This report published on Tuesday, September 10, 2019 9:06:31 AM EDT
This report contains proprietary information and is the sole property of Ken Marchi's Low Country HouseDetectives (KMLCHD) and its client, it may not be copied or distributed without the express consent of the KMLCHD or its client, and may not be given to another potential purchaser of said property. KMLCHD expressly disclaims responsibility for any information excerpted from this report without prior permission. This report was prepared by KMLCHD. We may be reached at 908-735-0928 or email@example.com anytime.
REASONABLE EXPECTATIONS REGARDING A PROFESSIONAL HOME INSPECTION:
There may come a time when you discover something wrong with the house, and you may be upset or disappointed with your home inspection. There are some things we'd like you to keep in mind.
Intermittent or concealed problems - Some problems can only be discovered by living in a house. They cannot be discovered during the few hours of a home inspection. For example, some shower stalls leak when people are in the shower, but do not leak when you simply turn on the tap. Some roofs and basements only leak when specific conditions exist (such as extreme winds or a prolonged period of rain). Some problems will only be discovered when carpets are lifted, furniture is moved, or finishes are removed.
No clues - These problems may have existed at the time of the inspection, but there were no visible clues as to their existence. Our inspections are based on the past performance of the house. If there are no clues of a past problem, it is unfair to assume we should foresee a future problem.
Major vs. Minor problems - Any minor problems identified in our report were discovered as we were looking for more significant problems. We note the minor ones simply as a courtesy. The intent and purpose of a whole-house inspection is not to find the $200 problems; it’s to find the $1,000 problems—those are the ones that affect your decision to purchase or not purchase the house.
Contractor's advice - A common source of dissatisfaction with Home Inspectors comes from comments made by contractors. Contractors' opinions often differ from ours. Don't be surprised when three roofers all say the roof needs replacement and we said that the roof is near the end of its useful life. Roofing contractors may be trying to “up-sell”—they make more money by replacing a whole roof than they make by repairing one.
"Last man in" theory - While our advice represents the most prudent thing to do, many contractors are reluctant to undertake these repairs. This is because of the "last man in" theory. The contractor fears that if he is the last person to work on the roof, he will get blamed if the roof leaks, regardless of whether or not the roof leak is his fault. Consequently, they won't want to do a minor repair with high liability, when he could re-roof the entire house for more money and reduce the likelihood of a call back. This is understandable.
Most recent advice is best - There is more to the "last man in" theory. It suggests that it is human nature for homeowners to believe the last piece of expert advice they receive, even if it is contrary to previous advice. As home inspectors, we unfortunately find ourselves in the position of "first man in" and consequently it is our advice that is often disbelieved.
Why didn't we see it? - Contractors may say, "I can't believe you had this house inspected, and they didn't find this problem.” There are several reasons for these apparent oversights:
Conditions during inspection - It is difficult for homeowners to remember the circumstances in the house at the time of the inspection. Homeowners seldom remember, for example, that it was snowing, there were storage boxes everywhere, or that the furnace could not be turned on because the air conditioning was operating. It's impossible for contractors to know what the circumstances were when the inspection was performed.
This wisdom of hindsight - Once a problem manifests itself, it’s very easy to have 20/20 hindsight. Anybody can say that the basement is wet when there is 2" of water on the floor. Predicting the problem is a different story.
A long look - If we spent half an hour under the kitchen sink or 45 minutes disassembling the furnace, we might be able to find more problems too. Unfortunately, the inspection would take several days and would cost considerably more.
We're generalists - We are considered expert generalists; we are not specialists. The heating contractor may indeed have more heating expertise than we do. This is because an inspector must have, in addition to heating expertise, plumbing expertise, structural expertise, electrical expertise, and expertise in every other system and component found in a typical house.
An invasive look - Problems often become apparent when carpets, plaster, fixtures, cabinets, or other items are removed. A home inspection is a strictly visual examination—an inspector doesn’t perform invasive or destructive tests.
Not insurance - In conclusion, a home inspection is designed to better your odds. It is not designed to eliminate all risk. For that reason, a home inspection should not be considered an insurance policy. The premium that an insurance company would have to charge for a policy with no deductible, no limit, and an indefinite policy period would be considerably greater than the fee we charge for a home inspection. An insurance policy also does not include the added value of a home inspection of being specifically generated for a particular property on a specific date. Reprinted from ASHI Reporter, By Permission of Alan Carson, Carson Dunlop & Assoc.
HOMES BUILT PRIOR TO BUILDING CODE ENACTMENT:
Homes that were constructed prior to the establishment of a Building Code may not have some features that today's building codes require. Some municipalities require certain code based upgrades in accordance with current building code so please check with your area to see what may be required. Home Inspectors are NOT code officials and as such are not permitted to quote code.
Building Permits are typically required when one has made alterations to a property to create new living space or has built additions to a property effective with the date the building code was accepted in your area. We are not always able to determine the date of these additions and will list all obvious additions regardless of the date they may have been constructed. It is advisable that you obtain a copy of all building permits to insure that the work completed was the same as indicated in the permit and that the alteration was designed and certified by a professional as required. All items should conform to local building codes, "best practice" construction standards, and/or the manufacturer's installation instructions which were in effect at the time of implementation.
How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas. Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type. Items of concern follow descriptive information.
Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Poses a safety hazard
Correction likely involves a significant expense usually over $1000
Recommend repairing or replacing
Recommend repair and/or maintenance
Correction likely involves only a minor expense (less than $1000)
Recommend ongoing maintenance
Recommend evaluation by a specialist
Recommend monitoring in the future
For your information
Conditions conducive for wood destroying insects or organisms (Wood-soil contact, shrubs in contact with siding, roof or plumbing leaks, etc.)
Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at https://www.reporthost.com/glossary.asp
Client present for discussion at end of inspection: Yes
Weather conditions during inspection: Dry (no rain), Sunny
Temperature during inspection: Hot
Ground condition: Damp
Recent weather: Sunny
Overnight temperature: Hot
Inspection fee: $000.00
Payment method: Invoiced
Type of building: Single family
Buildings inspected: One house
Number of residential units inspected: 1
Age of main building: 59
Source for main building age: Municipal records or property listing
Occupied: Yes, Furniture or stored items were present
Additions and modifications: Deck, hvac, roof, bathroom upgrades, water heater, two story shed, laundry area
Source for additions and modifications: Client, Property listing
1) Structures built prior to the mid 1980s may contain lead and/or asbestos. Lead is commonly found in paint and in some plumbing components. The EPA does not recognize newer coats of paint as encapsulating older coats of lead-based paint. Asbestos is commonly found in various building materials such as insulation, siding, and/or floor and ceiling tiles. Laws were passed in 1978 to prohibit usage of lead and asbestos, but stocks of materials containing these substances remained in use for a number of years thereafter. Both lead and asbestos are known health hazards. Evaluating for the presence of lead and/or asbestos is beyond the scope of this inspection. Any mention of these materials in this report is made as a courtesy only, and meant to refer the client to a specialist. Consult with specialists as necessary, such as industrial hygienists, professional labs and/or abatement specialists for this type of evaluation. For information on lead, asbestos and other hazardous materials in homes, visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?EPA https://www.reporthost.com/?CPSC https://www.reporthost.com/?CDC
2) Based on construction observed, additions and/or modifications to this property may have been made without the owner having attained permits or inspections from the municipality. Work may have been performed by someone other than a qualified contractor or person. Consult with the property owner about this, and if necessary research permits.
At worst case, if substantial work was performed without permits, this knowledge must be disclosed when the building is sold in the future. This can adversely affect future sales. Also, the local municipality could require costly alterations to bring the building into legal compliance or even require that the additions or modifications be removed.
Building Permits are typically required when one has made alterations to a property to create new living space or has built additions to a property effective with the date the building code was accepted in your area. We are not always able to determine the date of these additions and will list all obvious additions regardless of the date they may have been constructed. It is advisable that you obtain a copy of all building prints to insure that the work completed was the same as indicated in the blueprints and that the alteration was designed and certified by a professional as required. All items should conform to local building codes, "best practice" construction standards, and/or the manufacturer's installation instructions which were in effect at the time of implementation.
This property appears to have experienced the following additions/renovations that may require approved building/plumbing/electrical permits: ( roof, hvac, water heater, deck, shed, etc. ). It is prudent for you to obtain information regarding these permits and the approvals. This is strongly recommended to ascertain that all items are in compliance with the applicable building codes, regulations, and safety standards. Please remember there is only one owner of record on any property and the current owner of record may be liable for all past permits/issues.
4) Many areas and items at this property were obscured by furniture and/or stored items. This often includes but is not limited to walls, floors, windows, inside and under cabinets, under sinks, on counter tops, in closets, behind window coverings, under rugs or carpets, and under or behind furniture. Areas around the exterior, under the structure, in the garage and in the attic may also be obscured by stored items. The inspector in general does not move personal belongings, furnishings, carpets or appliances. When furnishings, stored items or debris are present, all areas or items that are obscured, concealed or not readily accessible are excluded from the inspection. The client should be aware that when furnishings, stored items or debris are eventually moved, damage or problems that were not noted during the inspection may be found.
Limitations: Unless specifically included in the inspection, the following items and any related equipment, controls, electric systems and/or plumbing systems are excluded from this inspection: detached buildings or structures; fences and gates; retaining walls; underground drainage systems, catch basins or concealed sump pumps; swimming pools and related safety equipment, spas, hot tubs or saunas; whether deck, balcony and/or stair membranes are watertight; trees, landscaping, properties of soil, soil stability, erosion and erosion control; ponds, water features, irrigation or yard sprinkler systems; sport courts, playground, recreation or leisure equipment; areas below the exterior structures with less than 3 feet of vertical clearance; invisible fencing; sea walls, docks and boathouses; retractable awnings. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only.
Site profile: Level, Minor slope
Condition of sidewalks: Appeared serviceable
Sidewalk material: Poured in place concrete
Condition of decks, porches and/or balconies: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Deck, porch and/or balcony material: Wood
Condition of stairs, handrails and guardrails: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Exterior stair material: Masonry
5) Handrails at one or more flights of stairs were missing. This is a potential fall hazard. Handrails should be installed at stairs with four or more risers or where stairs are greater than 30 inches high. Recommend that a qualified contractor install handrails where missing and per standard building practices.
6) Vegetation was overgrown throughout the entire property and should be pruned or removed as necessary to allow unobstructed access.
7) Other items of interest for this Section:
8) Significant amounts of standing water or evidence of past accumulated water were found at one or more locations in the yard or landscaped areas, and no drain was visible. If evidence of past water was found (e.g. silt accumulation or staining), monitor these areas in the future during periods of heavy rain. If standing water exists, recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. For example, installing one or more drains, or grading soil.
9) The soil or grading sloped down towards building perimeters in one or more areas. This can result in water accumulating around building foundations or underneath buildings. It can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend grading soil so it slopes down and away from buildings with a slope of at least 1 inch per horizontal foot for at least 6 feet out from buildings.
