This report published on Friday, October 12, 2018 1:27:18 PM PDT
This report is the exclusive property of this inspection company and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized persons is prohibited.
How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas. Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type. Items of concern follow descriptive information.
Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Poses a safety hazard
Correction likely involves a significant expense
Recommend repairing or replacing
Recommend repair and/or maintenance
Correction likely involves only a minor expense
Recommend ongoing maintenance
Recommend evaluation by a specialist
Recommend monitoring in the future
For your information
Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at https://www.reporthost.com/glossary.asp
Client present for discussion at end of inspection: Yes
Inspector: John Dupras
Weather conditions during inspection: Rain
Temperature during inspection: Cool
Ground condition: Wet
Recent weather: Rain
Overnight temperature: Cool
Buildings inspected: One house
Age of main building: 56 years
Source for main building age: Municipal records or property listing
Front of building faces: Southwest
Main entrance faces: Southwest
Occupied: No, Furniture or stored items were present
Additions and modifications: Addition to structure. Recommend roofer evaluate roof construvtion. Old roof with shingles covered by new roof.
Source for additions and modifications: visualized
1) Structures built prior to the mid 1980s may contain lead and/or asbestos. Lead is commonly found in paint and in some plumbing components. The EPA does not recognize newer coats of paint as encapsulating older coats of lead-based paint. Asbestos is commonly found in various building materials such as insulation, siding, and/or floor and ceiling tiles. Laws were passed in 1978 to prohibit usage of lead and asbestos, but stocks of materials containing these substances remained in use for a number of years thereafter. Both lead and asbestos are known health hazards. Evaluating for the presence of lead and/or asbestos is beyond the scope of this inspection. Any mention of these materials in this report is made as a courtesy only, and meant to refer the client to a specialist. Consult with specialists as necessary, such as industrial hygienists, professional labs and/or abatement specialists for this type of evaluation. For information on lead, asbestos and other hazardous materials in homes, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?EPA http://www.reporthost.com/?CPSC http://www.reporthost.com/?CDC
2) Based on roof construction observed, additions to this property may have been made without the owner having attained permits or inspections from the municipality. Work may have been performed by someone other than a qualified contractor or person. Consult with the property owner about this, and if necessary research permits.
At worst case, if substantial work was performed without permits, this knowledge must be disclosed when the building is sold in the future. This can adversely affect future sales. Also, the local municipality could require costly alterations to bring the building into legal compliance or even require that the additions or modifications be removed.
3) Some areas and items at this property were obscured by furniture and/or stored items. This often includes but is not limited to walls, floors, windows, inside and under cabinets, under sinks, on counter tops, in closets, behind window coverings, under rugs or carpets, and under or behind furniture. Areas around the exterior, under the structure, in the garage and in the attic may also be obscured by stored items. The inspector in general does not move personal belongings, furnishings, carpets or appliances. When furnishings, stored items or debris are present, all areas or items that are obscured, concealed or not readily accessible are excluded from the inspection. The client should be aware that when furnishings, stored items or debris are eventually moved, damage or problems that were not noted during the inspection may be found.
Condition of stairs, handrails and guardrails: Appeared serviceable
Exterior stair material: Concrete
4) Flashing appeared to be missing from above one or more deck or porch ledger boards, or could not be verified. Missing flashing at this location can cause moisture to accumulate between the ledger boards and the building. Fungal rot may occur in this area and cause the ledger board fasteners to fail. The deck may separate from the building in this event. This is a potential safety hazard. Recommend that a qualified contractor install flashing above ledger boards per standard building practices. For more information, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?LB http://www.reporthost.com/?SD
5) No outbuildings or detached structures were evaluated. They are excluded from this inspection.
6) Minor deterioration (e.g. cracks, holes, settlement, heaving) was found in the driveway, but no trip hazards were found. The client may wish to have repairs made for cosmetic reasons.
7) Minor deterioration (e.g. cracks, holes, settlement, heaving) was found in sidewalks or patios, but no trip hazards were found. The client may wish to have repairs made for cosmetic reasons.
Condition of wall exterior covering: Appeared serviceable
Apparent wall structure: Wood frame
Wall covering: Wood, Stone or faux stone veneer
Condition of foundation and footings: Appeared serviceable
Apparent foundation type: Crawl space, Concrete garage slab
Foundation/stem wall material: Poured in place concrete
Footing material (under foundation stem wall): Poured in place concrete
Anchor bolts or hold downs for seismic reinforcement: None visible
Limitations: The inspector performs a visual inspection of accessible components or systems at the exterior. Items excluded from this inspection include below-grade foundation walls and footings; foundations, exterior surfaces or components obscured by vegetation, stored items or debris; wall structures obscured by coverings such as siding or trim. Some items such as siding, trim, soffits, vents and windows are often high off the ground, and may be viewed using binoculars from the ground or from a ladder. This may limit a full evaluation. Regarding foundations, some amount of cracking is normal in concrete slabs and foundation walls due to shrinkage and drying. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of seismic reinforcement.
8) The masonry (brick or stone) veneer was deteriorated or damaged in some areas. Where cracks or openings are exposed, water may enter the wall structure causing mold, fungal growth and structural damage. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. For example, by repointing mortar or replacing broken or missing masonry.
