machines and dryers, municipal or community shutoffs and water meters, water quality or potability, yard sprinklers/irrigation systems and associated wiring/controls/backflow prevention, floor and outdoor drains and drain lines
51) The exterior dryer hoods (to some degree, at all units) contains an accumulation of lint. As the problem worsens, a blockage could lead to fire, or damage the thermal devices inside the dryer. I recommend cleaning the dryer hood, and associated ducting, now and as necessary in the future. Work to be completed by qualified party. To obtain additional information on dryers and ducting, please visit:
Photo 51-1 Dryer duct exhaust cap at unit #103 was significantly blocked with lint and dryer sheets. (Possibly missing a filter at the appliance) at time of inspection, the inspector pulled debris from the exterior exhaust cap, however, maintenance is necessary
Photo 51-2 All dryer exhaust ducts appeared to be due for maintenance
Photo 51-3 Louvered baffles at dryer exhaust end cap associated to unit #105 appeared to have thumbtacks glued to the louvers for an undetermined purpose. Attachments could deter proper airflow through exhaust duct
52) Washing machines and/or dryers are not routinely operated and they are not included in the inspection: Briefly running appliances does not establish reliability. Furthermore, associated supply lines, drain lines, plumbing and electric connections are excluded. Often laundry appliances are not part of a real estate transaction. In situations where they are included, prior to purchase, clients are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations. A brief description of the appliances and/or laundry facility is provided here.

Washer and dryer or install that all 5 units, noted to be Frigidaire brand. Dryers were electric and available gas supply was noted behind the appliances. The dryer exhaust transition ducts appeared to be approved semirigid aluminum exhaust ducts.

Rubber water supply hoses, as is often the case, are installed at the washing machines. Rubber hoses are prone to eventual deterioration and leaks. I recommend replacing rubber supply hoses with long-lasting stainless steel braided washing machine hoses. Alternatively, consider an upgrade to "FloodSafe" auto-shutoff connectors: designed to stop the flow of water if leakage occurs. A wide assortment of hoses are available at hardware and home stores. A manufacturer produced online video that explains the operation of FloodSafe specialty hoses is available at this link:

Due to potential pitfalls involved in doing so (detaching ducts, loosening fittings or hoses), inspector does not move appliances. Upon taking occupancy, clients are encouraged to move appliances to obtain improved access and view. If any issues are noted, consult with qualified repair professional. On a regular basis, clean ducting, outside vent hood and the dryer lint filter.
Photo 52-1 View behind dryer appliance shows an approved semi rigid aluminum transition exhaust duct and a gas valve for Gas-fired dryer. Currently installed dryers are electric
Photo 52-2 I recommend upgrading existing rubber hoses to braided stainless steel washer hoses
53) Pipe-wrap is missing, damaged ornot installed at water supply lines in the crawl spaces. To guard against freezing in frigid weather, and to enhance energy efficiency, cover supply pipes-tubing with foam pipe wrap. Any work to be completed, on a case by case basis, by qualified party. When water lines are wrapped, foundation vents can be left open most of the year, except during times of extreme cold.
Photo 53-1 
Photo 53-2 
Photo 53-3 
54) Plumbing system (general information and limitations): When it is possible to do so, I check a plumbing system by running a limited quantity of water. Service, supply, drain, waste piping, components or valves that are inside walls, ceilings, buried (or otherwise unobservable) are excluded. As a result of these limitations, concealed problems may become apparent when occupants run water and use facilities on a consistent basis. Inspector does not assess underground service-supply, drain-waste piping, publicly owned components, private water systems and/or filtration, determine the presence, or functionality, of any sewage ejector-grinder pumps or private sewage systems. Even simple plumbing repairs can, unexpectedly, turn into complicated projects. Whenever work is required, consult with licensed professionals. While onsite, plumber should evaluate the system including fixtures, supply, drain and waste lines, venting, etc., and provide recommendations as to potentially beneficial upgrades or repairs. If significant issues with system/components are reported, I advise obtaining detailed cost and repair estimates. Specialized evaluation, by a plumbing contractor, could reveal deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
55) Shutoff valve(s) exclusion: Water supply shutoff valves, including any occupant accessible "main," municipal or street "mains," and dedicated shutoffs under/behind fixtures or appliances are not routinely operated. Only normal controls are tested such as sink and tub faucets. Prior to moving in belongings, client(s) should verify that shutoff valves are functional, readily accessible and situated at standard locations. Often, infrequently used shutoff valves are difficult to turn or they leak at valve stems. If problems become apparent, consult with plumber.
Photo 55-1 Tenet accessible main water supply shutoff valves appeared to be located above the water heaters at all units
56) Plumbing fixtures inspected, including tubs, showers, toilets and sinks (possible exception being laundry sinks, which might be in this report section), are described in the "Interior Areas" report section. Outside hose bibbs/faucets that were inspected are usually referenced in the "Exterior & Site" report section.
Crawl Space(s)-FoundationTable of contents
Foundation wall/stem wall material (where observed): See "Exterior & Site" report section
Footing material (where observed): See "Exterior & Site" report section
Inspection method: Traversed
Location(s) of crawl space hatch(es) that were observed and/or inspected: One entrance at at North side of structure, other four crawlspace entrances at West side of structure
Bolts/anchors (observable locations) to secure structure to foundation: Yes, some bolts seen. Not verified as to spacing and number. Bolts anchor structural members to the foundation
Crawl space design: Unconditioned (ventilated) space
Foundation vents at crawl space: Yes
Number of walls with crawl space vents: Two opposite sides
Foundation vents in crawl space open: Sporadic, open at some locations but blocked at others. Vents should be open except during extremely cold weather
Insulation installed underside of floor(s) situated above unheated crawl space: Yes, when present, underfloor insulation obstructs the view of many areas and is a limitation to the inspection
Insulation material (type) underneath floor: Fiberglass batt
Estimated underfloor insulation R-value, may vary in some locations (today crawl spaces are typically insulated to R-30 minimum): R-19, approximately
Structural components: Joists, beams and posts
Support post and footing/pier pad materials: Wood posts on concrete piers and/or footings
Tops of posts/columns tied (positive connections): Yes, positive connections better secure tops of posts/columns to beams or other structural members
Bottoms of posts/columns tied (positive connections): Yes, positive connections better secure bottoms of posts/columns to pier blocks or footings, When present positive connections better secure tops of posts/columns to beams or other structural members.
Sill plate lumber pressure-treated: Yes, pressure-treated lumber is more resistant to rot than untreated lumber
Beam material: Wood
Floor structure above: Wood joists
Underfloor/subflooring material (where observed): Oriented strand board (OSB)
Plastic vapor barrier ground cover present over earth: Yes, but requires repair
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: inaccessible areas such as sill plates, ceiling-floor joists, beams, wiring, pipes, ducts, etc., areas obscured from view by insulation or other components, under slabs/footings/substructure locations that are not readily accessible, behind covers at walls or ceilings if hatches are obscured from view or of undetermined purpose or if removal could cause cosmetic damage, sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members such as posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, calculating loads, placement of bolts and anchors, squash blocks, web stiffeners, insulation R-values, identifying microbial bodies-mold, sump pumps (except as reported), absolute adequacy of overall substructure ventilation
57) Pest entry point: Gaps that could allow pests or rodents (and water) access to the substructure area was noted at all crawl space accesses. Mice and rats are often seen, able to gain entry through small (3/4" to 1") openings, and the creatures can cause significant damage to building materials. I recommend locating and eliminating any potential pest entry gaps, monitor the property for rodent activity, and, if necessary, consult with a pest management professional. If pests gain entry to any part of a building, they could be present at other areas as well. See additional recommendations in the "General information" report section.

Large gaps occurs at the base of all access doors and access doors at the West side of the structure had gaps around the doors themselves when closed large enough to allow vermin intrusion. I recommend a qualified contractor repair any gaps or openings at all crawlspace entrances and consult with a pest management professional as necessary to control rodent activity.

Photos below are examples of vermin intrusion entry points and illustrative evidence of habitation:
Photo 57-1 Typical view of West crawlspace access showing large gaps at base of openings
Photo 57-2 Large gaps at crawlspace entrances, vermin and or water entry point possible at all access openings
Photo 57-3 Typical view from the interior of crawlspace of access doors closed, showing gaps
Photo 57-4 North crawlspace entrance with large gaps at threshold
Photo 57-5 Rodent damage to water supply pipe insulation
Photo 57-6 Rodent droppings on insulation debris
Photo 57-7 Some evidence of rodent tunneling and subsequent damage to insulation
Photo 57-8 Besides vermin intrusion, gaps at crawlspace entrances are allowing water into crawlspace
58) Conducive conditionsA crawl space vent at the West side of the southwest corner of the structure is at, or below, grade and missing a vent wells. When properly installed, wells keep openings into substructure space free from blockages. The present situation impedes ventilation and could allow rain or run-off water to enter substructure space. I recommend further review repair/alter accordingly onsite: Put in wells that provide separation (3"- 4") from earth to the bottom of any vent. Purchase metal or plastic wells at a home store or, a less desirable option, build wells made from pressure-treated lumber. All work to be completed by qualified party such as general contractor. When/if water pipes are wrapped, vents can be left open most of the year, except during extremely cold weather. If vents are closed in frigid weather, they should be reopened immediately after cold weather subsides. Vents require proper screening (typically 1/8"-1/4" corrosion-resistant wire mesh) to protect against pest entry.

