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Habitation Investigation
(614) 413-0075 · (937) 205-4758
Inspector: Jim Troth
License # OHI.2019004409
Expiration 08/07/2022
Title picture

Home Inspection Report

Client(s):  Suzie Client
Property address:  Sample Report
Columbus, OH
Inspection date:  Wednesday, June 8, 2022

This report published on Thursday, June 9, 2022 1:19:36 PM EDT

"No home is perfect. Keep things in perspective. Do not kill your deal over things that do not matter. It is inappropriate to demand that a seller address deferred maintenance, conditions already listed on the seller's disclosure or nit-picky items."

The above is an excerpt from Sell Your Home For More by Nick Gromicko.

Acceptance of this report and/or relying on the information within constitutes acceptance of the real estate inspection agreement limits for the client listed above even if the agreement is not signed. Reliance on a home inspection report that was originally performed for a different home buyer removes warranties. Home Inspections are not a pass/fail. The purpose is to identify the condition of the home as much as can be done at the time of the inspection. It is out of the scope of the home inspection to give estimates for repairs. We recommend that contractors be utilized prior to closing to provide repair estimates.

If you are not the person identified as the client above then you need to attain permission from the client above and you need to have your own home inspection completed.

It is not typical to request to remedy those items which are small maintenance items. Your real estate agent will be your best source to help determine which items (if any) are appropriate to request for correction or improvement

Table of Contents

General information
Exterior and Foundation
Electric service and Branch Wiring
Heating and cooling
Plumbing, Toilets, Water Heater
Fireplaces, woodstoves and chimneys
Crawl space
Kitchen / Appliances
Interior rooms
Sewer Line Scope

View summary

General informationTable of contents
Year built: 1905
Occupied: Yes
Weather conditions: Partly cloudy
Temperature: 80's
Ground condition: Dry
Type of building: Duplex
Present during inspection: Client(s), Tenant(s)
Foundation type: Unfinished basement
1) Comment - Photos are only a representative sample of conditions observed. There may be more than one area of concern not shown by photo
2) Comment - Here is an article regarding moisture, Ohio and lower sections of homes.

Here is a link to a home maintenance checklist to get you started.
3) Comment - This is a reminder that inspections are not code inspections, zoning checks nor a check for permits. Most buildings more than only a few years old are not up to current codes due to codes changing over time. It is normal and expected for homes and buildings not to be "up to code" Codes themselves are subject to locations and interpretation.

Inspections are also not a pest/rodent inspection. It is not uncommon for critters to move in to buildings when weather gets colder and/or there are food sources available. Keep food sources away and monitor always.

It is recommended that you get estimates for repairs prior to closing to fully understand the costs involved. Cost estimates are not part of the inspection. Our inspectors do not provide repairs so any estimate provided is very rough if given.
4) Comment - Issues that are considered cosmetic are not the goal of this report. For example; holes, stains, scratches, unevenness, not perfectly level or square, missing trim, paint and finish flaws or odors. It is not the intent of this report to make the house new again. Any mention of cosmetic is done as a courtesy or because of request.
The inspection company is not responsible for failure to properly maintain the property or damage that occurs or uncovered after taking possession.
5) Comment - Older home—We expect homes to be built according to the standard practices and building codes, if any, that were in use at the date of construction. Older homes often have areas or systems that do not comply with current building codes. While this inspection makes every effort to point out safety concerns, it does not inspect for building code compliance. It is common for homes of any age to have had repairs done, and some repairs may appear less than standard. This inspection looks for items that are not functioning as intended. It does not grade the quality of the repairs. In older homes, the inspector reviewed the structure from the standpoint of how it has fared through the years with the materials that were used. You can expect problems to become apparent as time passes. The inspector will not be able to find all deficiencies in and around a property, especially concerning construction techniques of the past.
Exterior and FoundationTable of contents
Foundation material: Stone, Concrete block
Apparent wall structure: Wood frame
Wall covering: Wood clapboard
Driveway material: Gravel
Sidewalk material: Poured in place concrete
6) Safety, Repair/Replace - Gaps larger than four inches were found in guardrails. This is a safety hazard, especially for small children. Recommend repairs/ modifications as necessary so gaps in guardrails do not exceed four inches. For example, installing additional balusters or railing components.