10) Significant amounts of debris, stored items and/or junk were found in the yard or around buildings.
11) Some sidewalks were obscured by vegetation and couldn't be fully evaluated.
12) All areas of the deck substructure were inaccessible due to limited space below. These areas couldn't be evaluated and are excluded from the inspection.
Limitations: The inspector performs a visual inspection of accessible components or systems at the exterior. Items excluded from this inspection include below-grade foundation walls and footings; foundations, exterior surfaces or components obscured by vegetation, stored items or debris; wall structures obscured by coverings such as siding or trim. Some items such as siding, trim, soffits, vents and windows are often high off the ground, and may be viewed using binoculars from the ground or from a ladder. This may limit a full evaluation. Regarding foundations, some amount of cracking is normal in concrete slabs and foundation walls due to shrinkage and drying. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of seismic reinforcement.
Wall inspection method: Viewed from ground
Condition of wall exterior covering: Appeared serviceable
Condition of foundation and footings: Appeared serviceable
Apparent foundation type: Crawl space
Foundation/stem wall material: Concrete block
Footing material (under foundation stem wall): Masonry
Anchor bolts or hold downs for seismic reinforcement: None visible
13) Caulk was deteriorated in some areas. For example, around doors and/or at siding-trim junctions. Recommend that a qualified person renew or install caulk as necessary. Where gaps are wider than 1/4 inch, an appropriate material other than caulk should be used. For more information, visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?CAULK
14) Other items of interest for this Section:
15) Some exterior wall sections were obscured by vegetation and couldn't be fully evaluated. They are excluded from this inspection.
16) Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines was in contact with or close to the building exterior. Vegetation can serve as a pathway for wood-destroying insects and can retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend pruning, moving or removing vegetation as necessary to maintain at least 6 inches of space between it and the building exterior. A 1-foot clearance is better.
17) Trees were in contact with or were close to the building at one or more locations. Damage to the building may occur, especially during high winds, or may have already occurred (see other comments in this report). Recommend that a qualified tree service contractor or certified arborist remove trees as necessary to prevent damage to the building exterior.
18) The paint or stain finish in some areas was failing (e.g. peeling, faded, worn, thinning). Siding and trim with a failing finish can be damaged by moisture. Recommend that a qualified contractor prep (e.g. clean, scrape, sand, prime, caulk) and repaint or restain the building exterior where necessary and per standard building practices. Any repairs needed to the siding or trim should be made prior to this.
Limitations: Structural components such as joists and beams, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by under-floor insulation are excluded from this inspection. The inspector does not determine if support posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing.
The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that water will not accumulate in the crawl spaces in the future. Complete access to all crawl space areas during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so.
The inspector attempts to locate all crawl space access points and areas. Access points may be obscured or otherwise hidden by furnishings or stored items. In such cases, the client should ask the property owner where all access points are that are not described in this inspection, and have those areas inspected. Note that crawl space areas should be checked at least annually for water intrusion, plumbing leaks and pest activity.
Crawl space inspection method: Partially traversed, Viewed from hatch(es)
Location of crawl space access point #A: Building exterior
Crawl space access points that were opened and viewed, traversed or partially traversed: A
Condition of floor substructure above: Appeared serviceable
Pier or support post material: Masonry
Beam material: Built-up wood
Floor structure above: Solid wood joists
Condition of insulation underneath floor above: Not applicable, none installed
Condition of vapor barrier: Appeared serviceable
Vapor barrier present: Yes
Condition of crawl space ventilation: Appeared serviceable
Ventilation type: Unconditioned space
19) Significant gaps were found where the new main waste pipe was routed through the foundation wall (left side of home) Water, soil and/or vermin may enter the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person make permanent repairs as necessary to seal these gaps.
20) sections of the crawl space at location were not evaluated due to lack of access because of piping, etc . The condition of these areas is unknown and they are excluded from this inspection. Recommend that conditions be corrected to allow a full evaluation of all crawl space areas.
Limitations: The following items or areas are not included in this inspection: areas that could not be traversed or viewed clearly due to lack of access; solar roofing components. Any comments made regarding these items are made as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on the roof surface material, nor guarantee that leaks have not occurred in the roof surface, skylights or roof penetrations in the past. Regarding roof leaks, only active leaks, visible evidence of possible sources of leaks, and evidence of past leaks observed during the inspection are reported on as part of this inspection. The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that leaks will not occur in the future. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. Occupants should monitor the condition of roofing materials in the future. For older roofs, recommend that a professional inspect the roof surface, flashings, appurtenances, etc. annually and maintain/repair as might be required. If needed, the roofer should enter attic space(s). Regarding the roof drainage system, unless the inspection was conducted during and after prolonged periods of heavy rain, the inspector was unable to determine if gutters, downspouts and extensions perform adequately or are leak-free.
Age of roof surface(s): 5-10
Roof inspection method: Viewed from ground with binoculars
Condition of roof surface material: Appeared serviceable
Roof surface material: Asphalt or fiberglass composition shingles
Roof type: Gable and Valley
Apparent number of layers of roof surface material: One
Condition of exposed flashings: Appeared serviceable
Condition of gutters, downspouts and extensions: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Gutter and downspout material: Metal
Gutter and downspout installation: Partial
21) One or more gutters had a substandard slope so that significant amounts of water accumulate in them rather than draining through the downspouts. This can cause gutters to overflow, especially when debris such as leaves or needles has accumulated in them. Rainwater can come in contact with the building exterior or accumulate around the foundation as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. For example, by correcting the slope in gutters or installing additional downspouts and extensions.