Additionally, at other vents where wells are installed, soil is too high inside the well and or debris is deterring proper airflow through screened vents. It was also noted that the vent well at the northeast corner was loose to the structure and could allow water or debris into well, and substructure. I recommend a qualified party to repair and maintain existing wells as necessary.
Photo 58-1 Crawl space vent at the South last quarter was at or below grade and could benefit from a well to deter water and or debris into the substructure and control proper ventilation
Photo 58-2 Existing wells should be maintained, accumulated debris should be removed and soil at interior of well should be below the opening of the vent
Photo 58-3 Well at north east corner of structure, not properly secured to foundation, gaps at sides. Soil at base of well is at or above the vent opening and debris should be removed. All work should be performed by qualified parties
Photo 58-4 Crawlspace view of significant debris in the event well
59) Conducive conditionsEarth is uncovered/exposed at some areas of the crawl space: inadequate vapor barrier ground cover. Evaporation from the ground can result in a damp/humid crawl space and high humidity at interior space -- conditions that are conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. The NW Clean Air Agency estimates that as much as 40% of the air inside a residence has evaporated up from substructure areas. I recommend further review: Repair/replace vapor barrier, as might be necessary, so all earth is covered. If additional material is required, employ 6 mil non-translucent polyethylene (black is preferred) with plastic installed to lay as flat as is possible and seams should overlap by a minimum of 24". Fold or cut ground cover, so it is not in contact with posts/structural lumber -- moisture that collects between plastic and the wood can lead to decay. All work to be completed by qualified party.

Plastic vapor barrier at all crawlspaces would benefit from repair. All exposed soil should be covered. The photos below are examples of exposed soil and/or damaged vapor barrier:
Photo 59-1 
Photo 59-2 
60) East foundation walls and crawlspace exhibits some moisture intrusion, most notably in crawlspace below unit #104. I recommend monitoring these areas, if accumulated water persists, I recommend consulting with a general contractor or foundation drainage professional. Precautionary measures could be performed, such as previously noted in this report cleaning and maintaining foundation vent wells. Also any holes noted in foundation, such as photos below could be patched to prevent moisture intrusion. All work should be performed by qualified parties.
Photo 60-1 I recommend qualified person patch any holes, such as this one in the east wall of the substructure of your unit #104.
61) Conducive conditionsScraps and debris: Nonessential materials (wood and/or paper, cardboard, insulation, etc.) were left in the crawl space -- conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. Collect and dispose of any unnecessary, and nonstructural, materials including wood, paper, cardboard, insulation or other debris that might be found under a vapor barrier ground cover. All work to be completed by qualified party.
62) Underfloor insulation has fallen down or it is damaged/missing. As a guideline, based on today's standards, underfloor insulation at floors above unheated space is rated at R-30 or better. I recommend further review and appropriate repairs: Install/re-install, or custom fit, insulation. Insulation should be tight to the underside of the floor above and the vapor barrier paper backing, on most modern batt insulation, is designed to face the warm side. Upside down insulation can result in moisture retention. All work to be completed by qualified professional. Underfloor insulation, when present, obscures the view including at structural lumber such as subfloor/floor, sill plate, joists, rim joist, etc. Inspectors do not pull down or move insulation; therefore, some areas are excluded from the inspection.
Photo 63-1 Outward swinging door at the crawlspace at #105 were noted to be security style hinge but significant corrosion has occurred. I recommend replacement as necessary by qualified person
64) Seasonal conditions: In the PNW, typically in fall and winter, we experience more rainfall and runoff water than at other times of the year. Since conditions change, on a regular basis, crawl spaces should be entered and checked for standing water, plumbing leaks, fallen or damaged insulation, rodent activity and indications of insects such as wood shavings on the foundation wall, the sill or the crawl space floor. If any problems are seen, consult with appropriate contractors/service providers.
65) This multi-unit dwelling was built with an partitioned crawl space. Depending on overall design, fire-resistance between dwellings may be enhanced at substructure areas that are divided, separated or partitioned off from one another at the underside. Regardless, fire-resistance specifications and guidelines may vary between different buildings and jurisdictions. If clients wish to obtain additional information regarding fire-resistance requirements, consult with local building authorities.