Guardrails were loose and/or wobbly in areas. This is a safety hazard. Recommend evaluation and repairs as necessary, such as installing new fasteners or hardware, installing additional fasteners and/or installing additional railing components as necessary so they are securely attached.
Photo 6-1 
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Photo 6-3 
7) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Trip hazards was/were found in sidewalk and/or patio sections due to cracks, settlement and/or heaving. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace sidewalk and/or patio sections as necessary to eliminate trip hazards.
Photo 7-1 
8) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Stairs/walkways have settled. Recommend evaluation and repair. Consider slab jacking as a repair method to ensure proper slope away from the home and to help remove any trip hazards.
Photo 8-1 
9) Safety, Repair/Maintain - Trip hazard(s) existed at stairs due to non-uniform riser heights. Standard building practices call for riser heights not to vary more than 3/8 inch on a flight of stairs. At a minimum, the client(s) should be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Ideally a qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace stairs so all riser heights are within 3/8 inch of each other.
Photo 9-1 
Photo 9-2 
10) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The foundation was an older stone foundation and had some moderate sized cracks or deterioration was observed. Mortar is deteriorated and should be repaired to prevent further deterioration where needed. Recommend having a qualified mason evaluate and repair as necessary. This will likely require repointing the mortar.
Photo 10-1 
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Photo 10-3 
11) Repair/Replace - The perimeter grading sloped towards the structure in areas and was too flat in other areas. This is a common find. This can result in water accumulating around the structure's foundation, or in basements and crawl spaces if they exist. Accumulated water is a conducive condition to wood destroying insects and organisms. Wet soil may also cause the foundation to settle and possibly fail over time. Recommend grading soil so it slopes down and away from the structure. The grade should drop at least 6 inches within the first 10 feet. Correct any negative slope of brick/concrete areas as well to direct water away from structure.

Where the site does not allow for the necessary fall away from the structure, drains or swales could be used.
Photo 11-1 
12) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Porch/patio roof had a low spot/sagged. Recommend evaluation and additional support if needed to help ensure proper support for the structure.
Photo 12-1 
13) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Siding was damaged and/or deteriorated in small areas. Recommend evaluation and correction as necessary to help prevent water intrusion. Inspector is unable to determine condition of underlying material.
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14) Repair/Maintain, Conducive conditions - Minor cracks (1/8 inch or less) were found in the foundation. These don't appear to be a structural concern, but recommend sealing them to help prevent water infiltration and monitoring them in the future. Numerous products exist to seal such cracks including:
  • Hydraulic cement. Requires chiseling a channel in the crack to apply.
  • Resilient caulks (easy to apply).
  • Epoxy sealants (both a waterproof and structural repair).

Note: small cracks can be the result of normal drying and shrinking of cement and mortar along with settling.
Photo 14-1 
Photo 14-2 
Photo 14-3 
15) Repair/Maintain, Conducive conditions - Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines are in contact with or less than one foot from the structure's exterior. Vegetation can serve as a conduit for wood destroying insects and may retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. Vegetation should be pruned and/or removed as necessary to maintain a one foot clearance between it and the structure's exterior.

Soil is in contact with or less than six inches from siding and/or trim. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. Soil should be graded and/or removed as necessary so there are at least six inches of space between the siding and trim and the soil below.
16) Repair/Maintain, Conducive conditions - One downspout was loose or detached. This can result in water accumulating around the structure's foundation, or in basements and crawl spaces if they exist. Accumulated water is a conducive condition to wood destroying insects and organisms, and may also cause the foundation to settle and possibly fail over time. Repairs should be made as necessary so downspouts are securely anchored and functional.
Photo 16-1 
17) Repair/Maintain - Damp proofing was peeling off/deteriorated. Recommend having it re applied to help provide additional protection against moisture intrusion.
Photo 17-1 
18) Maintain, Conducive conditions - Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines are in contact with or less than one foot from the structure's exterior. Vegetation can serve as a conduit for wood destroying insects and may retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. Vegetation should be pruned and/or removed as necessary to maintain a one foot clearance between it and the structure's exterior.
Photo 18-1 
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Photo 18-4 
19) Maintain - Small gaps exist at openings around the exterior, such as those where outside faucets, refrigerant lines, and/or gas supply pipes penetrate the exterior. Gaps should be sealed as necessary to prevent moisture intrusion and conditioned air loss. Inspector is unable to determine condition of underlying material.
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20) Comment - The following items are not included in this inspection: swimming pools, spas, hot tubs, water features and related equipment; playground, recreation or leisure equipment; landscape lighting; areas below exterior structures with less than three feet of vertical clearance; irrigation systems; invisible fencing; sea walls, docks and boathouses. Exterior buildings such as sheds, barns and garages are not included unless specifically requested. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not test or determine the adequacy of drainage systems for grounds, walkways, below-grade stairs and roof downspouts. The inspector does not provide an evaluation of geological conditions and/or site stability, compliance of pool or spa fencing with municipal requirements, or determination that deck, balcony and/or stair membranes are watertight. Inspector is unable to determine condition of underlying materials (see through solid objects) such as materials behind siding and facia positioned behind gutters or flashing for examples.
21) - The following items are not included in this inspection: below-grade foundation walls and footings, or those obscured by vegetation or building components; exterior building surfaces or components obscured by vegetation, stored items or debris. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Some amount of cracking is normal in concrete slabs and foundation walls due to shrinkage and drying. Note that the inspector does not determination the adequacy of sump pumps, seismic reinforcement, take measurements of plumbness, nor determine if support posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing.
Roof structure type: Trusses
Ceiling structure: Trusses
Roof inspection method: Pole Camera
Roof type: Hipped
Roof covering: Slate
Estimated age of roof material: 20+
Gutter & downspout material: Aluminum
Attic Inspection method: Traversed
Roof structure type: Rafters
Ceiling structure: Ceiling beams
Roof type: Cross gable
Roof covering: Asphalt or fiberglass composition shingles, Slate
Roof ventilation: None visible
22) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Comment - Nesting materials were found in the attic, no activity was observed. Ask seller about past animal entry and monitor. Consider also having the materials removed. The client(s) should also consult with a qualified, licensed pest control operator for evaluation and eliminating the creatures. Be aware the critters do roam about and may not be visible in all areas and that rodent inspections are out of the scope for home inspectors. Mention is done out of courtesy and does not mean a rodent inspection was in any way performed.