9) One or more windows or doors were installed with no "drip cap" or "Z" flashings installed above them. Better building practices call for such flashings, which greatly reduce the chance of leaks above windows and doors. Without this flashing, caulk and paint must be maintained or water can enter the wall structure and cause rot and possible structural damage. Depending on the exposure (e.g. roof overhang, height of exterior wall, direction of prevailing rain) this may or may not be an issue. The client should monitor these areas in the future and maintain caulk and paint as necessary. Consult with a qualified contractor about installing flashings where needed, and per standard building practices. Note that when trim or siding is removed to install flashing, damaged wood may be found and additional repairs may be needed.
10) Fence(s) were attached to or in contact with the building exterior. Such attachments can serve as a pathway for wood-destroying insects and can retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary so there is at least a 2-inch gap between fences and building exteriors.
11) One or more minor cracks (1/8 inch or less) were found in the foundation. These didn't appear to be a structural concern, but recommend sealing them to prevent water infiltration and monitor them in the future. Numerous products exist to seal such cracks including hydraulic cement, non-shrinking grout, resilient caulks and epoxy sealants.
12) Soil was in contact with or less than 6 inches from siding, trim or structural wood. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend grading or removing soil as necessary to maintain a 6-inch clearance. If not possible, then recommend replacing untreated wood with pressure-treated wood. Installation of borate-based products such as Impel rods can also reduce the likelihood of rot or infestation if soil cannot be removed. Note that damage from fungal rot and/or insects may be found when soil is removed, and repairs may be necessary.
13) Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines was in contact with or close to the building exterior. Vegetation can serve as a pathway for wood-destroying insects and can retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend pruning, moving or removing vegetation as necessary to maintain at least 6 inches of space between it and the building exterior. A 1-foot clearance is better.
14) Soil was in contact with or less than 4 inches from brick, stone or faux stone veneer. For most residential installations of this type of veneer, this is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Weep holes may be covered. Condensed water behind the veneer may not be able to escape, and moisture can accumulate in the wood structure behind. Recommend grading and/or removing soil as necessary to maintain a 4-inch clearance.
15) Trees were in contact with or were close to the building at one or more locations. Damage to the building may occur, especially during high winds, or may have already occurred (see other comments in this report). Recommend that a qualified tree service contractor or certified arborist remove trees as necessary to prevent damage to the building exterior.
16) The paint or stain finish in some areas was failing (e.g. peeling, faded, worn, thinning). Siding and trim with a failing finish can be damaged by moisture. Recommend that a qualified contractor prep (e.g. clean, scrape, sand, prime, caulk) and repaint or restain the building exterior where necessary and per standard building practices. Any repairs needed to the siding or trim should be made prior to this.
17) Caulk was deteriorated in some areas. For example, around windows, around doors and/or at siding butt joints. Recommend that a qualified person renew or install caulk as necessary. Where gaps are wider than 1/4 inch, an appropriate material other than caulk should be used. For more information, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?CAULK
18) Some exterior wall sections were obscured by vegetation and couldn't be fully evaluated. They are excluded from this inspection.
19) Some above-grade foundation walls were obscured by vegetation. The inspector was unable to evaluate these areas. They are excluded from this inspection.
20) The inspector was unable to verify that anchor bolts or hold downs were installed, connecting the structure to the foundation. Such devices can be obscured by finished wall surfaces, sill plates, insulation, or other components. Foundation ties in the form of anchor bolts became common in the 1970s, and hold downs have become common in more recent years. The client may wish to have a qualified contractor evaluate further and install such seismic reinforcement if missing. Note that determining the number, spacing and/or adequacy of foundation ties is beyond the scope of this inspection.
Condition of roof surface material: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Roof surface material: Asphalt or fiberglass composition shingles
Roof type: Gable
Apparent number of layers of roof surface material: One
Condition of exposed flashings: Appeared serviceable
Condition of gutters, downspouts and extensions: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Gutter and downspout material: Metal
Gutter and downspout installation: Full
21) The roof surface appeared to be near the end of its service life and will likely need replacing in the near future even if repairs are made now. Recommend discussing replacement options with a qualified contractor, and budgeting for a replacement roof surface in the near future. The client may also wish to consider having a qualified contractor attempt to issue a "5 year roof certificate."
22) Some composition shingles were broken and/or damaged. Leaks can occur as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. For example, by replacing shingles.
23) Extensions such as splash blocks or drain pipes for one or more downspouts were missing, damaged and/or poorly sloped. Water can accumulate around the building foundation or inside crawl spaces or basements as a result. Recommend that a qualified person install, replace or repair extensions as necessary so rainwater drains away from the structure.
24) Significant amounts of debris have accumulated in one or more gutters or downspouts. Gutters can overflow and cause water to come in contact with the building exterior, or water can accumulate around the foundation. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend cleaning gutters and downspouts now and as necessary in the future.
25) Moss was growing on the roof. As a result, shingles can lift or be damaged. Leaks can result and/or the roof surface can fail prematurely. Efforts should be made to kill the moss during its growing season (wet months). Typically, zinc or phosphate-based chemicals are used for this and must be applied periodically. For information on various moss treatment products and their pros and cons, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?MOSS
26) Vegetation such as trees, shrubs, and/or vines overhung the roof surface or were in contact with the roof edge. Organic debris such as leaves or needles are likely to accumulate in gutters and on the roof surface. Gutters can overflow and cause water to come in contact with the building exterior or water can accumulate around the foundation. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Vegetation in contact with the roof can damage the roof surface and/or the roof drainage system. Recommend pruning vegetation so as to not be in contact with the roof and to not overhang the roof surface. If vegetation is too tall then it should be pruned at least 10 feet above the roof surface.