This property appeared to have separation between units in the crawl space with one exception being at the West and of the separation between units #101 and #102. The gap was noted at the west wall between the 2 units not large enough to be a security concern but poses a breach in the fire resistance between separate residential dwellings. I recommend qualified contractor to repair as necessary to seal any gaps between dwellings as per current building standards
Photo 65-1 Gap between units #101 and #102 (this photo view is from the interior of the crawl space below unit #102)
Photo 65-2 Otherwise, separation was noted between all other units. Note that the inspector does not perform a commercial structure fire code compliance evaluation. If concerned, I recommend consulting with the local Fire Marshal
66) This building, based on the view at one (or more) observable location(s), appears to have some bolts that anchor a sill plate or structural lumber to the foundation. Bolts are, in most instances, partially or fully concealed by intrinsic design elements and/or insulation: Inspector does not search out or count bolts, washers or nuts, measure spacing between bolts or determine if anchors comply with past, or present, construction guidelines.
67) Albeit somewhat unconventional i.e. no metal bracket installed, the bottom of the posts at the crawlspaces did appear to have a positive connection. Positive connections at posts help stabilize the structure during a seismic event. An upgrade to the current connection would be to install metal brackets as per current building practices. Any work performed should be done by qualified contractor.
Photo 67-1 Bottom board was pinned to the concrete and noted to be ground contact rated lumber, posts were toe-nailed to the bottom board. Code does not dictate specific fasteners but does require positive connection, Better building practices recommend metal brackets that provides structural stability and separation between wood and concrete components
68) Unconditioned crawl space (general information and limitations): When present, underfloor insulation, ducting, piping or wiring can limit access and view. I report standing water and sump pumps that I see, or otherwise become aware of, during the course of the inspection. Since sump pumps are usually partially buried, they might go undiscovered. I do not guarantee that a crawl space has been dry in the past or assume that it will remain dry in the future. Any such assurances could only be provided after long-term monitoring, e.g., during varying seasonal conditions including heavy rainfall and melting snow. If a report references crawl space deficiencies, clients are encouraged to obtain cost and repair estimates. Professional contractors, after full assessment, should offer suggestions as to potentially beneficial repairs or upgrades. Further evaluation, by a licensed general contractor, could uncover problems that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.

Inspector attempts to view accessible crawl space areas, excluding low clearance space under decks and porches. Points of entry (floor, wall and outdoor hatch covers) might be blocked or obscured from view due to storage or certain design elements. Any substructure locations that were inaccessible, concealed, undiscovered and not entered are excluded. At client's discretion, ask property owners if they know of other substructure space was not identified in this report. If so, have those areas opened and inspected.
69) See "electrical section" in this report for concerns regarding improperly terminated conductors at crawlspaces.
Interior AreasTable of contents
Status of secondary egress-ingress at bedroom(s): Window sizing, and height over floor and/or door placement, is in general accordance with current safety guidelines
Properly designed/installed traps at sinks: Yes, P-traps
Water shutoff valves seen at sink(s): Yes
Water shutoff valves for all toilet(s): Yes
Shutoff valve for dishwasher(s): Yes
Air-gap anti-backflow device(s) at dishwasher(s): Yes, typically minimally visible, so not verified as to connections
Dishwasher(s) opened, inside viewed: Yes
Range(s) opened, inside viewed: Yes
Range(s) prone to tipping forward: Yes, range is "tippy," a deficiency that can result in injury. Install anti-tip bracket(s) All units
Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm(s) present: Yes, not tested. Limitations apply
Smoke alarm(s) present: Yes, not tested. Limitations apply
Electricity "on" to kitchen appliance(s): Yes
Gas "on" to kitchen appliance(s): Not applicable
Mechanical ventilation (range hood or exhaust fan in kitchen): Yes, fan built in at microwave oven
Ceiling fan(s) operable: Yes, those fans that were checked ran. Visual limitations apply. Inspector cannot verify the means of attachment
Main entry doorbell operable: Yes
Floor surfaces/finishes: Common and typical such as:, carpet, tile/masonry, wood products/laminate
Wall surfaces/finishes: Common and typical such as:, drywall
Ceiling surfaces/finishes: Common and typical such as:, drywall
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: telephone, satellite, cable, antennas, sound systems, intercoms, low voltage wiring, media centers, trash compactors, life expectancy of products, behind appliances, identifying Chinese drywall, small cracks in tiles/adequacy of support under tile floors, suitability of floor covering for specific purpose, moisture and odors at inaccessible floor coverings and walls, surfaces behind wallpaper, inside covers at walls/floors or ceilings if hatches are obstructed or of undetermined purpose, shower pans, steam showers-baths, bidets, window coverings, blinds and power blinds, thermal seals at windows, safety glass placement, adequacy of emergency egress, determining insulation R-values, gas shutoff valves at stationary appliances, cosmetic issues, minor visual disruptions at walls and ceilings caused by truss uplift or a similar condition, oven doors and temperature/timer function, convection and warming drawers-ovens and burners, grills, griddles, appliance lights, refrigerator-freezer temperature, ice makers, fresh water or water filtration systems, ceiling fans, sufficiency of exhaust fans or vent hoods, central vacuum systems, overflows at fixtures, appliances except as referenced in the report, microbial bodies-mildew and mold, identifying bearing walls and calculating loads
Material and component identification: Materials and components such as, floor, wall, counter surfaces, cabinets, appliances, fixtures, doors, windows, etc. were consistent types, brands, etc. throughout all 5 units
70) Sinks inspection: Faucets at kitchen sinks at units #102, #103, and #105 were damaged. Drain stoppers were missing at multiple bathroom sinks. Some bathroom sinks were slow to drain. Bathroom sinks at the upper floor bathroom at unit #103 had reversed plumbing where hot and cold are reversed from current standards and label indicators on sink faucets. Typically hot would be to the left, which is correct and consistent with all her bathroom sinks with this exception at unit #103.
Grout at all kitchen and some bathroom counter backslashes has failed or deteriorated at many visible locations.
I recommend further review, and appropriate repairs, with work to be performed by a qualified plumber and or contractor as necessary.

