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ALL HOME INSPECTION

Website: http://www.4allhomeinspect.com
Email: downs110@gmail.com
Phone: (253) 315-0057 · (253) 941-9888
Inspector: Mike Downs
WA State Dept. of Licensing #507

 

Home Inspection Report
2014001

Client(s):  Client Name
Property address:  Older home
Anywhere, WA
Inspection date:  Friday, January 09, 2015

This report published on Sunday, January 11, 2015 5:58:08 PM PST

This report is the exclusive property of this inspection company and the client listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized persons is prohibited.
How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas.  Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type.  Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Concern typeSafetyPoses a safety concern
Concern typeRepair/ReplaceRecommend repairing or replacing
Concern typeRepair/MaintainRecommend repair and/or maintenance
Concern typeMinor defectCorrection usually involves a minor expense
Concern typeMaintainRecommend ongoing maintenance
Concern typeEvaluateRecommend evaluation by a specialist
Concern typeMonitorRecommend monitoring in the future
Concern typeCommentFor your information
Concern typeDamageDamage caused by wood destroying insects or organisms (Rot, carpenter ant galleries, etc.)
Concern typeConducive conditionsConditions conducive for wood destroying insects or organisms (Wood-soil contact, shrubs in contact with siding, roof or plumbing leaks, etc.)

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at http://www.reporthost.com/glossary.asp

Table of Contents
General Information
Grounds
Exterior and Foundation
Crawl Space
Roof
Attic and Roof Structure
Garage
Electric
Plumbing / Fuel Systems
Water Heater
Heating, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC)
Stove, Chimneys and Flues
Kitchen
Bathrooms, Laundry and Sinks
Interior, Doors and Windows


General Information
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Time started: 9:30 AM
Time finished: 12:00 PM
Present during inspection: Client, Realtor
Client present for discussion at end of inspection: Yes
Weather conditions during inspection: Rain
Temperature during inspection: Cold
Ground condition: Wet
Recent weather: Rain
Overnight temperature: Cold
Inspection fee: $410.00
Payment method: Cash
Buildings inspected: One house
Age of main building: 1944
Source for main building age: Municipal records or property listing
Occupied: No, Furniture or stored items were present
1) Structures built prior to the mid 1980s may contain lead and/or asbestos. Lead is commonly found in paint and in some plumbing components. The EPA does not recognize newer coats of paint as encapsulating older coats of lead-based paint. Asbestos is commonly found in various building materials such as insulation, siding, and/or floor and ceiling tiles. Laws were passed in 1978 to prohibit usage of lead and asbestos, but stocks of materials containing these substances remained in use for a number of years thereafter. Both lead and asbestos are known health hazards. Evaluating for the presence of lead and/or asbestos is beyond the scope of this inspection. Any mention of these materials in this report is made as a courtesy only, and meant to refer the client to a specialist. Consult with specialists as necessary, such as industrial hygienists, professional labs and/or abatement specialists for this type of evaluation. For information on lead, asbestos and other hazardous materials in homes, visit:
http://www.epa.gov
http://www.cpsc.gov
http://www.cdc.gov
2) Evidence of rodent infestation was found in the form of feces in the crawl space. Consult with the property owner about this. A qualified person should make repairs to seal openings in the structure, set traps, and clean rodent waste as necessary. Recommend following guidelines in these Center for Disease Control articles:
http://www.cdc.gov/rodents/prevent_infestations/seal_up.html
http://www.cdc.gov/rodents/prevent_infestations/trap_up.html
http://www.cdc.gov/rodents/prevent_infestations/clean_up.html
3) Some areas and items at this property were obscured by furniture and/or stored items. This often includes but is not limited to walls, floors, windows, inside and under cabinets, under sinks, on counter tops, in closets, behind window coverings, under rugs or carpets, and under or behind furniture. Areas around the exterior, under the structure, in the garage and in the attic may also be obscured by stored items. The inspector in general does not move personal belongings, furnishings, carpets or appliances. When furnishings, stored items or debris are present, all areas or items that are obscured, concealed or not readily accessible are excluded from the inspection. The client should be aware that when furnishings, stored items or debris are eventually moved, damage or problems that were not noted during the inspection may be found.
Grounds
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Limitations: Unless specifically included in the inspection, the following items and any related equipment, controls, electric systems and/or plumbing systems are excluded from this inspection: detached buildings or structures; fences and gates; retaining walls; underground drainage systems, catch basins or concealed sump pumps; swimming pools and related safety equipment, spas, hot tubs or saunas; whether deck, balcony and/or stair membranes are watertight; trees, landscaping, properties of soil, soil stability, erosion and erosion control; ponds, water features, irrigation or yard sprinkler systems; sport courts, playground, recreation or leisure equipment; areas below the exterior structures with less than 3 feet of vertical clearance; invisible fencing; sea walls, docks and boathouses; retractable awnings. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only.