Condition of sinks and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable
Condition of under-sink food disposal: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of dishwasher: Appeared serviceable
Condition of range, cooktop or oven: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Range, cooktop or oven type: Electric
Type of ventilation: Wall or ceiling mounted fan
Condition of refrigerator: Appeared serviceable
Condition of built-in microwave oven: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
27) The range could tip forward. An anti-tip bracket may not be installed. This is a potential safety hazard since the range can tip forward when weight is applied to the open door, such as when a small child climbs on it or if heavy objects are dropped on it. Anti-tip brackets have been sold with all free-standing ranges since 1985. Recommend installing an anti-tip bracket to eliminate this safety hazard. For more information, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?ATB
28) The under-sink food disposal was inoperable and/or jammed. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair or replace as necessary.
29) The cooktop exhaust fan was inoperable. Recommend that a qualified person repair or replace as necessary.
30) The oven light was inoperable. Recommend replacing bulb or that repairs are made, if necessary, by a qualified person.
31) The estimated useful life for most kitchen appliances is 10-15 years. One or more appliances (range and/or microwave) appeared to be near, at or beyond their service life. Even if operable, recommend budgeting for replacements in the near future.
Location #B: 3/4 bath, Master bath, first floor, central
Condition of counters: Appeared serviceable
Condition of cabinets: Appeared serviceable
Condition of flooring: Appeared serviceable
Condition of sinks and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of toilets: Appeared serviceable
Condition of bathtubs and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable
Condition of shower(s) and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of ventilation systems: Appeared serviceable
Bathroom and laundry ventilation type: Spot exhaust fans
Gas supply for laundry equipment present: No
240 volt receptacle for laundry equipment present: Yes
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: overflow drains for tubs and sinks; heated towel racks, saunas, steam generators, clothes washers, clothes dryers. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of washing machine drain lines, washing machine catch pan drain lines, or clothes dryer exhaust ducts. The inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves for sinks, toilets, bidets, clothes washers, etc. due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not determine if shower pans or tub and shower enclosures are water tight, or determine the completeness or operability of any gas piping to laundry appliances.
32) The clothes dryer exhaust duct was kinked, crushed or damaged. Air flow will be restricted as a result and the clothes dryer may overheat. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire. Recommend that a qualified person replace or repair the duct as necessary. For more information, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?DRYER
33) The laundry room didn't have an exhaust fan installed. Moisture can accumulate and result in mold, bacteria or fungal growth. Recommend that a qualified contractor install an exhaust fan per standard building practices.
34) A clothes washer was installed over a finished space or in an area where leaking can cause damage, and no catch pan or drain was installed. Catch pans and drains prevent water damage to finished interior spaces below if or when the washing machine leaks, overflows or is drained. If concerned, consult with a qualified contractor about installing a catch pan. Note that installing a drain line for a catch pan routed to the outdoors may not be feasible. As an alternative, a water alarm can be installed in the catch pan. For more information visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?WTRALRM
35) The exhaust fan at location(s) #B was noisy or vibrated excessively. Moisture may accumulate and result in mold, bacteria or fungal growth. Recommend that a qualified person clean, repair or replace fans as necessary.
36) The sink drain stopper mechanism at location(s) #A and B was missing and/or inoperable. Recommend that a qualified person repair or replace as necessary.
37) Rubber water supply hoses were installed at the clothes washer. These hoses are prone to bursting when deteriorated, which can result in flooding and significant water damage. Recommend upgrading to braided, stainless steel hoses.
38) Caulk was missing around the base of the bathtub spout, or there was a gap behind it, at location(s) #A. Water may enter the wall structure behind the bathtub. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary to eliminate the gap. For example, by installing or replacing caulk if the gap is small enough. For larger gaps, a shorter spout nipple or an escutcheon plate can be installed.
39) The hot and cold water supplies were reversed at the shower at location(s) #A. Normally, cold water is controlled by the right faucet handle and hot by the left. For mixing faucets, cold is supplied with the handle to the right and hot when the handle is to the left, or as indicated by the faucet's markings. At a minimum this is an inconvenience, but it can also result in accidental scalding. Recommend that a qualified plumber repair as necessary.
Condition of exterior entry doors: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Exterior door material: Wood
Condition of interior doors: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of windows and skylights: Appeared serviceable
Type(s) of windows: Metal, Single-pane, Sliding, Casement, Fixed
Condition of walls and ceilings: Appeared serviceable
Wall type or covering: Drywall or plaster, Paneling
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall or plaster
Condition of flooring: Appeared serviceable
Flooring type or covering: Carpet, Vinyl, linoleum or marmoleum, Wood or wood products, Stone
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: security, intercom and sound systems; communications wiring; central vacuum systems; elevators and stair lifts; cosmetic deficiencies such as nail-pops, scuff marks, dents, dings, blemishes or issues due to normal wear and tear in wall, floor and ceiling surfaces and coverings, or in equipment; deficiencies relating to interior decorating; low voltage and gas lighting systems. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not evaluate any areas or items which require moving stored items, furnishings, debris, equipment, floor coverings, insulation or similar materials. The inspector does not test for asbestos, lead, radon, mold, hazardous waste, urea formaldehyde urethane, or any other toxic substance. Some items such as window, drawer, cabinet door or closet door operability are tested on a sampled basis. The client should be aware that paint may obscure wall and ceiling defects, floor coverings may obscure floor defects, and furnishings may obscure wall, floor and floor covering defects. If furnishings were present during the inspection, recommend a full evaluation of walls, floors and ceilings that were previously obscured when possible. Determining the cause and/or source of odors is not within the scope of this inspection.