Countertops, areas below sinks, sink basins were obscured by stored items to some degree at all units and cannot be fully evaluated.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A slow, intermittent or concealed leak may be undetectable at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at sinks and piping can result in interior damage. Caulk and/or grout around fixtures requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
Photo 70-1 Damage kitchen faucet at unit #102
Photo 70-2 Damage kitchen faucet handle at unit #103
Photo 70-3 Damage kitchen faucet at unit #105
Photo 70-4 Drain stopper is missing at multiple bathroom sinks
Photo 70-5 Bathroom sinks drain slowly at multiple bathrooms
Photo 70-6 Failed or deteriorated grout was noted at all kitchen and some bathroom counter backsplashes
Photo 70-7 Both sinks at the upper floor bathroom at unit #103 had reversed plumbing, hot and cold reversed.

Also note that personal belongings on countertops deter a full evaluation
Photo 70-8 Some visual limitations are unavoidable due to storage and personal belongings. These limitations occur at all units
71) Conducive conditionsToilet(s) inspection: A toilet of the upstairs bathroom in unit #102 was loose where it attached to the floor. Leaks can occur. Flooring, the subfloor or areas below make it damaged. Sewer gases can enter the living spaces. I recommend that a qualified party, such as a plumber remove the toilet for further evaluation and repair if necessary. A new wax ring should be installed in toilet should be securely anchored to the floor to prevent movement and leaking. Additionally, the tank fill spout at the hall bathroom at the upper floor of unit #104 was operational but appeared to be intermittent. The device was labeled as "anti--siphon" and could just be the functionality of that specific design. If concerned, while on-site for other plumbing issues, I recommend consulting with a qualified plumber.

General observation at all toilets: Caulking has either not been installed, damaged or deteriorated. Preferably, an installer will seal the front and sides of a toilet but leave a gap of a few inches at the back. The seal protects against moisture entry and is, also, hygienic in nature. The back of a fixture is left open so, if the wax ring-seal (under a toilet) leaks, a resident will be more likely to detect seepage and seek professional assistance. I recommend further evaluation, and appropriate repairs, with work to be completed by a qualified plumber.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A non-invasive moisture meter may be employed to check flooring at bases of toilets. Regardless, a slow, intermittent or concealed leak could be undetectable at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at toilets can result in interior damage. Depending on belongings present and flush mechanism attachment, inspector might not remove tank lids. Caulking or grout, around bases of toilets, requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
Photo 71-1 Toilet at the upstairs bathroom at unit #102 was loose to the floor
Photo 71-2 Tank fill spout at hall bathroom at upper floor in unit #104 was operational but appeared to be intermittent
Photo 71-3 12 toilets were noted and inspected at time of inspection. Moisture readings were taken at all bathroom floors and around toilets. No elevated moisture was noted.
72) The ranges are Whirlpool brand, gas electric. Where accessible, main burners heated, as did the oven and broiler elements. Some ranges were not fully evaluated due to pans on cooktop or in oven. However, all ranges tipped forward when pressure was applied. This is a safety concern, especially so for children, who might pull on or climb on the range. I recommend further review and appropriate repair: Install a standard anti-tip bracket to better secure the range. All work to be completed by qualified appliance installation-repair professional.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspector does not verify internal temperatures, the operation of timers, clocks, convection ovens, warmer burners or drawers, appliance lights, or seal/fit of gaskets. Due to potential pitfalls, I do not move appliances, remove drawers to view connections, gas valves, brackets, mounting hardware, etc. Upon taking occupancy, clients are encouraged to move appliances to obtain better access and view. If any issues are discovered, consult with knowledgeable repair persons.
73) Conducive conditionsTub(s)/shower(s) inspection: The gap, behind the tub spout at multiple bathtubs, could allow moisture entry into the walls. If a spout gap is small enough, caulking can be applied. A more permanent solution is to put in place an escutcheon trim plate that can be installed at the back of the spout. Additionally, escutcheon trim plate at multiple showers and bathtubs were loose at time of inspection. Also, shower faucet handle in the master bathroom of the upper floor at unit #105 had reversed plumbing where indicated at handle, hot and cold are reversed.

I recommend further assessment, and appropriate repairs, with work to be completed by a qualified plumber.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A slow, intermittent or concealed leak might not be readily apparent at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at fixtures can result in interior damage. Caulk and/or grout around fixtures requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
Photo 73-1 
Photo 73-2 Example of escutcheon trim plate gaps
Photo 73-3 Some escutcheon trim plates were loose
Photo 73-4 Reversed plumbing was noted at the shower faucet handle at master bedroom, unit #105
74) Carpeting at all units is loose. I recommend further review: As applicable, repair/re-stretch the carpet as necessary. All work to be completed by qualified carpet installation professional.