Site profile: Level
Condition of driveway: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Driveway material: Poured in place concrete
Condition of sidewalks and/or patios: Appeared serviceable
4) Cracks, holes, settlement, heaving and/or deterioration were found in the driveway. Recommend that qualified contractor repair as necessary.
5) Vegetation was overgrown around equipment for one or more utilities such as gas or electric meters. Vegetation should be pruned or removed as necessary to allow unobstructed access.
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6) Minor deterioration (e.g. cracks, holes, settlement, heaving) was found in sidewalks or patios, but no trip hazards were found. The client may wish to have repairs made for cosmetic reasons.
Exterior and Foundation
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Limitations: The inspector performs a visual inspection of accessible components or systems at the exterior. Items excluded from this inspection include below-grade foundation walls and footings; foundations, exterior surfaces or components obscured by vegetation, stored items or debris; wall structures obscured by coverings such as siding or trim. Some items such as siding, trim, soffits, vents and windows are often high off the ground, and may be viewed using binoculars from the ground or from a ladder. This may limit a full evaluation. Regarding foundations, some amount of cracking is normal in concrete slabs and foundation walls due to shrinkage and drying. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of seismic reinforcement.
Condition of wall exterior covering: Appeared serviceable, Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Apparent wall structure: Wood frame
Wall covering: Wood
Condition of foundation and footings: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Apparent foundation type: Crawl space
Foundation/stem wall material: Poured in place concrete
Footing material (under foundation stem wall): Poured in place concrete
Anchor bolts or hold downs for seismic reinforcement: None visible
7) Damage Fungal rot was found at one or more window frames. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.
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8) Conducive conditions Many sections of siding and/or trim were deteriorated, split and/or warped. Water intrusion can occur and create conditions conducive to wood destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install siding or trim as necessary.
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9) One or more support posts were not positively secured to the footing below. While this is common in older homes, current standards call for positive connections between support posts and footings below for seismic reinforcement when support posts are taller than 48 inches. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices. For example, by installing metal brackets and anchors connecting posts and footings.
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10) Conducive conditions Soil was in contact with or less than 6 inches from siding, trim or structural wood. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend grading or removing soil as necessary to maintain a 6-inch clearance. If not possible, then recommend replacing untreated wood with pressure-treated wood. Installation of borate-based products such as Impel rods can also reduce the likelihood of rot or infestation if soil cannot be removed. Note that damage from fungal rot and/or insects may be found when soil is removed, and repairs may be necessary.
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11) Concrete blocks were used as pier blocks below support posts or beams, and one or more blocks were positioned so the hollow channels were horizontal rather than vertical. Concrete blocks are designed to bear loads with the hollow channels positioned vertically. When installed sideways blocks can crush or collapse under load. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices.
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12) Conducive conditions Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines was in contact with or close to the building exterior. Vegetation can serve as a pathway for wood-destroying insects and can retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend pruning, moving or removing vegetation as necessary to maintain at least 6 inches of space between it and the building exterior. A 1-foot clearance is better.
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13) Conducive conditions Caulk was deteriorated in some areas. For example, around windows and/or around doors. Recommend that a qualified person renew or install caulk as necessary. Where gaps are wider than 1/4 inch, an appropriate material other than caulk should be used. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/_docs/FPL_Caulking_Ins_Outs.pdf
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Crawl Space
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Limitations: Structural components such as joists and beams, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by under-floor insulation are excluded from this inspection. The inspector does not determine if support posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing.