22) One or more downspouts were loose and/or damaged. Rainwater can come in contact with the building exterior or accumulate around the building foundation as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.
23) Significant amounts of debris such as leaves, needles, seeds, etc. have accumulated on the roof surface. Water may not flow easily off the roof, and can enter gaps in the roof surface. Leaks can occur as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend cleaning debris from the roof surface now and as necessary in the future.
24) Vegetation such as trees, shrubs, and/or vines overhung the roof surface or were in contact with the roof edge. Organic debris such as leaves or needles are likely to accumulate in gutters and on the roof surface. Gutters can overflow and cause water to come in contact with the building exterior or water can accumulate around the foundation. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Vegetation in contact with the roof can damage the roof surface and/or the roof drainage system. Recommend pruning vegetation so as to not be in contact with the roof and to not overhang the roof surface. If vegetation is too tall then it should be pruned at least 10 feet above the roof surface.
Limitations: The following items or areas are not included in this inspection: areas that could not be traversed or viewed clearly due to lack of access; areas and components obscured by insulation. Any comments made regarding these items are made as a courtesy only. The inspector does not determine the adequacy of the attic ventilation system. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high/low temperatures, high/low humidity, high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. The inspector is not a licensed engineer and does not determine the adequacy of roof structure components such as trusses, rafters or ceiling beams, or their spacing or sizing.
Attic inspection method: Partially traversed
Location of attic access point #A: Hallway
Attic access points that were opened and viewed, traversed or partially traversed: A
Condition of roof structure: Appeared serviceable
Roof structure type: Rafters
Ceiling structure: Ceiling joists
Condition of insulation in attic (ceiling, skylight chase, etc.): Appeared serviceable
Ceiling insulation material: Mineral wool loose fill
Approximate attic insulation R value (may vary in areas): R-11
Vermiculite insulation present: Not determined
Roof ventilation type: Enclosed soffit vents, Mechanical vents with turbine
25) One or more sections of the roof structure appeared to have substandard ventilation, there were too few vents. This can result in high attic and roof surface temperatures, reduce the life of the roof covering materials, and/or increase cooling costs. High levels of moisture are also likely to accumulate in the roof structure or attic, and can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Standard building practices require one free square foot of ventilation for every 150 square feet of attic space, and that vents be evenly distributed between the lowest points of the roof structure and the highest points to promote air circulation. Often this means that both soffit vents and ridge or gable end vents are installed. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair per standard building practices.
26) Other items of interest for this Section:
27) The pull-down attic stairs were not insulated. Typically, such stairs that are not insulated also do not have any weatherstripping installed. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation and weatherstripping per standard building practices for better energy efficiency. For more information, visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?INSATTSTRS
28) The ceiling insulation installed in the attic was substandard and appeared to have an R rating that's significantly less than current standards (R-38). Heating and cooling costs will likely be higher due to poor energy efficiency. Recommend that a qualified contractor install insulation for better energy efficiency and per standard building practices.
29) The ceiling insulation in one or more areas of the attic was compacted or uneven. Heating and cooling costs may be higher due to reduced energy efficiency. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install insulation as necessary and per standard building practices (typically R-38).
30) One or more soffit vents were blocked by insulation. This can reduce air flow through the roof structure or attic and result in reduced service life for the roof surface materials because of high temperatures. Moisture from condensation is also likely to accumulate in the roof structure and/or attic and can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary so air flows freely through all vents. For example, by moving or removing insulation and installing cardboard baffles.
31) What appeared to be past water stains were visible on the roof structure at one or more locations in the attic. However, no elevated levels of moisture were found at these stains during the inspection. The stains may have been caused by a past leak. Recommend asking the property owner about past leaks. Monitor these areas in the future, especially after heavy rains to determine if active leaks exist. If leaks are found, recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.
32) All attic areas and roof structures more than 6 feet from attic access point(s) #A were inaccessible due to ducts or pipes blocking and/or limited height. These areas were not evaluated and are excluded from the inspection.
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: generator systems, transfer switches, surge suppressors, inaccessible or concealed wiring; underground utilities and systems; low-voltage lighting or lighting on timers or sensors. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of grounding or bonding, if this system has an adequate capacity for the client's specific or anticipated needs, or if this system has any reserve capacity for additions or expansion. The inspector does not operate circuit breakers as part of the inspection, and does not install or change light bulbs. The inspector does not evaluate every wall switch or receptacle, but instead tests a representative number of them per various standards of practice. When furnishings, stored items or child-protective caps are present some receptacles are usually inaccessible and are not tested; these are excluded from this inspection. Receptacles that are not of standard 110 volt configuration, including 240-volt dryer receptacles, are not tested and are excluded. The functionality of, power source for and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms is not determined as part of this inspection. Upon taking occupancy, proper operating and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms should be verified and batteries should be changed. These devices have a limited lifespan and should be replaced every 10 years. The inspector attempts to locate and evaluate all main and sub-panels. However, panels are often concealed. If panels are found after the inspection, a qualified electrician should evaluate and repair if necessary. The inspector attempts to determine the overall electrical service size, but such estimates are not guaranteed because the overall capacity may be diminished by lesser-rated components in the system. Any repairs recommended should be made by a licensed electrician.
Electric service condition: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below) THE ENTIRE ELECTRIC SYSTEM IN THIS HOME SHOULD BE COMPLETELY AND THOROUGHLY EVALUATED AND REPAIRED BY A LICENSED ELECTRICIAN FOR YOUR SAFETY. THE OUT BUILDING SHOULD BE CHECKED AS WELL.