Loose carpeting was noted throughout the interior of all units. Due to significant amounts of furniture and stored items, not all carpet areas could be evaluated for further damage.
Photo 74-1 Loose carpet was noted at all units. Some existing ripples in carpeting could pose a tripping hazard. I recommend further review and necessary repairs by qualified carpet professional
75) The dishwasher are Whirlpool brand. All dishwashers appeared to be properly mounted to the counter an airgap at the drain was noted that all dishwasher drains. As the case with all dishwashers at this property, they were not operated due to dishes inside. No visual defects noted at time of inspection. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations. For additional information on air-gaps, please follow this link:

The inspector is otherwise occupied onsite. Therefore, any assessment of the performance of the dishwasher is limited in scope. I may be unable to determine if it is operating properly. If the device is turned on, at inspector's option, a slow or intermittent leak could go undetected.
76) There was "spring," a wow or bow, in the laminate floor covering In front of the kitchen sink in unit #105. To some degree this is typical, although spring can be indicative of, at the time of installation, materials being placed too close together -- not allowing space for future expansion or contraction. If concerned, discuss this matter, and possible modifications/repair options, with a qualified flooring contractor.
Photo 76-1 The unevenness in the floor in front of the sink in the kitchen at unit #105 could be possible moisture damage (no elevated moisture readings noted at time of inspection) and or failure to the laminate material. I recommend further review by qualified flooring professional
77) Interior doors: hardware at some interior doors were loose. Due to the quantity of loose hardware, it would be beyond the scope of the standard inspection to itemize each individual door and I recommend further evaluation by a qualified party to repair or replace door hardware as necessary.

Additionally some interior doors bind at the jamb, most notably a bathroom door and upstairs bedroom at unit #104, but not limited to. I recommend while on-site to repair loose hardware, qualified party also evaluates overall functionality of all interior doors and repair or replace as necessary. Other than a few sticky doors at the jamb and loose hardware no significant damage was noted to interior doors at time of inspection.
Photo 77-1 
Photo 77-2 
Photo 77-3 
78) Air vents are obstructed at some units. I recommend that on a case-by-case basis, qualified person evaluates exterior wall vents, remove any instructions, clean as necessary and recommend 2 times that vents be used to improve air quality at Interiors.
Photo 78-1 The event of the upper floor of unit #101 appears to be blocked
Photo 78-2 Interior view of vent, I recommend may be maintained.
79) Interior (recommendations, general information and limitations): The inspector views walls, ceilings, floors and assesses the condition of a representative number of windows, doors, cabinets, and electrical components. When belongings are present, access to or the view of numerous areas might be obstructed by appliances, furniture, window coverings and breakables. Inspector does not move appliances or furniture. After personal items have been removed, problems that were not identified at the time of the inspection might become apparent. I am focusing on significant concerns and do not dwell on cosmetic matters that the discerning purchaser is probably already aware of such as nail-pops, scuff marks, blemishes indications of past wear and use, countertops, cupboards and drawers, housekeeping, or subtle household odors. With the exception of new construction, most residences will display signs of previous occupancy. Design and general appearance of interior decor are matters of personal taste. Therefore, it is client's responsibility to ascertain that interior features -- floor coverings, wall or ceiling surfaces, paint, cabinetry, appliances, etc. -- meet with personal expectations.
80) Consumer alarms: Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm(s) and smoke alarm(s) were present. By law in Washington, at the time of a real estate sale, an approved CO alarm is required outside or, if necessary to provide sufficient coverage, inside each separate sleeping area and (as applicable) on each floor level. Working smoke alarms, per general safety guidelines, should be put in each bedroom, any adjoining hallways, at every floor level and at enclosed interior staircases that lead to other occupied levels. Today's consumer alarms are inexpensive and, in the case of battery powered devices and those that plug-in, they can be installed by almost anyone. An inspector does not routinely test, count, or determine that an operable alarm is situated in every required location. Prior to assuming occupancy, clients should further assess alarms. If necessary, add/reposition/upgrade alarms so as to comply with state law and all prevailing safety protocols. All consumer alarms must be installed per manufacturers' specifications. Residents are advised to regularly test alarms, change batteries as needed, and replace any old or nonoperational alarms (10 years is the maximum estimated design life). Some fire safety professionals suggest that all smoke alarms should be of the photoelectric type vs. commonly seen ionization alarms that can be slow to react to smoke and fire.
81) The nonprofit organization "Consumer Reports," estimates that more than 15 million household products, including kitchen appliances, water heaters, furnaces, electric and gas heaters and fireplaces, wood burning appliances, etc., have been recalled in the past decade. It is not possible for an inspector to identify all potentially recalled consumer items. A user friendly search engine that was created to track, upon entering manufacturer specific data, recalled products is available at:

Another online tool, helpful when attempting to identify the age of most of the commonly seen kitchen and household appliances, may be accessed at this link:

Kitchen appliances are excluded per the state standards of practice. Any comments that reference the age/condition of appliances are offered as a courtesy. The status of appliances can change with little or no warning. Areas beside and/or behind appliances are usually not accessible and any such locations, or associated wiring, plumbing or connections, are excluded. Inspector does not determine compliance with manufacturers' specifications or predict remaining life of any appliance.
82) The refrigerator/freezers are Whirlpool brand. All refrigerators were opened, lights came on at the interior, doors properly functioned and door gaskets appeared to be in good condition at time of inspection. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life.
Ice makers and fresh water systems, when present, are excluded. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances and any associated systems meet with personal expectations.

Inspector did not assess the operation or cleanliness of coils, drip pans, appliance lights or the appropriateness of internal temperatures. Appliances will not be unplugged or moved to view connections, water lines or hookups. Periodically, coils, drip pans and interior surfaces require cleaning.
83) The range exhaust fan were turned on and noted to be ducted to the exterior. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Fans might be run to determine functionality. Seldom is it feasible for inspector to verify that every fan is "blowing air" to the outdoors. Conditions change, fans and connections should be monitored to make sure that ducts remain attached in attic or substructure areas. Any work to be completed by qualified party.
84) The microwave ovens are Whirlpool brand. No defects noted to microwave ovens at time of inspection. Lights came on at the interior, turntables were noted in the cup of water was warmed during a brief operation.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspector might turn on the appliance and attempt to heat a cup of water. I do not verify the operation of timers, clocks, appliance lights, or seal/fit of gaskets.
85) The food disposal was turned on. The devices were operational with the switch on the wall. Power supply appeared to be proper and no significant staining were noted at drain connections The average design life of a disposal is 10 to 12 years, actual lifespan may vary. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspection procedure: Inspector might run a disposal to determine if it operates and to check for leaks. I do not put food in a disposal to test grinding capabilities. On occasion, a jammed or bound disposal can be cleared by first turning off the circuit breaker to the device and then inserting a wrench into the underside of the disposal and spinning the mechanism. Any work or repairs to be performed by qualified plumber.
86) All ceiling fan(s) were operable when tested. During the course of an inspection, it is not possible to verify the sufficiency of fan attachment to a ceiling or structure, since any means of attachment is concealed from view. Lights/fixtures, when present at ceiling fans, are excluded. Note some light bulbs at ceiling fans appeared to be dead at time of inspection.
87) Interior exhaust fans that were tested, at bathrooms and laundry, ran when they were turned on. To better control moisture-humidity in baths with tubs and/or showers, where 60 minute timer switches are not present, consider installing timer switches in place of ordinary wall switches -- so bath exhaust fans will move air, expel steam, even after occupants have vacated bathrooms. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Periodically, small fans require cleaning, lubrication or, eventual, motor replacement. Any work to be completed by qualified parties.

A representative number of fans are performance tested. Seldom is it feasible for inspector to verify that every fan is "blowing air" to the outdoors. Ducts might be configured in wyes (restrictive and a less than optimal situation) with more than one fan sharing a single hood. Conditions change, fans and connections should be monitored to make sure that ducts remain attached in attic or substructure areas.
Photo 87-1 Most all grill covers to bathroom and laundry fans were in need of cleaning.
Photo 87-2 

[b]Helpful Home Maintenance Check List for a Healthier Home[b]
The following is a general maintenance guide for homeowners, some tips may not be relevant to your home. Recommend a common sense approach to this list and overall home maintenance.


1. Vacuum and clean all return air ducts/grills.
2. Purge garbage disposal by first filling kitchen sink with clean water, then turn on food disposer until water is drained through.
3. Change/clean air conditioning return filters monthly. This will help keep your air cleaner and system running more efficiently. Clogged air filters will make your system operate longer than required, thereby increasing your monthly bills.
4. Wash refrigerator/freezer interior walls and door liner with solution of 1-quart warm water: 2 tablespoons of baking soda and wipe dry.
5. Clean dishwasher filter (if provided), usually at lower spray arm, and wipe door gasket clean with a damp cloth.
6. Inspect lighting fixtures and replace blown light bulbs.
7. Clean clothes drier lint traps and or ducts to reduce fire risk.
8. Clean toaster oven crumb tray.


1.Inspect exterior doors to ensure they are weather tight. Adjust or replace weather stripping as needed.
2. Service doors (incl. garage doors) and drawers, clean and lubricate latches, hinges and guides.
3. Inspect and repair exterior caulking around windows, doors, and siding.
4. Replace/clean central heating system (furnace) filters.
5. Re-tighten knobs on kitchen cabinets, don't overtighten.