The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that water will not accumulate in the crawl spaces in the future. Complete access to all crawl space areas during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so.

The inspector attempts to locate all crawl space access points and areas. Access points may be obscured or otherwise hidden by furnishings or stored items. In such cases, the client should ask the property owner where all access points are that are not described in this inspection, and have those areas inspected. Note that crawl space areas should be checked at least annually for water intrusion, plumbing leaks and pest activity.
Crawl space inspection method: Traversed
Location of crawl space access point: Building exterior
Condition of floor substructure above crawl space: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Pier or support post material: Wood
Beam material: Solid wood
Floor structure: Solid wood joists
Condition of insulation underneath floor above: Not applicable, none installed
Condition of vapor barrier: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Vapor barrier present: Partial
Condition of crawl space ventilation: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Ventilation type: Unconditioned space, with vents
14) Damage Fungal rot was found at one or more sections of floor sheathing. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.
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15) Conducive conditions Standing water was found at one or more locations in the crawl space. Water from crawl spaces can evaporate and enter the structure above causing high levels of moisture in the structure. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. While a minor amount of seasonal water is commonly found in crawl spaces, significant amounts should not be present.

Rain runoff is the most common cause of wet crawl spaces, but water can come from other sources such as groundwater or underground springs. Recommend that a qualified person correct any issues related to outside perimeter grading and/or roof drainage (see any other comments about this in this report). If standing water persists, then recommend that a qualified contractor who specializes in drainage issues evaluate and repair as necessary. Typically such repairs include:
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16) Conducive conditions One or more crawl space vents were blocked by debris. This restricts ventilation in the crawl space and can result in increased levels of moisture inside. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Materials or items blocking vents should be removed as necessary.
17) One or more support posts were not positively secured to the beam above. While this is common in older homes, current standards require positive connections between support posts and beams above for earthquake reinforcement. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices. For example, by installing metal plates, plywood gussets or dimensional lumber connecting posts and beams.
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18) No insulation was installed under the floor above the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation for better energy efficiency and per standard building practices. Typically this is R-19 rated fiberglass batt with the attached facing installed against the warm (floor) side.
19) One or more support posts appear to have been added since the original construction based on the inspector's observations. Such posts may have been added to reduce bounce or sag in floors above. Consult with the property owner about this, or that a qualified contractor evaluate and make permanent repairs per standard building practices if necessary.
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20) Conducive conditions The vapor barrier in some areas of the crawl space was loose or askew and/or missing. Soil was exposed as a result and will allow water from the soil to evaporate up into the structure. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. A 6 mil black plastic sheet should be placed over all exposed soil with seams overlapped to 24 inches, and not in contact with any wood structural components. The sheeting should be held in place with bricks or stones, not wood. Recommend that a qualified person replace or repair the vapor barrier where necessary and per standard building practices.
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21) The outdoor crawl space access hatch was substandard. Water and/or vermin can enter the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person replace, install or repair the hatch where necessary.
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22) One or more joists were spliced with "sistered" lumber, and no support post was installed below. Sistering is a common repair practice where additional pieces of lumber are attached to spliced pieces. Such repairs result in a component that's weaker than the original joist and should be reinforced with a support post below. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices. For example, by installing support posts and footing below.
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Roof
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Limitations: The following items or areas are not included in this inspection: areas that could not be traversed or viewed clearly due to lack of access; solar roofing components. Any comments made regarding these items are made as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on the roof surface material, nor guarantee that leaks have not occurred in the roof surface, skylights or roof penetrations in the past. Regarding roof leaks, only active leaks, visible evidence of possible sources of leaks, and evidence of past leaks observed during the inspection are reported on as part of this inspection. The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that leaks will not occur in the future. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. Regarding the roof drainage system, unless the inspection was conducted during and after prolonged periods of heavy rain, the inspector was unable to determine if gutters, downspouts and extensions performed adequately or were leak-free.
Inspector's estimate of roof surface age: 10 years old
Roof inspection method: Viewed from ground with binoculars
Condition of roof surface material: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Roof surface material: Asphalt or fiberglass composition shingles
Roof type: Gable
Apparent number of layers of roof surface material: One
Condition of exposed flashings: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of gutters, downspouts and extensions: Appeared serviceable
Gutter and downspout material: Metal
Gutter and downspout installation: Full
23) Conducive conditions Flashings at the base of one or more chimneys were loose. Leaks can occur as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.
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24) Conducive conditions Significant amounts of debris have accumulated in one or more gutters or downspouts. Gutters can overflow and cause water to come in contact with the building exterior, or water can accumulate around the foundation. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend cleaning gutters and downspouts now and as necessary in the future.
25) Conducive conditions Significant amounts of debris such as leaves, needles, seeds, etc. have accumulated on the roof surface. Water may not flow easily off the roof, and can enter gaps in the roof surface. Leaks can occur as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend cleaning debris from the roof surface now and as necessary in the future.
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26) Conducive conditions Moss was growing on the roof. As a result, shingles can lift or be damaged. Leaks can result and/or the roof surface can fail prematurely. Efforts should be made to kill the moss during its growing season (wet months). Typically, zinc or phosphate-based chemicals are used for this and must be applied periodically. For information on various moss treatment products and their pros and cons, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=moss+on+roof
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27) Conducive conditions Vegetation such as trees, shrubs, and/or vines overhung the roof surface or were in contact with the roof edge. Organic debris such as leaves or needles are likely to accumulate in gutters and on the roof surface. Gutters can overflow and cause water to come in contact with the building exterior or water can accumulate around the foundation. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Vegetation in contact with the roof can damage the roof surface and/or the roof drainage system. Recommend pruning vegetation so as to not be in contact with the roof and to not overhang the roof surface. If vegetation is too tall then it should be pruned at least 10 feet above the roof surface.
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28) Normally the inspector attempts to traverse roof surfaces during the inspection. However, due to safety concerns about the roof configuration and/or slippery conditions, the inspector was unable to traverse the roof and wasn't able to fully evaluate the entire roof surface.
Attic and Roof Structure
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Limitations: The following items or areas are not included in this inspection: areas that could not be traversed or viewed clearly due to lack of access; areas and components obscured by insulation. Any comments made regarding these items are made as a courtesy only. The inspector does not determine the adequacy of the attic ventilation system. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high/low temperatures, high/low humidity, high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. The inspector is not a licensed engineer and does not determine the adequacy of roof structure components such as trusses, rafters or ceiling beams, or their spacing or sizing.
Attic inspection method: Viewed from hatches, Partially traversed
Location of attic access point A: Bedroom, second floor
Location of attic access point B: Bedroom, second floor
Location of attic access point C: Bedroom, second floor
Location of attic access point D: Second floor stairway
Condition of roof structure: Appeared serviceable
Roof structure type: Rafters
Ceiling structure: Ceiling joists
Condition of insulation in attic (ceiling, skylight chase, etc.): Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Ceiling insulation material: Fiberglass roll or batt
Approximate attic insulation R value (may vary in areas): R-11
Condition of roof ventilation: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Roof ventilation type: Box vents (roof jacks), Gable end vents
29) Conducive conditions The facing on fiberglass batt insulation in the attic was exposed. In most cases, the facing is flammable and poses a fire hazard. Also, the facing typically acts as a vapor barrier, and if located away from the interior surfaces can trap moisture from condensation in the cavity between the facing and the interior spaces. This can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. For example, by reinstalling or replacing insulation per standard building practices and per the manufacturer's instructions.