Article on the commonness of mice/critters in homes,
Photo 22-1 
23) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Conducive conditions - One area(s) of the roof structure was wet or had elevated levels of moisture at the time of the inspection. This indicated an active leak in the roof or structure exterior. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
Photo 23-1 
Photo 23-2 
24) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Conducive conditions - Ventilation was substandard in the attic. Inadequate attic ventilation may result in high attic and roof surface temperatures, reduce the life of the roof covering materials and increase cooling costs. High levels of moisture are also likely, and can be a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. Standard building practices require one square foot of vent area for 150 to 200 square feet of attic space. Vents should be evenly distributed between soffits, ridges and at corners to promote air circulation. Recommend correction/improvement.
25) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Several shingles were damaged, deteriorated and/or missing. Recommend evaluation by a roofer and replacement of any shingles in need to help prevent leaks.
Photo 25-1 
26) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Two roofing tiles were chipped and/or cracked. A qualified roofing contractor should evaluate the roof and replace any tiles as needed to help prevent leaks.
Photo 26-1 
Photo 26-2 
27) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One roofing tile was/were chipped and/or cracked or missing A qualified roofing contractor should evaluate the roof and replace any tiles as needed to help prevent leaks.
Photo 27-1 
28) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Gaps were found in one roof surface seam. These may result in leaks. Recommend evaluation and repair/sealing as necessary.

Over Side 1 Kitchen
Photo 28-1 
29) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Gaps and light were visible in areas. Likely due to gaps between roofing tiles. This may result in leaks. A qualified roofing contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
Photo 29-1 
30) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Heavy sealant usage indicates possible past leaks or substandard flashing. Consider evaluation and improvement. At minimum maintain sealants periodically. Inspector is unable to determine condition of underlying material.
Photo 30-1 
31) Maintain, Comment - Rubber membrane roofs require periodic maintenance typically every 4-5 years. Consider hiring a roofer to periodically inspect and do maintenance as needed.
Photo 31-1 
32) Evaluate, Monitor - Stains were visible on the roof structure in area(s). These areas were dry at the time of the inspection (we compare moisture levels of the stains to other areas for comparison). The stains may be caused by a past leak. Recommend asking the property owner(s) about past leaks and repairs. The client(s) should monitor these areas in the future, especially after heavy rains, to determine if active leaks exist. If leaks are found, a qualified roofing contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.

Dry stains are a common finding, especially with homes older than 20 years
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33) Evaluate, Comment - Unable to estimate insulation level due to lack of access. Recommend asking sellers for information.
34) Comment - Be aware that lifting and or moving around insulation is beyond the scope of the inspection, therefore the areas directly buried and under insulation are not visible. Due to attic structures access to some areas are limited due to physical spaces and safety.
35) Comment - The following items or areas are not included in this inspection: areas that could not be traversed or viewed clearly due to lack of access; areas and components obscured by insulation; solar roofing components; any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determination if rafters, trusses, joists, beams, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing. The inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining roof surface life nor any guarantee of roofs age, does not determine that the roof has absolutely no leaks at the time of the inspection, and does not determine that the roof won't leak in the future. To absolutely determine than no leaks exist, complete access to all roof structure areas must be available during a wide variety of weather conditions, including prolonged heavy rain, high wind from varying directions, heavy accumulations of snow and/or ice, and melting snow and ice.
36) Comment - Attic structure looked good.
Photo 36-1 
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37) Comment - Due to certain access restrictions and safety the roof access was limited and the roof was inspected by use of a pole mounted camera. Evaluation of the roof covering is limited with the use of such cameras. Some defects may not be visible such as hairline cracks in the shingles, granule loss, blistering, weakness in the roof decking, framing or structure. We assume no liability for any areas not directly viewed by the specialized camera. The Client should request any known history or documentation of the age or condition of the roof.
38) Comment - Generally the roof covering was in good condition
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39) Comment - Past repairs observed. Recommend asking sellers for information. Common for when roofs age.
Photo 39-1 
Electric service and Branch WiringTable of contents
Primary service type: Overhead
Primary service overload protection type: Circuit breakers
Service voltage (estimated): 120/240
Service amperage (amps): 200
Location of Main Service Switch: Exterior of home
Location of Sub panel: Basement
Location of main disconnect: Breaker at top of main service panel
Service entrance conductor material: Aluminum
System ground: Ground rod(s) in soil
Main disconnect rating (amps): 100x2
Branch circuit wiring type: Non-metallic sheathed (BX) Armor clad
Solid strand aluminum branch circuit wiring present in the panel: No
40) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One open ground, three-pronged grounding type receptacle(s) were found. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. An electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.