40) One or more bedrooms had windows that were too high above the floor. Unless a bedroom has an exterior entry door, at least one window requires adequate egress in the event of a fire or emergency to allow escape or to allow access by emergency personnel. The base of openings for egress windows should be a maximum of 44 inches above the floor. At a minimum, keep a chair or something that serves as a ladder below the window at all times. If concerned, have a qualified contractor repair or make modifications per standard building practices. For more information, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?EGRESS
41) Water stains or evidence of leaking was found at one or more windows. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.
42) Glass in one or more exterior doors was broken. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace glass where necessary.
43) One or more interior doors were damaged. Recommend that a qualified person replace or repair doors as necessary.
44) Some interior door hardware (locksets) were loose. Recommend that a qualified person repair or replace as necessary.
45) One or more walls were damaged. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.
46) Fixtures such as towel hangers were missing in one or more areas. Recommend that a qualified person install missing fixtures per standard building practices.
47) Floor guides were missing at one or more sliding closet doors.
48) Minor cracks, nail pops and/or blemishes were found in walls and/or ceilings in one or more areas. Cracks and nail pops are common, are often caused by lumber shrinkage or minor settlement, and can be more or less noticeable depending on changes in humidity. They did not appear to be a structural concern, but the client may wish to repair these for aesthetic reasons. For recurring cracks, consider using an elastic crack covering product: http://www.reporthost.com/?ECC
49) One or more exterior doors had minor damage and/or deterioration. Although serviceable, the client may wish to repair or replace such doors for appearances' sake.
50) Screens were missing from many windows. These windows may not provide ventilation during months when insects are active.
Condition of door between garage and house: Appeared serviceable
Type of door between garage and house: Solid core, Wood
Condition of garage vehicle door(s): Appeared serviceable
Type of garage vehicle door: Roll
Number of vehicle doors: 1
Condition of automatic opener(s): Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Mechanical auto-reverse operable (reverses when meeting reasonable resistance during closing): Yes
Condition of garage floor: Appeared serviceable
Condition of garage interior: Appeared serviceable
Garage ventilation: Exists, Adequate
51) No photoelectric sensors were installed for one or more garage vehicle doors' automatic opener. These have been required on all automatic door openers since 1993 and improve safety by triggering the door's auto-reverse feature without need for the door to come in contact with the object, person or animal that is preventing the door from closing. Recommend that a qualified contractor install photoelectric sensors where missing for improved safety. For more information on garage door safety issues, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?GDPES
52) Substandard shelving was installed. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of collapse, especially if heavy items are stored on the shelves. Recommend that a qualified person remove shelving, or repair or modify as necessary.
53) The water heater in the garage was installed so flames and/or sources of spark were less than 18 inches above the floor. This is a potential fire or explosion hazard. Such appliances should be installed so that open flames or sources of spark are located at least 18 inches above the floor. This minimizes the chance of explosion or fire from fuel vapors from vehicles or storage containers. A qualified person should repair per standard building practices. For example, by installing a platform if none exists or by repairing the existing platform if one does.
54) The door between the garage and the house had a door stop or unapproved hardware installed on it. This is a potential safety hazard. Such doors should provide limited fire resistance to prevent fire from spreading from the garage to the house. Modifications with unapproved hardware may compromise the door's ability to perform as intended. Recommend that a qualified person remove the doorstop or unapproved hardware.
Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection present: No
Arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection present: No
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: generator systems, transfer switches, surge suppressors, inaccessible or concealed wiring; underground utilities and systems; low-voltage lighting or lighting on timers or sensors. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of grounding or bonding, if this system has an adequate capacity for the client's specific or anticipated needs, or if this system has any reserve capacity for additions or expansion. The inspector does not operate circuit breakers as part of the inspection, and does not install or change light bulbs. The inspector does not evaluate every wall switch or receptacle, but instead tests a representative number of them per various standards of practice. When furnishings, stored items or child-protective caps are present some receptacles are usually inaccessible and are not tested; these are excluded from this inspection. Receptacles that are not of standard 110 volt configuration, including 240-volt dryer receptacles, are not tested and are excluded. The functionality of, power source for and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms is not determined as part of this inspection. Upon taking occupancy, proper operating and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms should be verified and batteries should be changed. These devices have a limited lifespan and should be replaced every 10 years. The inspector attempts to locate and evaluate all main and sub-panels. However, panels are often concealed. If panels are found after the inspection, a qualified electrician should evaluate and repair if necessary. The inspector attempts to determine the overall electrical service size, but such estimates are not guaranteed because the overall capacity may be diminished by lesser-rated components in the system. Any repairs recommended should be made by a licensed electrician.
55) Modifications were made to panel(s) #A or to equipment inside. Electric panels and equipment inside are Underwriter Laboratory rated devices, and modifications to them are not allowed. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and replace components or make repairs as necessary.
56) One or more electric receptacles at the kitchen had no visible ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection, or the inspector was unable to determine if GFCI protection was present. If not GFCI-protected, receptacles in wet areas pose a shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and install GFCI protection if necessary and per standard building practices. General guidelines for GFCI-protected receptacles include the following locations:
Outdoors (since 1973)
Bathrooms (since 1975)
Garages (since 1978)
Kitchens (since 1987)
Crawl spaces and unfinished basements (since 1990)
57) Non-metallic sheathed wiring in the attic was routed on surfaces within 6 feet of one or more access hatches or doors, and was subject to damage. Wiring can be damaged when hatches are lifted and set aside, when stored items are moved into or out of the attic, etc. This is a potential shock and/or fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.