Note that the inspector was unable to evaluate areas obscured by insulation to determine if any damage (e.g. rot, insect infestation) has already occurred due to moisture accumulation. When insulation repairs are made, recommend that the exposed structure be evaluated and repairs made if necessary.
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30) Conducive conditions One or more sections of the roof structure appeared to have substandard ventilation, there were too few vents. This can result in high attic and roof surface temperatures, reduce the life of the roof covering materials, and/or increase cooling costs. High levels of moisture are also likely to accumulate in the roof structure or attic, and can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Standard building practices require one free square foot of ventilation for every 150 square feet of attic space, and that vents be evenly distributed between the lowest points of the roof structure and the highest points to promote air circulation. Often this means that both soffit vents and ridge or gable end vents are installed. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair per standard building practices.
31) The ceiling insulation installed in the attic was substandard and appeared to have an R rating (R-11) that's significantly less than current standards (R-38). Heating and cooling costs will likely be higher due to poor energy efficiency. Recommend that a qualified contractor install insulation for better energy efficiency and per standard building practices.
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32) The attic access hatches were not insulated. Weatherstripping was also missing. Recommend installing weatherstripping and insulation per current standards at hatches for better energy efficiency. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/_docs/atticaccess.pdf
33) The ceiling insulation in one or more areas of the attic was missing and/or substandard. Heating and cooling costs may be higher due to reduced energy efficiency. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install insulation as necessary and per standard building practices (typically R-38).
34) What appeared to be past water stains were visible on the roof structure at one or more locations in the attic. However, no elevated levels of moisture were found at these stains during the inspection. The stains may have been caused by a past leak. Recommend asking the property owner about past leaks. Monitor these areas in the future, especially after heavy rains to determine if active leaks exist. If leaks are found, recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.
Garage
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Limitations: The inspector does not determine the adequacy of firewall ratings. Requirements for ventilation in garages vary between municipalities.
Condition of garage to house door: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Type of door between garage and house: Wood, Glass
Condition of garage vehicle door: Appeared serviceable
Type of garage vehicle door: Sectional
Number of vehicle doors: One
Condition of automatic opener: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Mechanical auto-reverse operable (reverses when meeting reasonable resistance during closing): Yes
Condition of garage floor: Appeared serviceable
Condition of garage interior: Appeared serviceable
Garage ventilation: Inadequate, None visible
35) The door between the garage and the house did not appear to be fire resistant, or the inspector was unable to verify that it was via a label. This is a potential safety hazard. House to garage doors, to prevent fire and fumes from spreading from the garage into interior living space, should be constructed of fire-resistant materials. Doors, generally considered to be suitable for the purpose, are solid core wood, steel, honeycomb steel or a door that has been factory labeled as fire rated. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace or repair the door and, at that time, make any other corrections that might be required to provide suitable fire resistance between the garage and the dwelling per standard building practices. For more information, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=attached+garage+fire+resistance
36) No "photo eye" sensors were installed for one or more garage vehicle doors' automatic opener. These have been required on all automatic door openers since 1993 and improve safety by triggering the door's auto-reverse feature without need for the door to come in contact with the object, person or animal that is preventing the door from closing. Recommend that a qualified contractor install "photo eye" sensors where missing for improved safety. For more information on garage door safety issues, visit:
http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/523.html
37) Substandard shelving was installed. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of collapse, especially if heavy items are stored on the shelves. Recommend that a qualified person remove shelving, or repair or modify as necessary.
38) Minor cracks were found in the concrete slab floor. These are common and appeared to be only a cosmetic issue.
39) Many wall and floor areas were obscured by stored items and couldn't be fully evaluated.
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Electric
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: generator systems, transfer switches, surge suppressors, inaccessible or concealed wiring; underground utilities and systems; low-voltage lighting or lighting on timers or sensors. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of grounding or bonding, if this system has an adequate capacity for the client's specific or anticipated needs, or if this system has any reserve capacity for additions or expansion. The inspector does not operate circuit breakers as part of the inspection, and does not install or change light bulbs. The inspector does not evaluate every wall switch or receptacle, but instead tests a representative number of them per various standards of practice. When furnishings, stored items or child-protective caps are present some receptacles are usually inaccessible and are not tested; these are excluded from this inspection. Receptacles that are not of standard 110 volt configuration, including 240-volt dryer receptacles, are not tested and are excluded. The functionality of, power source for and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide detectors is not determined as part of this inspection. Upon taking occupancy, proper operating and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide detectors should be verified and batteries should be changed. These devices have a limited lifespan and should be replaced every 10 years. The inspector attempts to locate and evaluate all main and sub-panels. However, panels are often concealed. If panels are found after the inspection, a qualified electrician should evaluate and repair if necessary. The inspector attempts to determine the overall electrical service size, but such estimates are not guaranteed because the overall capacity may be diminished by lesser-rated components in the system. Any repairs recommended should be made by a licensed electrician.
Electric service condition: Appeared serviceable
Primary service type: Overhead
Number of service conductors: 3
Service voltage (volts): 120-240
Estimated service amperage: 200
Primary service overload protection type: Circuit breakers
System ground: Ground rod(s) in soil, Cold water supply pipes
Condition of main service panel: Appeared serviceable
Condition of sub: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Location of main service panel A: Kitchen
Location of sub-panel B: Garage
Location of main disconnect: Breaker at top of main service panel
Condition of branch circuit wiring: Serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Branch circuit wiring type: Non-metallic sheathed, Knob and tube
Solid strand aluminum branch circuit wiring present: None visible
40) Substandard wiring was found in the garage. For example, loose wiring. This is a safety hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and repair as necessary and per standard building practices.
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41) Energized "knob and tube" wiring was found at one or more locations. This type of wiring was commonly installed prior to 1950. It is ungrounded and considered unsafe by today's standards. Over time, the wire's insulation can become brittle and fall apart or wear thin, resulting in exposed conductors and a risk of shock and/or fire. This wiring is also easily damaged by covering it with insulation (a common practice), and incorrectly tapping new wiring into it.