Identified with blue dot(s) with "OG"

Grounding type receptacles were first required in residential structures during the 1960s. Based on the age of this structure and/or the absence of 2-pronged receptacles, repairs should be made by correcting wiring circuits as necessary so all receptacles are grounded as per standard building practices. Replacement of three-pronged receptacles with 2-pronged receptacles is not an acceptable solution.1 RR DR
Photo 40-1 
41) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One electric receptacle had reverse-polarity wiring, where the hot and neutral wires are reversed. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. An electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.

identified with blue dot(s) with "H&N"
Photo 41-1 
42) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Loose/damaged conductors were found in the main service panel had bare ends and were not connected to circuit breakers or fuses. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire if the bare conductors come into contact with other components in the panel. An electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, removing wires that aren't terminated or installing wire nuts.

Side 1
Photo 42-1 
43) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Neutral and equipment ground conductors were combined at the sub-panel. This should only occur in the main service panel, and is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. Neutral conductors should be attached to a "floating" neutral bar not bonded to the panel, while grounding conductors should be attached to a separate grounding bar bonded to the sub panel. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.

Side 1
Side 2
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44) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - This property has "knob and tube" wiring, which was commonly installed prior to 1950. It is ungrounded, and considered unsafe by today's standards. Over time, the wire's insulation may become brittle and fall apart or wear thin, resulting in exposed conductors and a risk of shock and/or fire. This wiring is also easily damaged by covering it with insulation (a common practice), and incorrectly tapping new wiring into it.

Some energized knob and tube wiring was found during the inspection. It is not within the scope of this inspection to determine what percentage of this property's wiring is of the knob and tube type, or to determine what percentage of the knob and tube wiring is energized vs. abandoned. A qualified electrician should evaluate this wiring and make repairs or replace wiring as necessary.

Note that some insurance companies may be unwilling to offer homeowner's insurance for properties with knob and tube wiring. Recommend that the client(s) consult with their insurance carrier regarding this.

Side 2
Photo 44-1 
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45) Safety, Repair/Replace - One electric receptacle(s) was loose. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire and shock. A qualified electrician should replace them as necessary.
Photo 45-1 
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46) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Minor Defect - An insufficient number of smoke alarms were installed. Additional smoke alarms should be installed as necessary so a functioning one exists in each level of the home, hallways leading to bedrooms, and in each bedroom.
47) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate, Monitor - Rusting and or corrosion observed in the main panel, this indicates past moisture intrusion or high humidity levels. Recommend evaluation by an electrician and correction of any water entry points and moisture issues.

Side 2
Photo 47-1 
48) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - One electric receptacle(s) and/or the boxes they are installed in were loose and/or not securely anchored. Wire conductors may be damaged due to repeated movement and/or tension on wires, or insulation may be damaged. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
49) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Relatively few electric receptacles are installed in interior rooms. This can result in "octopus" wiring with extension cords, which is a fire hazard if done. Consider installing additional receptacles as necessary and as per standard building practices.
50) Safety, Minor Defect - Knockout(s) had been removed inside the main service panel where no wires and bushings are installed, and no cover(s) have been installed to seal the hole(s). This is a safety hazard. Recommend installing knockout covers where missing.

Side 2
Photo 50-1 
51) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One light fixture was damaged and/or deteriorated. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair or replace light fixtures where necessary.

Photo 51-1 
52) Comment - The following items are not included in this inspection: generator systems, surge suppressors, inaccessible or concealed wiring; underground utilities and systems; low voltage lighting or lighting on timers or sensors. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of grounding or bonding, does not determine if this system has an adequate capacity for the client's specific needs, nor determine if this system has any reserve capacity for additions or expansion. The inspector does not operate circuit breakers as part of the inspection, install or change light bulbs, nor determine the operability of every wall switch or outlet. Inspectors do not remove outlet covers and are unable to determine the type of wiring inside walls or in concealed spaces.

Note: National safety standards require electrical panels to be weatherproof, readily accessible, and have a minimum of thirty-six inches of clear space in front of them for service. Also, they should have a main disconnect, and each circuit within the panel should be clearly labeled. Industry standards only require us to test a representative number of accessible switches, receptacles, and light fixtures. However, we attempt to test every one that is unobstructed, but if a residence is furnished we will obviously not be able to test each one.
53) Comment - As smoke detectors age they have a higher possibility of failure. Consider installing new detectors so you can know for certain the age of the detectors. Smoke alarms should be installed as necessary so a functioning one exists in each hallway leading to bedrooms, each level of the home, and in each bedroom. We recommend installing new batteries in all detectors upon moving in. It is outside the scope of the inspection to determine if detectors are hard wired in.
54) Comment - Newer constructions approx 2002 and after began requiring newer circuit breakers called an arc-fault circuit interrupter or AFCI (these trip off the power in response to sparks)-- first required on circuits for bedrooms, and then on to living rooms, dining rooms, sun rooms and other areas where families gather or sleep. These standards change over time and vary from one jurisdiction to another. The type of AFCI also changed around 2008 to a combination type AFCI.