58) Extension cords were being used as permanent wiring at one or more locations. They should only be used for portable equipment on a temporary basis. Using extension cords as permanent wiring is a potential fire and shock hazard, and indicates that wiring is inadequate and needs updating. Extension cords may be undersized. Connections may not be secure resulting in power fluctuations, damage to equipment, overheating and sparks that could start a fire. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices and eliminate extension cords for permanently installed equipment.
59) One or more modern, 3-slot electric receptacles were found with an open ground. Three-slot receptacles should have a hot, a neutral and a ground wire connected. Homeowners often install new 3-slot receptacles on older, 2-wire circuits that only have hot and neutral wires. This is a shock hazard when appliances that require a ground are used with these receptacles. Examples of such appliances include computers and related hardware, refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners, clothes washers, aquarium pumps, and electrically operated gardening tools. Where the electric system was installed prior to when grounded circuits were required (1960s), it is permissible to replace 3-slot receptacles with 2-slot receptacles to prevent appliances that require a ground from being plugged in to an ungrounded circuit. However, the client should be aware of this limitation when planning use for various rooms, such as an office. For newer electric systems, circuits should be repaired so grounded, 3-wire cables provide power to 3-slot receptacles. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.
60) One or more electric receptacles had reverse-polarity wiring, where the hot and neutral wires were reversed. This is a shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary. For more information, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?RPR
61) A 3-slot receptacle was installed for the clothes dryer. Most modern clothes dryers use both 120 and 240 volts (120 for timers and motors, and 240 for heating elements) and either require or are more safely installed with a 4-slot receptacle. With 3-conductor wiring, the ground wire rather than a neutral wire is used to carry the return current back for the 120 volt leg. The clothes dryer's metal frame can become energized if the neutral wire becomes loose at the receptacle or panel. While 3-wire clothes dryer circuits were allowed prior to 1996 and are commonly found, they are considered unsafe due to the risk of shock. Recommend that a qualified electrician convert this to a 4-wire circuit. Note that this may require installing a new circuit wire from the panel to the clothes dryer location.
62) One or more wall switches were worn. The light or receptacle controlled by the switch was powered intermittently and/or if the switch was wiggled. These switches can overheat or arc and spark due to loose connections. This is a potential fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician replace worn switches as necessary.
63) One or more receptacle boxes were loose. This is a potential safety hazard for shock or fire. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary.
64) One or more receptacles were broken or damaged. This is a potential shock or fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician replace such receptacles as necessary.
65) One or more wall-mounted exterior light fixtures had no caulk installed above the back plate. Water can enter the space behind the back plate and contact wiring. This is a potential shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified person apply caulk above and around the back plate per standard building practices. A gap should be left at the bottom of the plate so that condensation can drain out.
66) One or more cover plates for switches, receptacles or junction boxes were missing or broken. These plates are intended to contain fire and prevent electric shock from occurring due to exposed wires. Recommend that a qualified person install cover plates where necessary.
67) Branch circuit wiring installed in buildings built prior to the mid 1980s is typically rated for a maximum temperature of only 60 degrees Celsius. This includes non-metallic sheathed (Romex) wiring, and both BX and AC metal-clad flexible wiring. Knob and tube wiring, typically installed in homes built prior to 1950, may be rated for even lower maximum temperatures. Newer electric fixtures including lighting and fans typically require wiring rated for 90 degrees Celsius. Connecting newer fixtures to older, 60-degree-rated wiring is a potential fire hazard. Repairs for such conditions may involve replacing the last few feet of wiring to newer fixtures with new 90-degree-rated wire, and installing a junction box to join the old and new wiring.
It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if such incompatible components are installed, or to determine the extent to which they're installed. Based on the age of this building, the client should be aware of this safety hazard, both for existing fixtures and when planning to upgrade with newer fixtures. Consult with a qualified electrician for repairs as necessary.
68) 2-slot receptacles rather than 3-slot, grounded receptacles were installed in one or more areas. These do not have an equipment ground and are considered unsafe by today's standards. Appliances that require a ground should not be used with 2-slot receptacles. Examples of such appliances include computers and related hardware, refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners, clothes washers, aquarium pumps, and electrically operated gardening tools. The client should be aware of this limitation when planning use for various rooms, such as an office. Upgrading to grounded receptacles typically requires installing new wiring from the main service panel or sub-panel to the receptacle(s), in addition to replacing the receptacle(s). Consult with a qualified electrician about upgrading to 3-wire, grounded circuits.
69) The front door's doorbell button was damaged. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.
70) The electric service to this property appeared to be rated at substantially less than 200 amps and may be inadequate. Depending on the client's needs, recommend consulting with a qualified electrician about upgrading to a 200 amp service. Note that the electric service's rating is based on the lowest rating for the meter base, the service conductors, the main service panel and the main disconnect switch. One or more of these components may need replacing to upgrade.
71) One or more light fixtures were inoperable (didn't turn on when nearby switches were operated). Recommend further evaluation by replacing bulbs and/or consulting with the property owner. If replacing bulbs doesn't work and/or no other switch(es) can be found, then recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and repair or replace light fixtures as necessary.
72) Deadfront panel not installed. No screws visible.
Condition of combustion air supply: Appeared serviceable
73) One or more bonding or grounding clamp(s) attached to copper water-supply pipes appeared to be made of steel. When these electrically energized dissimilar metals are in contact with each other, corrosion can occur on the water-supply pipes and result in leaks. Recommend that a qualified person replace steel clamps on copper pipes as necessary, with clamps made of brass, bronze or copper.