It is not within the scope of this inspection to determine what percentage of this property's wiring is of the knob-and-tube type, or to determine what percentage of the knob and tube wiring is energized versus abandoned. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate this wiring and make repairs or replace wiring as necessary.

Note that some insurance companies may be unwilling to offer homeowner's insurance for properties with knob and tube wiring. Consult with your insurance carrier regarding this. For more information, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=knob+tube+wiring
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42) One or more electric receptacles (outlets) at the kitchen, garage and exterior had no visible ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection, or the inspector was unable to determine if GFCI protection was present. If not GFCI-protected, receptacles in wet areas pose a shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and install GFCI protection if necessary and per standard building practices. General guidelines for GFCI-protected receptacles include the following locations:For more information, visit:
http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/099.pdf
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43) One or more circuit breakers in panel B were "double tapped," where two or more wires were installed in the breaker's lug. Most breakers are designed for only one wire to be connected. This is a safety hazard since the lug bolt can tighten securely against one wire but leave others loose. Arcing, sparks and fires can result. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=double+tap+circuit+breaker
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44) One or more modern, 3-slot electric receptacles (outlets) were found with an open ground. Three-slot receptacles should have a hot, a neutral and a ground wire connected. Homeowners often install new 3-slot receptacles on older, 2-wire circuits that only have hot and neutral wires. This is a shock hazard when appliances that require a ground are used with these receptacles. Examples of such appliances include computers and related hardware, refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners, clothes washers, aquarium pumps, and electrically operated gardening tools. Where the electric system was installed prior to when grounded circuits were required (1960s), it is permissible to replace 3-slot receptacles with 2-slot receptacles to prevent appliances that require a ground from being plugged in to an ungrounded circuit. However, the client should be aware of this limitation when planning use for various rooms, such as an office. For newer electric systems, circuits should be repaired so grounded, 3-wire cables provide power to 3-slot receptacles. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.
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45) One or more smoke alarms were missing, damaged, or missing components. Smoke alarms should be replaced as necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/5077.html
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46) Smoke alarms were missing from bedrooms and hallways leading to bedrooms, on one or more levels and in the attached garage. Additional smoke alarms should be installed as necessary so a functioning detector exists in each hallway leading to bedrooms, in each bedroom, on each level and in any attached garage. For more information, visit:
http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/5077.html
47) One or more slots where circuit breakers are normally installed were open in panel B. Energized equipment was exposed and is a shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified person install closure covers where missing.
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48) Based on the age of this structure and the appearance of existing smoke alarms, the alarms may have been installed more than 10 years ago. According to National Fire Protection Association, aging smoke alarms don't operate as efficiently and often are the source for nuisance alarms. Older smoke alarms are estimated to have a 30% probability of failure within the first 10 years. Newer smoke alarms do better, but should be replaced after 10 years. Unless you know that the smoke alarms are new, replacing them when moving into a new residence is also recommended by NFPA. For more information, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=old+smoke+alarms
49) Branch circuit wiring installed in buildings built prior to the mid 1980s is typically rated for a maximum temperature of only 60 degrees Celsius. This includes non-metallic sheathed (Romex) wiring, and both BX and AC metal-clad flexible wiring. Knob and tube wiring, typically installed in homes built prior to 1950, may be rated for even lower maximum temperatures. Newer electric fixtures including lighting and fans typically require wiring rated for 90 degrees Celsius. Connecting newer fixtures to older, 60-degree-rated wiring is a potential fire hazard. Repairs for such conditions may involve replacing the last few feet of wiring to newer fixtures with new 90-degree-rated wire, and installing a junction box to join the old and new wiring.