Primary service type: Overhead
Number of service conductors: 3
Service voltage (volts): 120-240
Estimated service amperage: 100
Primary service overload protection type: Circuit breakers
Service entrance conductor material: Stranded copper
Main disconnect rating (amps): 100
System ground: Not determined, not readily apparent
Condition of main service panel: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Location of main service panel #A: Kitchen cabinet
Location of main disconnect: Breaker at top of main service panel
Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection present: No
Arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection present: No
Smoke alarms installed: Yes, but not tested
33) Other items of interest for this Section:
34) One or more electric receptacles at the kitchen, laundry area and/or exterior had no visible ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection, or the inspector was unable to determine if GFCI protection was present. If not GFCI-protected, receptacles in wet areas pose a shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and install GFCI protection if necessary and per standard building practices. General guidelines for GFCI-protected receptacles include the following locations:
Outdoors (since 1973)
Bathrooms (since 1975)
Garages (since 1978)
Kitchens (since 1987)
Crawl spaces and unfinished basements (since 1990)
35) One or more electric receptacles at the bedroom(s), kitchen, living room, closet(s), hallway(s) and/or laundry area had no visible arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection, or the inspector was unable to determine if AFCI protection was present. This is a potential safety hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and install AFCI protection if necessary and per standard building practices. General guidelines for AFCI-protected receptacles include the following locations:
Bedrooms (since 1999)
Kitchens, laundry areas, family rooms, dining rooms, living rooms, parlors, libraries, dens and recreation rooms, sunrooms, closets and hallways (since 2014)
36) The service drop wires had no drip loop where they attached to the service mast, or the drip loop was substandard. This can result in water entering electric panels, and is a potential shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.
37) Non-metallic sheathed wiring in the attic was routed on surfaces within 6 feet of one or more access hatches or doors, and was subject to damage. Wiring can be damaged when hatches are lifted and set aside, when stored items are moved into or out of the attic, etc. This is a potential shock and/or fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.
38) Wire splices were exposed and were not contained in a covered junction box. This is a potential shock or fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices. For example, by installing permanently mounted junction boxes with cover plates where needed to contain wiring splices.
39) Extension cords were being used as permanent wiring at one or more locations. They should only be used for portable equipment on a temporary basis. Using extension cords as permanent wiring is a potential fire and shock hazard, and indicates that wiring is inadequate and needs updating. Extension cords may be undersized. Connections may not be secure resulting in power fluctuations, damage to equipment, overheating and sparks that could start a fire. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices and eliminate extension cords for permanently installed equipment.
40) Flexible lamp or appliance cord was being used for permanent wiring at one or more locations. Such wiring is not intended to be used as permanent wiring and poses a safety hazard of shock and fire. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.
41) One or more plug ends were installed on non-metallic sheathed wiring. This type of wiring is only intended for permanent, immovable installations. Wiring may be damaged by repeated movement. This is a safety hazard for shock and/or fire. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.
42) One or more modern, 3-slot electric receptacles were found with an open ground. Three-slot receptacles should have a hot, a neutral and a ground wire connected. Homeowners often install new 3-slot receptacles on older, 2-wire circuits that only have hot and neutral wires. This is a shock hazard when appliances that require a ground are used with these receptacles. Examples of such appliances include computers and related hardware, refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners, clothes washers, aquarium pumps, and electrically operated gardening tools. Where the electric system was installed prior to when grounded circuits were required (1960s), it is permissible to replace 3-slot receptacles with 2-slot receptacles to prevent appliances that require a ground from being plugged in to an ungrounded circuit. However, the client should be aware of this limitation when planning use for various rooms, such as an office. For newer electric systems, circuits should be repaired so grounded, 3-wire cables provide power to 3-slot receptacles. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.
43) No permanently installed carbon monoxide alarms were found. This is a potential safety hazard. Some states and/or municipalities require CO alarms to be installed for new construction and/or for homes being sold. Recommend installing approved CO alarms outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms on each level and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. For more information, visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?COALRM
44) Branch circuit wiring installed in buildings built prior to the mid 1980s is typically rated for a maximum temperature of only 60 degrees Celsius. This includes non-metallic sheathed (Romex) wiring, and both BX and AC metal-clad flexible wiring. Knob and tube wiring, typically installed in homes built prior to 1950, may be rated for even lower maximum temperatures. Newer electric fixtures including lighting and fans typically require wiring rated for 90 degrees Celsius. Connecting newer fixtures to older, 60-degree-rated wiring is a potential fire hazard. Repairs for such conditions may involve replacing the last few feet of wiring to newer fixtures with new 90-degree-rated wire, and installing a junction box to join the old and new wiring.
It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if such incompatible components are installed, or to determine the extent to which they're installed. Based on the age of this building, the client should be aware of this safety hazard, both for existing fixtures and when planning to upgrade with newer fixtures. Consult with a qualified electrician for repairs as necessary.
45) Current electrical code requires that all exterior receptacles exposed to the weather have weather tight in-service covers on them. I recommend this be done for this home for your safety.
46) The legend for circuit breakers or fuses in panel(s) #A was missing, incomplete, illegible or confusing. This is a potential shock or fire hazard in the event of an emergency when power needs to be turned off. Recommend correcting the legend so it's accurate, complete and legible. Evaluation by a qualified electrician may be necessary.