General heating system type(s): Forced air, Furnace
General heating distribution type(s): Ducts and registers
Last service date of primary heat source: None
Condition of forced air heating/(cooling) system: Appeared serviceable
Forced air heating system fuel type: Natural gas
Estimated age of forced air furnace: 7 years
Forced air heating system manufacturer: Intertherm
Location of forced air furnace: Garage
Condition of furnace filters: Appeared serviceable
Location for forced air filter(s): At top of air handler
Condition of forced air ducts and registers: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of burners: Appeared serviceable
Condition of combustion air supply: Appeared serviceable
Condition of controls: Appeared serviceable
24 hour automatic ventilation system present: None visible
Condition of combustion air supply: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Type of combustion air supply: No dedicated source visible, uses room air
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters; solar, coal or wood-fired heat systems; thermostat or temperature control accuracy and timed functions; heating components concealed within the building structure or in inaccessible areas; underground utilities and systems; safety devices and controls (due to automatic operation). Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on heating or cooling system components, does not determine if heating or cooling systems are appropriately sized, does not test coolant pressure, or perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit, a shut-off valve to be operated, a circuit breaker to be turned "on" or a serviceman's or oil emergency switch to be operated. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if furnace heat exchangers are intact and free of leaks. Condensation pans and drain lines may clog or leak at any time and should be monitored while in operation in the future. Where buildings contain furnishings or stored items, the inspector may not be able to verify that a heat source is present in all "liveable" rooms (e.g. bedrooms, kitchens and living/dining rooms).
74) Based on the location and the visible venting, the furnace had a substandard source of combustion and/or dilution air. All gas and oil-fired appliances require adequate air for combustion, dilution and ventilation. This is a potential safety hazard and may result in combustion fumes entering living spaces. Recommend that a qualified HVAC contractor evaluate and repair per standard building practices
75) The last service date of the gas or oil-fired forced air furnace appeared to be more than 1 year ago, or the inspector was unable to determine the last service date. Ask the property owner when it was last serviced. If unable to determine the last service date, or if this system was serviced more than 1 year ago, recommend that a qualified HVAC contractor inspect, clean, and service this system, and make repairs if necessary. For safety reasons, and because this system is fueled by gas or oil, this servicing should be performed annually in the future. Any needed repairs noted in this report should be brought to the attention of the HVAC contractor when it's serviced. For more information visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?ANFURINSP
76) One or more heating or cooling ducts in an unconditioned space (e.g. crawl space, attic or basement) were not insulated, or the insulation was damaged or deteriorated. This can result in reduced energy efficiency, moisture inside heating ducts, and/or "sweating" on cooling ducts. Recommend that a qualified person repair per standard building practices. For example, by wrapping ducts in insulation with an R-value of R-8.
77) Recommend replacing or washing HVAC filters upon taking occupancy depending on the type of filters installed. Regardless of the type, recommend checking filters monthly in the future and replacing or washing them as necessary. How frequently they need replacing or washing depends on the type and quality of the filter, how the system is configured (e.g. always on vs. "Auto"), and on environmental factors (e.g. pets, smoking, frequency of house cleaning, number of occupants, the season).
Condition of wood-burning fireplaces, stoves: Appeared serviceable
Wood-burning fireplace type: Masonry
Condition of gas-fired fireplaces or stoves: Not determined (didn't respond to normal controls, gas off, etc.)
Gas fireplace or stove type: Metal pre-fab fireplace
Fan or blower installed in gas-fired fireplace or stove: Yes
Condition of chimneys and flues: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Wood-burning chimney type: Masonry, Concrete
Gas-fired flue type: Masonry with metal liner
78) No spark screen or rain cap was installed at one or more chimney flue terminations. Spark screens reduce the chance of embers exiting the flue and causing fires. They also prevent wildlife (e.g. birds, rodents, raccoons) from entering flues. Rain caps prevent water from entering flues, mixing with combustion deposits and creating caustic chemicals which can corrode flues. They also prevent damage to masonry from freeze-thaw cycles and prevent metal components (e.g. dampers, metal firebox liners) from rusting. Recommend that a qualified person install rain caps with spark screens per standard building practices where missing.
79) One or more wood-burning fireplaces or stoves were found at the property. When such devices are used, they should be professionally inspected and cleaned annually to prevent creosote build-up and to determine if repairs are needed. The National Fire Protection Association states that a "Level 2" chimney inspection should be performed with every sale or transfer of property with a wood-burning device. Recommend consulting with the property owner about recent and past servicing and repairs to all wood-burning devices and chimneys or flues at this property. Recommend that a qualified specialist evaluate all wood-burning devices and chimneys, and clean and repair as necessary. Note that if a wood stove insert is installed, it may need to be removed for such an evaluation. For more information, search for "chimney inspection" at: http://www.reporthost.com/?CSIA
80) One or more fireplace dampers were inoperable and/or severely corroded. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair or replace dampers as necessary.
81) One or more masonry chimney crowns were cracked. Crowns are meant to keep water off of the chimney structure and prevent damage from freeze-thaw cycles. Chimney crowns are commonly constructed by mounding concrete or mortar on the top chimney surface, however this is substandard. A properly constructed chimney crown should:
Be constructed using either precast concrete slabs, cast-in-place steel reinforced concrete, solid stone, or metal
Be sloped down from the flue a minimum of 3 inches of fall per foot of run
Extend a minimum of 2 1/2 inches beyond the face of the chimney on all sides
Not directly contact the flue liner (if installed), with the gap filled with flexible caulk
Have flashing installed between the bottom of the crown and the top of the brick chimney
Recommend that a qualified contractor repair or replace crowns as necessary, and per standard building practices.