There are no requirements to upgrade if AFCI protection is not present. Consider installing or changing for increased safety and as an upgrade.

Here is a video showing how to install

About AFCI
Heating and coolingTable of contents
Estimated Condenser age: 2009/2021
Primary heat system type: Forced air
Primary A/C energy source: Electric
Primary Air conditioning type: Split system
Distribution system: Sheet metal ducts, Metal pipe
Manufacturer(s): Bryant, Lennox
Estimated Condenser age: 2009, 2021
Estimated Furnace age: 1999, 2021
Primary heating system energy source: Natural gas
Distribution system: Sheet metal ducts
Filter location: In return air duct next to furnace
55) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - What appears to be asbestos was visible on some ductwork. It was significantly deteriorated in some areas, and if it is asbestos, it may pose a health hazard and require abatement. Recommend having this material tested at a qualified lab. If the material is found to contain asbestos, recommend consulting with a qualified asbestos abatement contractor or industrial hygenist. For information on asbestos hazards in the home, visit

Blog post regarding asbestos

Side 1
Side 2
Photo 55-1 
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56) Repair/Maintain - Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines are too close to the outdoor condensing unit. Standard building practices require that there be at least 12 inches of clearance (24 inches is preferred) on all sides and at least four to six feet above. Inadequate clearances around the condensing unit can result in reduced efficiency, increased energy costs and/or damage to equipment. Vegetation should be pruned and/or removed as necessary to maintain these clearances.
Photo 56-1 
Photo 56-2 
57) Maintain, Comment - The estimated useful life for air conditioning compressors is 8 to 15 years. This unit was at this age range. Recommend regular maintenance to help ensure long life.
58) Maintain, Comment - The estimated useful life for forced air furnaces is 15 to 20 years. This furnace was at this age or older and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future.

Periodic maintenance will help ensure continued operation.

Side 1
59) Maintain - The filter(s) for the heating/cooling system should be checked monthly and replaced or washed as necessary.

Also be aware that heating and cooling systems should have regular maintenance on them yearly to help ensure long life spans.
60) Serviceable, Comment - The flames on the furnace looked good and the blower motor operated.
Photo 60-1 
Photo 60-2 
61) Serviceable, Comment - The desired temperature difference between return air and that produced should be in the range of 15 to 22 degrees Fahrenheit so that the supplied air is cooler than at the return duct(s), or current room temperature.

The air conditioning was operating within that range. The temperature difference was 17 degrees F, unit 886.

The air conditioning was operating within that range. The temperature difference was 22 degrees F, unit 884.
Photo 61-1 
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Photo 61-4 
62) Comment - We check heating and cooling for basic function. Our inspection is not technically exhaustive.
Our inspection of ducts is naturally limited to observable areas. Therefore large areas of ducts cannot be seen. Since dirt, dust, mold, even toys are commonly found in ducts we recommend that you have the ducts cleaned.
63) Conducive conditions - Image(s) of condenser.
Photo 63-1 
Plumbing, Toilets, Water HeaterTable of contents
Water service: Public
Location of main water shut off: Basement
Location of main water meter: Basement
Location of main fuel shut off: Exterior
Service pipe material: Galvanized steel
Supply pipe material: Copper
Vent pipe material: Cast iron
Drain pipe material: Plastic
Waste pipe material: Plastic, Cast iron
Estimated Year of water Heater: 2008, 2008
Type: Tank
Energy source: Natural gas
Capacity (in gallons): 30, 40
Manufacturer: Kenmore, Whirlpool
64) Safety, Repair/Replace - Exhaust pipe is deteriorated and/or had gaps and should be repaired/replaced to help prevent CO entering the home.

Side 2
Photo 64-1 
65) Safety, Repair/Maintain - The drain line to the water heater's temperature-pressure relief valve was undersized. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of explosion. This type of valve requires a minimum 3/4 inch diameter drain line. An undersized drain line can result in the water heater exploding if or when the valve opens due to restricted venting. Recommend replacing the drain line with a correctly sized one as per standard building practices.

Side 1
Side 2
Photo 65-1 
Photo 65-2 
66) Safety, Comment - Water supply pipes in homes built prior to 1986 may be joined with solder that contains lead. Lead is a known health hazard, especially for children. Laws were passed in 1985 prohibiting the use of lead in solder, but prior to that solder normally contained about 50 percent lead. The client(s) should be aware of this, especially if children will be living in this structure. Evaluating for the presence of lead in this structure is not included in this inspection. The client(s) should consider having a qualified lab test for lead, and if necessary take steps to reduce or remove lead from the water supply. Various solutions such as these may be advised:
  • Flush water taps or faucets. Do not drink water that has been sitting in the plumbing lines for more than six hours.
  • Install appropriate filters at points of use.
  • Use only cold water for cooking and drinking. Hot water dissolves lead more quickly than cold water.
  • Use bottled or distilled water.
  • Treat well water to make it less corrosive.
  • Have a qualified plumbing contractor replace supply pipes and/or plumbing components as necessary.