1. Have heating and air-conditioning systems inspected and serviced by licensed contractor.
2. Inspect and test smoke alarms and carbon monoxide detectors and replace back up batteries.
3. Check (GFCI) ground fault interrupted circuits.
4. Inspect and maintain proper drainage around home. Clean gutters and down-pipes and ensure water is flowing away from your home.
5. Inspect home for rodent droppings or other pests. Have home treated as needed.
6. Test sump pump for reliable operation, especially before any rainy season.
7. Wash fan housing and metal filter connected to range hood exhaust fans. These can be safely washed by placing them inside the dishwasher.
8. Vacuum coils behind refrigerator/freezer to remove dust; this will improve efficiency of unit.
9. Tap off a bucket of water from the hot water heater until it runs clean.


1. Inspect and repair settling cracks (if necessary).
2. Inspect and lubricate garage door tracks.
3. Inspect exterior paint for cracking and wear. Repaint or seal as needed.
4. Drain and refill water heater.
5. Trip main breaker on electric panel.
6. Inspect all electric cords and replace if necessary.
7. Inspect attic for water damage, birds, and rodents.
8. Inspect basement for moisture/mold and wood rot.
9. Inspect attic for signs of roof leaks or water damage, bird nests, rodent or squirrel nests, and clean if necessary.
10. Change water filters and have water softeners serviced.
11. Inspect roof flashings, chimney caps, shingles(for mold and damage) and caulking for possible damage.
12. Pressure wash deck, walkways and driveway.
13. Reseal wood decks with preservative and inspect and secure nails that may be protruding out. Nails have a tendency to pop out after very cold weather conditions.
14. Clean or replace oil filter(oil fired burner only).
15. Inspect outside electrical service feeder for exposed bare wires and tree interference.
16. Inspect basement/crawl space area for signs of termites and/or other wood-boring insects.
17. Use hose to wash off dirt from coil and fan in heat pump/condenser locate outside of house.
18. Inspect all hoses(and replace if necessary) connected to laundry washer unit.
19. Clean and seal ceramic tile grout lines in bathrooms/toilets/kitchen.
20. Check caulking at tub and shower, and replace if necessary.
21. Wash and blow clean bathroom exhaust fan grill and fan blades.
22. Wash windows(exterior and interior), screens, seals and ledges. Repair if necessary.
23. Clean and lubricate sliding glass door tracks and window tracks.
24. Check stucco joints around doors and windows.
25. Inspect the dishwasher's motor spin seal, and replace if necessary.
26. Inspect laundry washer, water fill hoses for cracks, blisters, corroded fittings and leaks.
27. Place beeswax or paraffin on built-in kitchen cabinets that have wooden guides.
28. Inspect for creosote deposits in the fireplace flue liner, these are black or brown residue of combustion that collects on the inner surfaces. If the buildup is more than 1/8 inch, remove it.
29. Vacuum around the gas hot water heater (especially near furnace) to remove dirt and grime.

Tips for clogged drains:

Keeping the Drains Clear:
1. By pouring a pot of hot water down the drain once a week will melt away any fat or grease that may have built up in the drain line or P-trap.
2. If you have a clogged drain, just pour a 1/2 cup of baking soda and 1/2 cup of white vinegar down the drain. Cover the drain and let the mixture sit for a few minutes, then pour a pot of hot water down the drain. This will break down fats and keep the drains smelling fresh.
3. Every six months, keep your drains clean by using a copper sulfide or sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaner, or other recommended drain cleaner available from your local store.

Other safety tips:

Ensure that you know where the following items are located:
1. Emergency contact telephone numbers.
2. Fire extinguishers and water hose pipes.
3. Heating gas/fuel main shutoff valve.
4. Main electrical disconnect circuit breaker (breaker box/service panel).
5. Main drain line clean out.
6. Main water shut off valve.
7. All window and door exits.

In addition to the above, carry out the following monthly safety checks:
Some of these items may have already be included in the home maintenance list, but these monthly safety checks are advisable for safety reasons:
1. Test ground fault circuit interrupter receptacles(GFCI's).
2. Test smoke and carbon monoxide alarms and replace batteries if necessary.
3. Inspect and lubricate (if necessary) all emergency exits, including windows and doors.
4. Inspection of heating unit and water heater for visual integrity.

Estimated life spans of most Home appliance:

1.Dishwasher water valves: 3-7 years
2.Range and oven: 18-20 years
3.Garbage disposal: 10 years
4.Microwave: 10 years
5.Refrigerator: 18-20 years
6.Laundry washer: 14 years
7.Laundry drier: 14 years
8.Refrigerator/Freezer: 18-20 years
9.Central air conditioner system: 15 years
10.Window mounted air conditioning system: 8 years
11.Bathtub/Sink: 50 years
12.Garage door opener: 10 years
13.Laundry water fill hoses: 3-5 years
14.Trash compactor: 10 years

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