82) The glass front on the gas fireplace had a hazy film. This is typically a mineral residue left from water vapor as the gas burns. It may be possible to clean this fogging by removing the glass from the fireplace and using a gas appliance ceramic glass cleaner, available through gas fireplace and stove distributors and installers. Ammonia-based products, such as common glass cleaners, should not be used since they can cause damage or etching to the glass, or make the haze permanent. It may be possible for a homeowner to remove the glass for cleaning, if the instructions for the fireplace are available and if the homeowner is experienced in such repairs. Consult with a qualified specialist for more information, or to have them do the cleaning.
83) The gas fireplace or stove was not fully evaluated because the pilot light was off. The inspector only operates normal controls (e.g. on/off switch or thermostat) and does not light pilot lights or operate gas shut-off valves. Recommend that the client review all documentation for such gas appliances and familiarize themselves with the lighting procedure. If necessary, a qualified specialist should assist in lighting such appliances, and make any needed repairs.
84) Significant amounts of ash or fire materials were present in one or more fireplace or wood stove fireboxes. As a result, the inspector was unable to fully view or evaluate the firebox(es) and/or components inside (e.g. firebrick, metal liner, log lighter). These components are excluded from this inspection.
Limitations: The following items or areas are not included in this inspection: areas that could not be traversed or viewed clearly due to lack of access; areas and components obscured by insulation. Any comments made regarding these items are made as a courtesy only. The inspector does not determine the adequacy of the attic ventilation system. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high/low temperatures, high/low humidity, high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. The inspector is not a licensed engineer and does not determine the adequacy of roof structure components such as trusses, rafters or ceiling beams, or their spacing or sizing.
85) One or more exhaust fan ducts in the attic were not attached to a vent hood or cap. As a result, conditioned air will enter the attic when the fan is operated. Ducts terminating near an attic vent but without a dedicated vent hood or cap will likely blow conditioned air back into the attic. This can result in excessive moisture in the attic. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices, so exhaust fan ducts are permanently fastened to vent hoods or caps.
86) One or more exhaust ducts (e.g. bathroom fan, clothes dryer) in the attic were not insulated. This can result in moisture forming inside the duct or "sweating" on the outside of the duct depending on the surrounding air temperature and the exhaust air temperature. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation on exhaust ducts per standard building practices (typically R-4 rating), or replace uninsulated ducts with insulated ducts.
87) One or more attic access hatches or doors were not insulated, or had substandard insulation. Weatherstripping was also missing or substandard. Recommend installing weatherstripping and insulation per current standards at hatches or doors for better energy efficiency. For more information, visit: http://www.reporthost.com/?ATTACC
Condition of service and main line: Appeared serviceable
Water service: Public
Location of main water meter: By sidewalk in front of house
Location of main water shut-off: Not determined (obscured, inaccessible or none found)
Service pipe material: Galvanized steel
Condition of supply lines: Appeared serviceable
Supply pipe material: Copper, Galvanized steel
Condition of drain pipes: Appeared serviceable
Drain pipe material: Galvanized steel
Condition of waste lines: Appeared serviceable, Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Waste pipe material: Plastic, Cast iron
Location(s) of plumbing clean-outs: Crawl space
Vent pipe condition: Appeared serviceable
Vent pipe material: Galvanized steel
Sump pump installed: None visible
Condition of fuel system: Appeared serviceable
Location of main fuel shut-off valve: At gas meter
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: private/shared wells and related equipment; private sewage disposal systems; hot tubs or spas; main, side and lateral sewer lines; gray water systems; pressure boosting systems; trap primers; incinerating or composting toilets; fire suppression systems; water softeners, conditioners or filtering systems; plumbing components concealed within the foundation or building structure, or in inaccessible areas such as below tubs; underground utilities and systems; overflow drains for tubs and sinks; backflow prevention devices. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not test for lead in the water supply, the water pipes or solder, does not determine if plumbing and fuel lines are adequately sized, and does not determine the existence or condition of underground or above-ground fuel tanks.
88) One or more black steel gas supply pipes had substandard support or were loose. Gas leaks may occur as a result. Black steel gas supply pipes should have approved hangers every 6-8 feet. Hangers should be made from steel to prevent the pipes and hangers from corroding due to contact of dissimilar metals. Recommend that a qualified person install hangers or secure pipes per standard building practices.
89) Copper water supply pipes were installed. Copper pipes installed prior to the late 1980s may be joined with solder that contains lead, which is a known health hazard especially for children. Laws were passed in 1985 prohibiting the use of lead in solder, but prior to that solder normally contained approximately 50% lead. The client should be aware of this, especially if children will be using this water supply system. Note that the inspector does not test for toxic materials such as lead. The client should consider having a qualified lab test for lead, and if necessary take steps to reduce or remove lead from the water supply. Various solutions include:
Flush water taps or faucets. Do not drink water that has been sitting in the plumbing lines for more than 6 hours
Install appropriate filters at points of use
Use only cold water for cooking and drinking, as hot water dissolves lead more quickly than cold water
Use bottled or distilled water
Treat well water to make it less corrosive
Have a qualified plumber replace supply pipes and/or plumbing components as necessary
90) One or more leaks were found in waste pipes or fittings. A qualified plumber should evaluate and repair as necessary.