For more information visit:
67) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Conducive conditions - Stains were found on sections of drain and/or waste pipes. A qualified plumber should evaluate and repair if necessary.
Photo 67-1 
68) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Conducive conditions - Corrosion was found on the water heater. The water heater may be failing. A qualified plumbing contractor should evaluate and replace or repair water heater if necessary.

Side 2
Photo 68-1 
69) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Pin holes and/or corrosion were visible on one area(s) of copper water supply pipes. Leaks may result because of this. Recommend evaluate and replace water supply components as necessary.

Was not actively leaking at time of inspection.

Side 2
Side 1, hall bath
Photo 69-1 
Photo 69-2 
70) Repair/Replace, Conducive conditions - The bathroom with a shower did not have an exhaust fan installed. Moisture accumulation will occur and may damage the structure. Even if the bathroom has a window that opens, it likely does not provide adequate ventilation, especially during cold weather when the window is closed. A qualified contractor should install exhaust fans as per standard building practices where missing in bathrooms with showers. Missing inbox right and left unit
71) Repair/Maintain, Minor Defect - The bathroom sink was not anchored to the wall or floor. Recommend securely anchoring the sink to the wall and/or floor to prevent damage to and leaks in the water supply and/or drain pipes due to the sink being moved.

Side 2
Photo 71-1 
72) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Elevated level of moisture at flooring around the base of the upstairs hall bathroom toilet(s) was found. Recommend removing toilet where necessary for further evaluation and repairs (wax ring replacement). Adequate time should be allowed for enclosed, wet floor structures to dry out after repairs are made and before floor cavities are closed off to help prevent mold growth.

For a video of replacing a toilet and wax ring go here:

Side 2
Side 1
Photo 72-1 
Photo 72-2 
73) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - The upstairs hall bathroom toilet "runs" after being flushed, where water leaks from the tank into the bowl. Significant amounts of water can be lost through such leaks. A qualified plumber should evaluate and repair or replace components as necessary.

Side 2
74) Repair/Maintain - Tub stopper mechanism needed adjustment or repair. Stopper mechanisms should be installed where missing and/or repairs should be made so that stoppers open and close easily.
75) Repair/Maintain - The overflow for the tub was damaged / had gaps. Recommend repairs to help avoid leaks.

Please note that issues with overflows are typically not visible so there may be other issues beyond what is visible. Both units tubs valve was too low and no overflow
76) Minor Defect, Maintain, Conducive conditions - Caulk was missing or deteriorated around the base of the bathtub spout. It should be replaced where deteriorated and/or applied where missing to prevent water intrusion and damage to wall structures.
Photo 76-1 
77) Minor Defect, Maintain - The bathroom sink stopper mechanism was missing, or needed adjustment/repair. Stopper mechanisms should be installed where missing and/or repairs should be made so sink stoppers open and close easily.

Side 1
Photo 77-1 
78) Minor Defect, Comment - An expansion tank was not installed. These are recommended to help relieve pressure in water line from getting too high due to the heating of water. Too high of water pressure can result in plumbing issues such as a leaking TPR valve. Recommend checking with local plumber to determine if needed or required by the municipality.

more more informantion
79) Minor Defect - The "S" type trap are no longer used in plumbing installations. They are hard to ventilate properly and "S" trap forms a siphon. Traps are used to help prevent the escape of sewer gas into the structure. They do not compensate for pressure variations. Only proper venting will eliminate pressure problems.

Consider upgrading S-traps to a P-traps. Conversion kits are sold at home centers.

Side 2
Photo 79-1 
80) Evaluate, Monitor, Comment - Cast iron and copper pipes have a life expectancy of 50-70 years, cast iron can last even as long as 100 years. Much of a homes piping is normally in concealed areas and therefore not able to be inspected visually. Consider having the line scoped due to age. At minimum monitor.
81) Evaluate - The enamel coating on one sink(s) was damaged and/or deteriorated. For example, chipped or worn, and/or rust on some exposed steel. However, no leaks were found due to the deterioration. The client(s) should evaluate to determine if the sinks should be replaced.
Photo 81-1 
82) Evaluate - The enamel coating on one or more bathtubs is damaged and/or deteriorated. For example, chipped or worn, and/or rust on some exposed steel. However, no leaks were found due to the deterioration. The client(s) should evaluate to determine if the bathtub(s) should be replaced.