It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if such incompatible components are installed, or to determine the extent to which they're installed. Based on the age of this building, the client should be aware of this safety hazard, both for existing fixtures and when planning to upgrade with newer fixtures. Consult with a qualified electrician for repairs as necessary.
50)   Photo of main electric panel, for your information
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Photo 50-1
 

Plumbing / Fuel Systems
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: private/shared wells and related equipment; private sewage disposal systems; hot tubs or spas; main, side and lateral sewer lines; gray water systems; pressure boosting systems; trap primers; incinerating or composting toilets; fire suppression systems; water softeners, conditioners or filtering systems; plumbing components concealed within the foundation or building structure, or in inaccessible areas such as below tubs; underground utilities and systems; overflow drains for tubs and sinks; backflow prevention devices. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not test for lead in the water supply, the water pipes or solder, does not determine if plumbing and fuel lines are adequately sized, and does not determine the existence or condition of underground or above-ground fuel tanks.
Condition of service and main line: Appeared serviceable
Location of main water meter: By street
Location of main water shut-off: Crawl space
Water service: Public
Service pipe material: Galvanized steel
Condition of supply lines: Near, at or beyond service life
Supply pipe material: Galvanized steel
Condition of drain pipes: Near, at or beyond service life
Drain pipe material: Galvanized steel
Condition of waste lines: Near, at or beyond service life
Waste pipe material: Galvanized steel, Cast iron
Location of plumbing clean-out: Crawl space
Vent pipe condition: Appeared serviceable
Vent pipe material: Galvanized steel
Sump pump installed: Yes
Condition of sump pump: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Sewage ejector pump installed: No
Condition of fuel system: Appeared serviceable
Location of main fuel shut-off valve: At gas meter
51) No check valve was visible on the sump pump's discharge pipe. Check valves prevent water in the discharge pipe from flowing back down into the sump pit after the pump shuts off. While not every installation requires a check valve, they are recommended where the discharge pipe is long, the vertical discharge is more than 7-8 feet, or the sump pump has a small pit. Recommend that a qualified contractor install a check valve. For more information on sump pump installations, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=installing+a+sump+pump
http://www.google.com/search?q=check+valve+for+sump+pump
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Photo 51-1
 

52) Some or all of the water supply and drain or vent pipes were made of galvanized steel. Based on the age of this structure and the 40-60 year useful life of this piping, it will likely need replacing in the future. Leaks can develop, flooding and/or water damage may occur, flow can be restricted due to scale accumulating inside the piping, and water may be rusty. Note that it is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine what percentage of the piping is older, galvanized steel, as much of it is concealed in wall, floor and/or ceiling cavities. Recommend the following:For more information, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=old+galvanized+pipes
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53) When on a public sewer system, the property owners are usually responsible for repairs to the side sewer and publicly owned lateral lines. Consult with the property owner regarding any past repairs or video scoping to these lines. Due to the age of the structure recommend that a qualified plumber inspect the waste lines using a video scope device to determine if they need repair or replacement. Note that repairs are often expensive due to the need for excavation.
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Photo 53-1
 

54) No battery backup system was found for the sump pump. If the power goes out during heavy rains, the sump pump won't be able to eliminate accumulated water. Consider installing a battery backup system for the sump pump.
Water Heater
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Limitations: Evaluation of and determining the adequacy or completeness of the following items are not included in this inspection: water recirculation pumps; solar water heating systems; Energy Smart or energy saver controls; catch pan drains. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on water heaters, does not determine if water heaters are appropriately sized, or perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit or a shut-off valve to be operated.
Condition of water heater: Appeared serviceable
Type: Tank
Energy source: Electricity
Estimated age: 2008
Capacity (in gallons): 50
Temperature-pressure relief valve installed: Yes
Manufacturer: Whirlpool
Location of water heater: Utility room, Closet
Hot water temperature tested: Yes
Water temperature (degrees Fahrenheit): 120
55)   Photos of water heater, for your information
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Photo 55-1
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Photo 55-2

56)   Water temperature of 120 degrees Fahrenheit was within the normal range of 110-120 degrees Fahrenheit, for your information
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Photo 56-1
 

Heating, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC)
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters; solar, coal or wood-fired heat systems; thermostat or temperature control accuracy and timed functions; heating components concealed within the building structure or in inaccessible areas; underground utilities and systems; safety devices and controls (due to automatic operation). Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on heating or cooling system components, does not determine if heating or cooling systems are appropriately sized, does not test coolant pressure, or perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit, a shut-off valve to be operated, a circuit breaker to be turned "on" or a serviceman's or oil emergency switch to be operated. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if furnace heat exchangers are intact and free of leaks. Condensation pans and drain lines may clog or leak at any time and should be monitored while in operation in the future. Where buildings contain furnishings or stored items, the inspector may not be able to verify that a heat source is present in all "liveable" rooms (e.g. bedrooms, kitchens and living/dining rooms).
General heating system type: Forced air furnace
General heating distribution type: Ducts and registers
Condition of forced air heating/(cooling) system: Appeared serviceable
Forced air heating system fuel type: Natural gas
Location of forced air furnace: Crawl space
Condition of furnace filter: Required replacement
Location for forced air filters: At end of air handler
Condition of forced air ducts and registers: Appeared serviceable
Condition of burners: Appeared serviceable
Condition of venting system: Appeared serviceable
Condition of combustion air supply: Appeared serviceable
Condition of controls: Appeared serviceable
57) The last service date of the gas forced air furnace appeared to be more than 1 year ago, or the inspector was unable to determine the last service date. Ask the property owner when it was last serviced. If unable to determine the last service date, or if this system was serviced more than 1 year ago, recommend that a qualified HVAC contractor inspect, clean, and service this system, and make repairs if necessary. For safety reasons, and because this system is fueled by gas, this servicing should be performed annually in the future. Any needed repairs noted in this report should be brought to the attention of the HVAC contractor when it's serviced. For more information visit:
http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PREREL/prhtml05/05017.html
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Photo 57-1
 