47) One or more screws that attach the cover or dead front to panel(s) #A were missing or not installed. Recommend installing screws where missing so the cover or dead front is secure. Only screws with blunt tips approved for this purpose should be installed, so wiring inside the panel is not damaged. Because energized wires may be located directly behind screw holes, the client should consider having a qualified electrician replace missing screws.
48) The electric service to this property appeared to be rated at substantially less than 200 amps and may be inadequate. Depending on the client's needs, recommend consulting with a qualified electrician about upgrading to a 200 amp service. Note that the electric service's rating is based on the lowest rating for the meter base, the service conductors, the main service panel and the main disconnect switch. One or more of these components may need replacing to upgrade.
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: private/shared wells and related equipment; private sewage disposal systems; hot tubs or spas; main, side and lateral sewer lines; gray water systems; pressure boosting systems; trap primers; incinerating or composting toilets; fire suppression systems; water softeners, conditioners or filtering systems; plumbing components concealed within the foundation or building structure, or in inaccessible areas such as below tubs; underground utilities and systems; overflow drains for tubs and sinks; back flow prevention devices. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not test for lead in the water supply, the water pipes or solder, does not determine if plumbing and fuel lines are adequately sized, and does not determine the existence or condition of underground or above-ground fuel tanks. Homes built where marsh is prevalent should have the main sewer line evaluated by a plumbing company using video inspection techniques since that soil is very soft and the main waste lines can be damaged driving heavy machinery over them. This may not be observed during a home inspection due to the short duration of the water draining. For older homes, similar technology is recommended for properties where large trees are growing over and near the waste lines. This is a precautionary measure since in the last few years, older homes are experiencing this problem which could not have been detected during the home inspection but can be a very costly repair. Be guided by these comments.
Condition of service and main line: Appeared serviceable
Water service: Public
Location of main water meter: Not determined (obscured, inaccessible or none found)
Location of main water shut-off: Not determined (obscured, inaccessible or none found)
Service pipe material: Copper
Condition of supply lines: Appeared serviceable
Supply pipe material: Copper, PEX plastic
Condition of drain pipes: Appeared serviceable
Drain pipe material: Plastic
Condition of waste lines: Appeared serviceable
Waste pipe material: Plastic, Copper
Location(s) of plumbing clean-outs: Building exterior
Vent pipe condition: Appeared serviceable
Vent pipe material: Metal
Condition of fuel system: Appeared serviceable
49) One or more uncoated brass flexible connectors were found in gas supply line(s). Some older brass connectors can separate from the tubing and cause a serious gas leak, explosion or fire. These connectors haven't been made since 1976. Moving appliances with such connectors, even slightly, whether to clean behind them or to inspect their gas connectors, can cause the connector to crack or break. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace uncoated brass flexible connectors. For more information, visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?FLEXCONN1
50) One or more hose bibs were missing backflow prevention devices. These devices reduce the likelihood of gray water entering the potable water supply. Recommend installing backflow prevention devices on all hose bibs where missing. They are available at most home improvement stores and are easily installed. For more information, visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?BKFLOW
51) One or more plumbing vent pipes terminated less than 6 inches above the roof surface below. Debris and/or snow can block vent pipe openings with such short pipes. Blocked vent pipes can cause sewer gases to enter living spaces. Recommend that a qualified person repair per standard building practices. For example, by extending pipe(s) to terminate at least 6 inches above the roof surface.
52) The inspector did not determine the location of the water meter. Recommend consulting with the property owner to determine the meter location, that you locate it yourself, or consult with the local water municipality if necessary. It is especially important to find the meter if no main shut-off valve is found because the meter may be the only way to turn off the water supply in the event of an emergency, such as when a supply pipe bursts.
53) Based on the age of this structure and/or worn or newer waste clean-out caps, recommend that a qualified plumber inspect the waste lines using a video scope device to determine if they need repair or replacement. Property owners are usually responsible for repairs to the side sewer and publicly owned lateral lines. Such repairs can be expensive.
54) The inspector did not determine the location of the main water shut-off valve, or verify that a readily accessible shut-off valve in the building exists. Recommend consulting with the property owner to determine if a main shut-off valve exists, locating it yourself, or that a qualified plumber find it if necessary. If no readily accessible main shut-off valve is found in the building, then recommend that a qualified plumber install one so the water supply can be quickly turned off in the event of an emergency, such as when a supply pipe bursts.
Limitations: Evaluation of and determining the adequacy or completeness of the following items are not included in this inspection: water recirculation pumps; solar water heating systems; Energy Smart or energy saver controls; catch pan drains. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on water heaters, does not determine if water heaters are appropriately sized, or perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit or a shut-off valve to be operated.
Condition of water heater: Near, at or beyond service life - NO SAFE ACCESS AND POOR INSTALLATION LOCATION - DISCLAIMED - PLUMBER TO EVALUATE CONNECTIONS AND REPLACEMENT OF UNIT.
Energy source: Natural gas
Capacity (in gallons): 40
Location of water heater: Exterior closet
Hot water temperature tested: No
Condition of burners: Appeared serviceable, Not determined (inaccessible, obscured, or gas service off)
Condition of venting system: Appeared serviceable
55) The water heater did not have earthquake straps or struts installed. This is a potential safety hazard in the event of an earthquake due to the risk of the water heater tipping over, gas lines breaking if it's gas-fired, or electric wiring being damaged if powered by electricity. Leaks can also occur in water-supply pipes. Recommend that a qualified person install earthquake straps or struts as necessary and per standard building practices.
56) No temperature-pressure relief valve drain line was installed on the water heater tank. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of explosion. A qualified plumber should install a temperature-pressure relief valve and drain line per standard building practices.