How to touch up a chipped sink or tub
Photo 82-1 
83) Monitor, Comment - The estimated useful life for most water heaters is 8 to 12 years. This water heater was at this age range or older and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future. Monitor

Article regarding water heater maintenance

Side 1
84) Monitor, Comment - The estimated useful life for most water heaters is 8 to 12 years. This water heater was at this age range or older and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future. Monitor

Corrosion was found on fittings and/or water supply lines for the water heater. No active leaking. Monitor

Article regarding water heater maintenance

Side 2
Photo 84-1 
85) Monitor - Dry stains were observed under the master tub area. Active leaking not observed. Recommend monitoring.
Photo 85-1 
Photo 85-2 
86) Serviceable, Comment - The flames on the water heater looked good.
Photo 86-1 
87) Comment - "In accordance with industry standards, we do not normally test washing machines and their water connections and drainpipes if present. However, there are a few things of which you should be aware. The water supply to washing machines is usually left on, and their hoses can leak or burst under pressure and continue to flow. Therefore, we recommend replacing the rubber hose type with newer, braided, stainless steel ones that are much more dependable and that they be operated only during times you will be present. You should also be aware that the newer washing machines discharge a greater volume of water than many of the older drainpipes can handle, which causes the water to back up and overflow, and the only remedy would be to replace the standpipe and trap with one that is larger. Although not required, whenever structural damage may result from an overflow, we recommend a pan with a plumbed drain. An alternative is a flood or leak detection device that will terminate the water supply in a water pipe failure."
88) Comment - It is beyond the scope of the inspection to confirm if the structure uses a septic or a public sewer system. This includes determination or inspection of aerators designed for septic systems. Recommend confirming with seller if there is any questions regarding this. It is always a great idea to have the county health department inspect any septic system.
89) Comment - Both hot and cold water flow was checked and each flowed in all sinks, tubs, toilets, and showers.
90) Comment - Your water meter and main water shut off location.
Photo 90-1 
91) Comment - Water supply pipes in this structure that were made of galvanized steel was observed. Based on the age of this structure, these pipes may be nearing or may have exceeded their estimated useful life of 40 to 60 years. Internal corrosion and rust will reduce the inside diameter of these pipes over time (sometimes quickly), resulting in reduced flow and eventually, leaks.

The inspector performed a "functional flow test" during the inspection where multiple fixtures were run simultaneously, and found the flow to be adequate. For example, the shower flow didn't decrease substantially when the toilet was flushed. Despite this, and because of their apparent age, these pipes may need replacing at any time.

What are galvanized pipes:
Photo 91-1 
Fireplaces, woodstoves and chimneysTable of contents
Fireplace type: Masonry
Chimney type: Masonry
92) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The masonry chimney's terracotta flue tiles were cracked, damaged or had gaps between sections. This is a fire hazard since these cracks can become much wider when the flue tiles are hot. Recommend having a qualified chimney service contractor evaluate and make repairs as necessary. Because of this damage, also recommend that the chimney service contractor perform a Level 2 inspection as per the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) guidelines.
Photo 92-1 
93) Safety, Repair/Replace - Chimney flue(s) did not have a screened cover installed. Screened covers prevent the following:
  • Fire hazard from wood fire sparks and embers exiting flues
  • Wildlife (birds, rodents, raccoons, etc.) entering flues
  • Rainwater entering flues and mixing with combustion deposits, creating caustic chemicals which can corrode flues
  • Rainwater entering flues and causing damage to terracotta flue tiles from freeze-thaw cycles

Recommend installing screened cover(s) where missing. Screens should have holes 1/4 inch or larger.
Photo 93-1 
94) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The masonry chimney's mortar was deteriorated/had gaps and should be repaired to prevent further, significant deterioration. Recommend having a qualified chimney service contractor or mason evaluate chimney and repair as necessary. This will likely require repointing the mortar.

What is tuckpointing?
Photo 94-1 
95) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - No metal liner was installed in the masonry chimney, and at least one gas appliance used the chimney for a flue. Standard building practices require that a metal liner be installed in masonry chimneys used to vent gas appliances. The purpose of the metal liner is to ensure a correct draft, and to prevent damage to the masonry flue from corrosive exhaust deposits and moisture in the exhaust gases. Recommend installing a metal liner.
96) Evaluate, Comment - Fireplace was closed off. Recommend asking seller regarding the condition of the fireplace. Always have the chimney professionally inspected prior to any use.
Photo 96-1 
Photo 96-2 
97) Comment - It is impossible for a home inspection to determine with any degree of certainty whether the flue is free of defects. Also unable to determine the type of mortar used. In the 1990's it became standard for non-water soluble mortar be used.