58) Recommend replacing or washing HVAC filters upon taking occupancy depending on the type of filters installed. Regardless of the type, recommend checking filters monthly in the future and replacing or washing them as necessary. How frequently they need replacing or washing depends on the type and quality of the filter, how the system is configured (e.g. always on vs. "Auto"), and on environmental factors (e.g. pets, smoking, frequency of house cleaning, number of occupants, the season).
Stove, Chimneys and Flues
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: coal stoves, gas logs, chimney flues (except where visible). Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of drafting or sizing in fireplace and stove flues, and also does not determine if prefabricated or zero-clearance fireplaces are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. The inspector does not perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit, and does not light fires. The inspector provides a basic visual examination of a chimney and any associated wood burning device. The National Fire Protection Association has stated that an in-depth Level 2 chimney inspection should be part of every sale or transfer of property with a wood-burning device. Such an inspection may reveal defects that are not apparent to the home inspector who is a generalist.
Condition of wood-burning stove: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Wood-burning stove type: Insert
Condition of chimneys and flues: Appeared serviceable
Wood-burning chimney type: Masonry
59) One or more wood stoves appeared to be old and had no visible EPA certification label. Wood stoves not certified by the EPA are typically much less efficient and much more polluting than modern, EPA-certified stoves. Some states, including Oregon, require that wood stoves with no EPA certification be removed when a home is sold. Insurance companies deny coverage because of them. Recommend that a qualified specialist evaluate to determine if the stove is certified, and to determine if it's installed safely. Recommend removing or replacing wood stoves that are not EPA-certified. For more information, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=non-certified+wood+stoves
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Photo 59-1
 

60) One or more wood-burning fireplaces or stoves were found at the property. When such devices are used, they should be professionally inspected and cleaned annually to prevent creosote build-up and to determine if repairs are needed. The National Fire Protection Association states that a "Level 2" chimney inspection should be performed with every sale or transfer of property with a wood-burning device. Recommend consulting with the property owner about recent and past servicing and repairs to all wood-burning devices and chimneys or flues at this property. Recommend that a qualified specialist evaluate all wood-burning devices and chimneys, and clean and repair as necessary. Note that if a wood stove insert is installed, it may need to be removed for such an evaluation. For more information, search for "chimney inspection" at:
http://www.csia.org/
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Photo 60-1
 

61) One or more masonry chimney crowns were worn. Crowns are meant to keep water off of the chimney structure and prevent damage from freeze-thaw cycles. Chimney crowns are commonly constructed by mounding concrete or mortar on the top chimney surface, however this is substandard. A properly constructed chimney crown should:Recommend that a qualified contractor repair or replace crowns as necessary, and per standard building practices.
62) Mortar at the brick chimney was deteriorated (e.g. loose, missing, cracked). As a result, water is likely to infiltrate the chimney structure and cause further damage. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. For example, by repointing the mortar.
Kitchen
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: household appliances such as stoves, ovens, cook tops, ranges, warming ovens, griddles, broilers, dishwashers, trash compactors, refrigerators, freezers, ice makers, hot water dispensers and water filters; appliance timers, clocks, cook functions, self and/or continuous cleaning operations, thermostat or temperature control accuracy, and lights. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of the remaining life of appliances, and does not determine the adequacy of operation of appliances. The inspector does not note appliance manufacturers, models or serial numbers and does not determine if appliances are subject to recalls. Areas and components behind and obscured by appliances are inaccessible and excluded from this inspection.
Condition of counters: Appeared serviceable
Condition of cabinets: Appeared serviceable
Condition of sinks and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of under-sink food disposal: Appeared serviceable
Condition of dishwasher: Appeared serviceable
Condition of range, cooktop: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Range, cooktop type: Electric
Condition of refrigerator: Appeared serviceable
Condition of microwave and exhaust hood: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
63) The range could tip forward. An anti-tip bracket may not be installed. This is a potential safety hazard since the range can tip forward when weight is applied to the open door, such as when a small child climbs on it or if heavy objects are dropped on it. Anti-tip brackets have been sold with all free-standing ranges since 1985. Recommend installing an anti-tip bracket to eliminate this safety hazard. For more information, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?q=range+anti-tip+bracket
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Photo 63-1
 

64) Substandard repairs were found at the sink drain (e.g. tape, sealant, non-standard components). Recommend that a qualified plumber repair per standard building practices.
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Photo 64-1
 

65) The clearance between the stove top and the base of the exhaust hood above was too low. While the recommended height varies per the hood manufacturer, standards usually call for a minimum of 24 inches of clearance. A low hood height can restrict visibility of the stove top. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices.
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Photo 65-1
 