57) A permanently installed insulated jacket was installed on the water heater. It obscured the manufacturer's information label and/or most of the water heater. The inspector was unable to fully evaluate the water heater.
58) The estimated useful life for most water heaters is 8-12 years. This water heater appeared to be beyond this age and/or its useful lifespan and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future, or considering replacement now before any leaks occur. The client should be aware that significant flooding can occur if the water heater fails. If not replaced now, consider having a qualified person install a catch pan and drain or a water alarm to help prevent damage if water does leak.
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters; solar, coal or wood-fired heat systems; thermostat or temperature control accuracy and timed functions; heating components concealed within the building structure or in inaccessible areas; underground utilities and systems; safety devices and controls (due to automatic operation). Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on heating or cooling system components, does not determine if heating or cooling systems are appropriately sized, does not test coolant pressure, or perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit, a shut-off valve to be operated, a circuit breaker to be turned "on" or a serviceman's or oil emergency switch to be operated. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if furnace heat exchangers are intact and free of leaks. Condensation pans and drain lines may clog or leak at any time and should be monitored while in operation in the future. Where buildings contain furnishings or stored items, the inspector may not be able to verify that a heat source is present in all "liveable" rooms (e.g. bedrooms, kitchens and living/dining rooms).
General heating system type(s): Forced air, Furnace
General heating distribution type(s): Ducts and registers
Condition of forced air heating/(cooling) system: Near, at or beyond service life (29 YEARS OLD) - REPLACEMENT REQUIRED
Forced air heating system fuel type: Natural gas
Estimated age of forced air furnace: 29
Forced air heating system manufacturer: Lennox
Location of forced air furnace: Utility room
Condition of furnace filters: Required replacement
Location for forced air filter(s): Behind return air grill(s)
Condition of forced air ducts and registers: Appeared serviceable
Condition of burners: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of venting system: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of cooling system and/or heat pump: Near, at or beyond service life
Cooling system and/or heat pump fuel type: Electric
Estimated age of heat pump or air conditioning unit: 13+ Recommend replacement
Condition of controls: Appeared serviceable
59) Because of the age and/or condition of the forced air furnace, recommend that a qualified HVAC contractor inspect the heat exchanger and perform a carbon monoxide test when it's serviced. Note that these tests are beyond the scope of a standard home inspection.
60) One or more corroded areas and/or possible cracks were found at the furnace's heat exchanger. This is a safety hazard due to possibility of combustion gases entering the heating system's air supply ducts. Recommend that a qualified HVAC contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.
61) The last service date of the gas or oil-fired forced air furnace appeared to be more than 1 year ago, or the inspector was unable to determine the last service date. Ask the property owner when it was last serviced. If unable to determine the last service date, or if this system was serviced more than 1 year ago, recommend that a qualified HVAC contractor inspect, clean, and service this system, and make repairs if necessary. For safety reasons, and because this system is fueled by gas or oil, this servicing should be performed annually in the future. Any needed repairs noted in this report should be brought to the attention of the HVAC contractor when it's serviced. For more information visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?ANFURINSP
62) The estimated useful life for most forced air furnaces is 15-20 years. This furnace appeared to be beyond this age and/or its useful lifespan and may need replacing or significant repairs at any time. Recommend replacement .
63) The estimated useful life for most air conditioning condensing units is 10-15 years. This unit appeared to be at this age and/or its useful lifespan and may need replacing or significant repairs at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement now.
64) Other items of interest for this Section:
65) Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines were too close to the heat pump or air conditioning condensing unit. There should be at least 12 inches of clearance on all sides and at least 4-6 feet above. Inadequate clearance around and above can result in reduced efficiency, increased energy costs and/or damage to equipment. Recommend pruning and/or removing vegetation as necessary.
66) The pad for the heat pump or air conditioning condensing unit was Inaccessible due to vegetation. This unit requires adequate support. The compressor may be damaged if this unit is tilted 10 degrees or more. Also, the pad should elevate the unit above the soil to prevent corrosion. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: household appliances such as stoves, ovens, cook tops, ranges, warming ovens, griddles, broilers, dishwashers, trash compactors, refrigerators, freezers, ice makers, hot water dispensers and water filters; appliance timers, clocks, cook functions, self and/or continuous cleaning operations, thermostat or temperature control accuracy, and lights. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of the remaining life of appliances, and does not determine the adequacy of operation of appliances. The inspector does not note appliance manufacturers, models or serial numbers and does not determine if appliances are subject to recalls. Areas and components behind and obscured by appliances are inaccessible and excluded from this inspection.
Condition of sinks and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable
Condition of dishwasher: Appeared serviceable
Condition of range, cooktop or oven: Appeared serviceable
Range, cooktop or oven type: Electric
Type of ventilation: Hood over range ducted to exterior
Condition of refrigerator: Appeared serviceable
67) Stains were found in the shelving or cabinets below the sink. Plumbing leaks may have occurred in the past. Consult with the property owner about this, and if necessary a qualified person evaluate and repair.
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: overflow drains for tubs and sinks; heated towel racks, saunas, steam generators, clothes washers, clothes dryers. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of washing machine drain lines, washing machine catch pan drain lines, or clothes dryer exhaust ducts. The inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves for sinks, toilets, bidets, clothes washers, etc. due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not determine if shower pans or tub and shower enclosures are water tight, or determine the completeness or operability of any gas piping to laundry appliances.