91) Significant corrosion was found in some water supply pipes or fittings. Leaks can occur as a result. Recommend that a qualified plumber evaluate and replace components as necessary.
92) Insulation for one or more water supply pipes in the crawl space was missing. Recommend replacing or installing insulation on pipes per standard building practices to prevent them from freezing during cold weather, and for better energy efficiency with hot water supply pipes.
93) Some or all of the water supply and drain or vent pipes were made of galvanized steel. Based on the age of this structure and the 40-60 year useful life of this piping, it will likely need replacing in the future. Leaks can develop, flooding and/or water damage may occur, flow can be restricted due to scale accumulating inside the piping, and water may be rusty. Note that it is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine what percentage of the piping is older, galvanized steel, as much of it is concealed in wall, floor and/or ceiling cavities. Recommend the following:
That a qualified plumber evaluate to better understand or estimate the remaining life
Consulting with a qualified plumber about replacement options and costs
Budget for replacement in the future
Monitor these pipes for leaks and decreased flow in the future
94) The inspector did not determine the location of the main water shut-off valve, or verify that a readily accessible shut-off valve in the building exists. Recommend consulting with the property owner to determine if a main shut-off valve exists, locating it yourself, or that a qualified plumber find it if necessary. If no readily accessible main shut-off valve is found in the building, then recommend that a qualified plumber install one so the water supply can be quickly turned off in the event of an emergency, such as when a supply pipe bursts.
95) Based on the age of this structure, recommend that a qualified plumber inspect the waste lines using a video scope device to determine if they need repair or replacement. Property owners are usually responsible for repairs to the side sewer and publicly owned lateral lines. Such repairs can be expensive.
Location of crawl space access point #A: Building exterior
Crawl space access points that were opened and viewed, traversed or partially traversed: A
Condition of floor substructure above: Appeared serviceable
Pier or support post material: Wood
Beam material: Solid wood
Floor structure above: Solid wood joists
Condition of insulation underneath floor above: Not applicable, none installed
Insulation material underneath floor above: None visible
Condition of vapor barrier: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Vapor barrier present: Yes
Condition of crawl space ventilation: Appeared serviceable
Ventilation type: Unconditioned space, with vents
Limitations: Structural components such as joists and beams, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by under-floor insulation are excluded from this inspection. The inspector does not determine if support posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing.
The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that water will not accumulate in the crawl spaces in the future. Complete access to all crawl space areas during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so.
The inspector attempts to locate all crawl space access points and areas. Access points may be obscured or otherwise hidden by furnishings or stored items. In such cases, the client should ask the property owner where all access points are that are not described in this inspection, and have those areas inspected. Note that crawl space areas should be checked at least annually for water intrusion, plumbing leaks and pest activity.
97) No under-floor insulation was installed in the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation for better energy efficiency and per standard building practices. Typically this is R-19 rated fiberglass batt with the attached facing installed against the warm (floor) side.
98) One or more outdoor crawl space access hatches or doors were missing, damaged, deteriorated or substandard. Water and/or vermin can enter the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person replace, install or repair hatches or doors where necessary.
99) The plastic vapor barrier over the soil is clear plastic rather than black. A vapor barrier is normally installed to prevent water from evaporating from the soil below up into the structure. An opaque, black plastic should be used rather than clear to prevent mushroom growth and to prevent vegetation growth near sources of light such as vents. Recommend that a qualified person replace the clear plastic vapor barrier with an opaque, black one, and per standard building practices (e.g. seams overlapped to 24 inches, not in contact with any wood structural components, held in place with bricks or stones).
100) The vapor barrier in some areas of the crawl space was damaged and/or loose or askew. Soil was exposed as a result and will allow water from the soil to evaporate up into the structure. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. A 6 mil black plastic sheet should be placed over all exposed soil with seams overlapped to 24 inches, and not in contact with any wood structural components. The sheeting should be held in place with bricks or stones, not wood. Recommend that a qualified person replace or repair the vapor barrier where necessary and per standard building practices.
101) Significant gaps were found where the main waste pipe was routed through the foundation wall. Water, soil and/or vermin may enter the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person make permanent repairs as necessary to seal these gaps.
102) Cellulose material such as scrap wood and/or cardboard or paper was found in the crawl space. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend removing all cellulose-based debris or stored items.
103) Minor amounts of standing water were found at one or more locations in the crawl space. Some minor seasonal water accumulation can be normal. However significant amounts of Water may evaporate and enter the structure above causing high levels of moisture in the structure. This can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Rain runoff is the most common cause of wet crawl spaces but water can come from other sources such as groundwater or underground springs. Recommend monitoring the crawl space in the future, especially after heavy and/or prolonged periods of rain. Correct any issues related to outside perimeter grading and/or roof drainage (see any other comments about this in this report). Also, review any disclosure statements available and ask the property owner about past accumulation of water in the crawl space.
If standing water persists or increases in amount, recommend that a qualified contractor who specializes in drainage issues evaluate and repair as necessary. Typically such repairs include:
Repairing, installing or improving underground footing and/or curtain drains
Applying waterproof coatings to foundation walls
Digging trenches in the crawl space to collect or divert water
Installing sump pumps
PLEASE NOTE THE PICTURES PROVIDED ARE NOT INCLUSIVE OF ALL FINDINGS AND ARE USED TO HELP VISUALIZE THE DEFECTS NOTED. NOT EVERY DEFECT IS REPRESENTED BY A PICTURE.