Bathrooms, Laundry and Sinks
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: overflow drains for tubs and sinks; heated towel racks, saunas, steam generators, clothes washers, clothes dryers. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of washing machine drain lines, washing machine catch pan drain lines, or clothes dryer exhaust ducts. The inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves for sinks, toilets, bidets, clothes washers, etc. due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not determine if shower pans or tub and shower enclosures are water tight, or determine the completeness or operability of any gas piping to laundry appliances.
Location: Full bath
Condition of counters: Appeared serviceable
Condition of cabinets: Appeared serviceable
Condition of flooring: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of sinks and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable
Condition of toilets: Appeared serviceable
Condition of bathtubs and related plumbing: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of ventilation: None installed
Gas supply for laundry equipment present: No
240 volt receptacle for laundry equipment present: Yes
66) Damage The floor and wall by the bathtub had high moisture readings and was water-damaged. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, by making repairs to the sub-floor and wall if necessary and replacing flooring as necessary.
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67) Conducive conditions The bathroom with a shower or bathtub didn't have an exhaust fan installed. Moisture can accumulate and result in mold, bacteria or fungal growth. Even if the bathroom has a window that opens, it may not provide adequate ventilation, especially during cold weather when windows are closed or when wind blows air into the bathroom. Recommend that a qualified contractor install exhaust fans per standard building practices where missing in bathrooms with showers or bathtubs.
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Photo 67-1
 

68) Conducive conditions The laundry room didn't have an exhaust fan installed. Moisture can accumulate and result in mold, bacteria or fungal growth. Recommend that a qualified contractor install an exhaust fan per standard building practices.
69) Conducive conditions Gaps, no caulk, or substandard caulking were found between the bathtub and the floor, and the tub and walls. Water may penetrate these areas and cause damage. Recommend that a qualified person re-caulk or install caulking as necessary.
70) Rubber water supply hoses installed at the clothes washer are prone to bursting when deteriorated, which can result in flooding and significant water damage. Recommend upgrading to braided, stainless steel hoses.
71) The bathtub was worn, blemished or deteriorated.
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Interior, Doors and Windows
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: security, intercom and sound systems; communications wiring; central vacuum systems; elevators and stair lifts; cosmetic deficiencies such as nail-pops, scuff marks, dents, dings, blemishes or issues due to normal wear and tear in wall, floor and ceiling surfaces and coverings, or in equipment; deficiencies relating to interior decorating; low voltage and gas lighting systems. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not evaluate any areas or items which require moving stored items, furnishings, debris, equipment, floor coverings, insulation or similar materials. The inspector does not test for asbestos, lead, radon, mold, hazardous waste, urea formaldehyde urethane, or any other toxic substance. Some items such as window, drawer, cabinet door or closet door operability are tested on a sampled basis. The client should be aware that paint may obscure wall and ceiling defects, floor coverings may obscure floor defects, and furnishings may obscure wall, floor and floor covering defects. If furnishings were present during the inspection, recommend a full evaluation of walls, floors and ceilings that were previously obscured when possible. Determining the cause and/or source of odors is not within the scope of this inspection.
Condition of exterior entry doors: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Exterior door material: Wood
Condition of interior doors: Appeared serviceable
Condition of windows and skylights: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Types of windows: Vinyl, Wood, Multi-pane, Single-pane, Sliding, Single-hung, Fixed
Condition of walls and ceilings: Appeared serviceable, Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Wall type or covering: Drywall or plaster
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall or plaster
Condition of flooring: Appeared serviceable
Flooring type or covering: Wood or wood products, Laminate
Condition of stairs, handrails and guardrails: Appeared serviceable, Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
72) Treads for stairs at one or more locations were less than 10 inches deep and pose a fall or trip hazard. Stair treads should be at least 10 inches deep. At a minimum, be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices.
73) Handrails at one or more flights of stairs were not graspable and posed a fall hazard. Handrails should be 1 1/4 - 2 inches in diameter if round, or 2 5/8 inches or less in width if flat. Recommend that a qualified person install graspable handrails or modify existing handrails per standard building practices.
74) One or more handrails had no "returns" installed, where ends of handrails turn and connect to adjacent walls so objects or clothing will not catch on the open ends. This is a safety hazard. Recommend that a qualified person install returns per standard building practices.
75) Floors in one or more areas were sagging or springy. This can be caused by over-spanned, undersized or too few joists or beams, or too few support posts. Recommend that a qualified contractor and/or engineer evaluate further. Repairs should be performed by a qualified contractor.
76) Squeaking or creaking noises occur when walking on one or more sections of flooring. This is usually caused by substandard construction practices where the sub-floor decking is not adequately fastened to the framing below. For example, not enough glue was used and/or nails were used rather than screws. In most cases, this is only an annoyance rather than a structural problem. Various solutions such as Squeeeeek No More and Counter Snap fasteners exist to correct this. Repairs to eliminate the squeaks or creaks may be more or less difficult depending on the floor covering and the access to the underside of the sub-floor. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=squeaky+floors
77) One or more windows that were designed to open and close were difficult to open and close. Recommend that a qualified person repair windows as necessary so they open and close easily.
78) One or more ceilings were cracked. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.
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79) Trim or jambs around one or more exterior doors was damaged. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install as necessary.
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80) Minor cracks, nail pops and/or blemishes were found in walls and/or ceilings in one or more areas. Cracks and nail pops are common, are often caused by lumber shrinkage or minor settlement, and can be more or less noticeable depending on changes in humidity. They did not appear to be a structural concern, but the client may wish to repair these for aesthetic reasons. For recurring cracks, consider using an elastic crack covering product:
http://www.google.com/search?q=elastic+crack+cover
81) Screens were missing from some windows. These windows may not provide ventilation during months when insects are active.
This completes your home inspection report. Thank you for your business.