Location #A: Full bath
Condition of counters: Appeared serviceable
Condition of cabinets: Appeared serviceable
Condition of flooring: Appeared serviceable
Condition of sinks and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable
Condition of toilets: Appeared serviceable
Condition of bathtubs and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable
Condition of shower(s) and related plumbing: Appeared serviceable
Gas supply for laundry equipment present: Yes
240 volt receptacle for laundry equipment present: Yes
68) A significant amount of water came out of the bathtub spout when the shower at location(s) #A was turned on. The diverter valve is likely defective, or may be encrusted with mineral deposits. Water will be wasted as a result. Recommend that a qualified plumber repair or replace components as necessary.
69) Tile and/or grout in the bathtub surround at location(s) #A was deteriorated (e.g. loose or cracked tiles, missing grout) or substandard. Water can damage the wall structure as a result. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary.
70) The sink at location(s) #A drained slowly. Recommend clearing drain and/or having a qualified plumber repair if necessary.
71) Rubber water supply hoses were installed at the clothes washer. These hoses are prone to bursting when deteriorated, which can result in flooding and significant water damage. Recommend upgrading to braided, stainless steel hoses.
Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: security, intercom and sound systems; communications wiring; central vacuum systems; elevators and stair lifts; cosmetic deficiencies such as nail-pops, scuff marks, dents, dings, blemishes or issues due to normal wear and tear in wall, floor and ceiling surfaces and coverings, or in equipment; deficiencies relating to interior decorating; low voltage and gas lighting systems. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not evaluate any areas or items which require moving stored items, furnishings, debris, equipment, floor coverings, insulation or similar materials. The inspector does not test for asbestos, lead, radon, mold, hazardous waste, urea formaldehyde urethane, or any other toxic substance. Some items such as window, drawer, cabinet door or closet door operability are tested on a sampled basis. The client should be aware that paint may obscure wall and ceiling defects, floor coverings may obscure floor defects, and furnishings may obscure wall, floor and floor covering defects. If furnishings were present during the inspection, recommend a full evaluation of walls, floors and ceilings that were previously obscured when possible. Determining the cause and/or source of odors is not within the scope of this inspection.
Condition of exterior entry doors: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below) FRONT DOOR HAS ISSUES - SEE PICS
Exterior door material: Wood
Condition of interior doors: Appeared serviceable
Condition of windows and skylights: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Type(s) of windows: Wood, Metal, Multi-pane, Single-pane, Single-hung, Double-hung, Fixed
Condition of walls and ceilings: Appeared serviceable
Wall type or covering: Drywall or plaster, Paneling
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall, Drywall or plaster, Acoustic spray
Condition of flooring: Appeared serviceable
Flooring type or covering: Wood or wood products, Tile
72) Glass in one or more interior windows was broken. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace glass where necessary.
73) Glass in one or more windows was cracked, broken and/or missing. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace glass where necessary.
74) Some ceilings in this structure had ceiling texture possibly installed prior to the mid-1980s. This material may contain asbestos, which is a known health hazard. Laws were passed in the United States in 1978 prohibiting use of asbestos in residential structures, but stocks of existing materials were used for some time thereafter. The client may wish to have this ceiling material tested by a qualified lab to determine if it does contain asbestos.
In most cases, when the material is intact and in good condition, keeping it encapsulated with paint and not disturbing it may reduce or effectively eliminate the health hazard. If the client wishes to remove the material, or plans to disturb it through remodeling, they should have it tested by a qualified lab and/or consult with a qualified industrial hygienist or asbestos abatement specialist. For more information, visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?AITH
75) Other items of interest for this Section:
76) Wood flooring in one or more areas was cupping. This may indicate that the floor has been exposed to water or that the flooring was not allowed to equalize in moisture content before being installed. Consult with the property owner and/or have a qualified specialist evaluate. It's likely that affected areas of the wood flooring will need to be refinished to obtain a flat surface. For more information, visit: https://www.reporthost.com/?WDFLRPRB
77) Fungal rot was found at one or more exterior door jambs. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.
78) One or more exterior doors were difficult to open or close and/or were sticking. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.
79) Trim or jambs around one or more exterior doors was damaged and/or deteriorated. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install as necessary.
80) One or more ceilings/walls were damaged. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.
81) Wood flooring in one or more areas was significantly worn, deteriorated or damaged. Recommend that a qualified contractor refinish wood flooring as necessary.
82) One or more exterior doors had minor damage and/or deterioration. Although serviceable, the client may wish to repair or replace such doors for appearances' sake.
83) Condensation and/or mildew was found around some windows. This is typically caused by high levels of indoor moisture coming in contact with cold, exterior surfaces, and can be controlled by heating and ventilation. Recommend the following:
Keep multiple windows slightly open in different parts of the house to allow ventilation
Keep bathroom doors closed when showering
Use exhaust fans when showering and cooking
Use heavy curtains to cover and insulate windows
Avoid hanging wet clothes indoors to dry
Replace single-pane windows (if any) with multi-pane windows
DISCLAIMED ITEMS: Any item on the following list and its related equipment which was NOT specifically inspected or tested by the KMLCHD as part of this inspection agreement is disclaimed from this report. This includes oil tanks, personal electrical generator sets (gensets), propane tanks, cisterns, outbuildings, sheds, Jacuzzi type tubs, tile shower pans, swimming pools and related equipment/buildings, outdoor hot tubs, in house waste ejector systems, sprinkler systems, septic/cesspool systems, ponds and wells.
If we have been engaged to inspect any of these items, they will be discussed within this report. If we arranged for additional testing, those reports will be sent under separate cover. Most of these items require item specific inspection techniques from a specialist in that area.