In accordance with recommendations made by the National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) it is recommended to have all chimneys inspected before buying a home, you should have a Level II inspection of the chimney flue prior to close of escrow. The typical fireplace inspection by a home inspector is not a Level II inspection.
98) Comment - The crown of the chimney was not visually accessible and was not inspected.
It is common for small cracks to form on crowns. Recommend evaluation and correction once access is possible.
99) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - The crawl space was not inspected due to the lack of a crawl space opening. Recommend having an opening created and having the crawl space inspected prior to closing. If you wish this to be inspected by us, once accessibility is confirmed contact our office to schedule at time.
Photo 99-1 
100) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - The exterior entrance hatch for the basement was made of wood. Consider replacing with metal or protecting it from moisture damage, especially if it is within 6 inches of soil.
Photo 100-1 
Photo 100-2 
101) Comment - Not Inspected
Kitchen / AppliancesTable of contents
102) Safety, Repair/Maintain - The range can tip forward, and no anti-tip bracket appeared to be installed. This is a safety hazard since the range may tip forward when weight is applied to the open door, such as when a small child climbs on it, or if heavy objects are dropped on it. An anti-tip bracket should be installed to eliminate this safety hazard.both units
103) Repair/Maintain, Minor Defect - The oven light was inoperable. Recommend replacing bulb or having repairs made if necessary by a qualified appliance technician.
104) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - No water nor ice was dispensed from the refrigerator door. The client(s) should ask the property owner(s) about this. Repairs may be necessary for these features to work.
105) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - One cabinet(s) and/or drawers was/were damaged and/or deteriorated. Recommend repair or replace cabinets and/or components as necessary.

Side 2
Side 1
Photo 105-1 
Photo 105-2 
106) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Drawers are difficult to open and close in cabinets. A handyman evaluate and repair as necessary.
107) Repair/Maintain, Comment - No range hood was installed over the range or cook top. Ventilation and/or lighting may be inadequate and moisture may accumulate indoors Consider installing a vented and lighted range hood, with the exhaust fan configured so as to vent outdoors.

It is common for range hoods to vent to the interior when installed or part of over the range microwaves. If this is the case then keep lids on when cooking to reduce moisture/steam.

Side 2
Side 1
108) Minor Defect, Maintain - One cabinet door did not close fully or was tilted. Recommend correction for mainly aesthetic reasons.
109) Maintain, Conducive conditions - Caulk is missing and/or deteriorated where countertops meet backsplashes in wet areas, such as around sinks. Caulk should be replaced where deteriorated and/or applied where missing to prevent water damage.
Photo 109-1 
110) Comment - The following items are not within the scope of this inspection: free-standing or portable appliances such as dishwashers, trash compactors, refrigerators, freezers, ice makers; specialty appliances such as hot water dispensers, water filters and trash compactors; appliance timers, clocks, cook functions, self and/or continuous cleaning operations, thermostat or temperature control accuracy, and lights. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of the remaining life of appliances, and does not determine the adequacy of operation of appliances such as dishwashers, garbage disposals, trash compactors, ovens, broilers, or check the calibration of ovens and refrigerators, etc.
111) Comment - These appliances operated:

Side 2
Stove /oven, disposal, refrigerator (freezer and main sections), dishwasher and microwave

Side 1
Stove/oven, refrigerator (freezer and main sections)

Be aware that checking refrigerators especially checking the temperatures are out of the scope of home inspections. Any comment is done for the convenience and information of the buyer.
Interior roomsTable of contents
112) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One door swung outward over stairs without a landing area in front of the door. This a safety hazard, specifically in the case of someone tripping or falling when standing on the stairs and opening the door while someone else walks through the door as it is opened. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, installing a door that opens in the other direction (away from the stairs). Both right and left you
Photo 112-1 
Photo 112-2 
113) Safety, Repair/Replace - Handrails at the stairs were loose. Recommend making repairs as necessary. For example, installing new fasteners and/or hardware so handrails are securely attached.

Side 2
Photo 113-1 
114) Safety, Repair/Replace - Entry doors had deadbolts installed with no handle, and require a key to open them from both sides. This can be a safety hazard in the event of a fire when the key is not available. The door cannot be used as an exit then, causing entrapment. Key-only deadbolts should be replaced with deadbolts that have a handle on the inside on entry doors in rooms with no other adequate egress nearby.
Photo 114-1 
Photo 114-2 
115) Safety, Repair/Maintain - Stairs with more than two risers had no handrail installed. This is a safety hazard. Handrails should be installed and be graspable handrails that your hand can completely encircle at stairs where missing.

Side 2
Photo 115-1 
116) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Rot / deterioration observed at one window. Recommend evaluation and repair/replacement as needed.
Photo 116-1 
117) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Floors in area(s) were not level. Significant repairs may be needed to make floors level, such as repairs to the foundation or piers. A contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.

Side 1
Side 2
Photo 117-1 
Photo 117-2 
118) Repair/Replace - Lock mechanisms on one window(s) was missing and/or damaged so that they are inoperable. Repairs should be made by a qualified contractor or service technician so that windows lock and unlock easily.

Marked with a blue dot
Photo 118-1 
119) Repair/Maintain, Minor Defect - Window screens missing. Screens should be replaced/replaced where necessary.

Missing location(s):

Side 2, 10 windows
Side 1, 5 windows
120) Repair/Maintain, Minor Defect - Missing or damaged ball latch mechanism for closet/office door(s) was located. Recommend correction so as to latch doors shut.

Side 1
Photo 120-1 
121) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate, Conducive conditions - Vinyl flooring in one "wet" area was damaged and/or deteriorated. The wooden subfloor below may be damaged by water intrusion. Recommend replace or repair the damaged flooring.
122) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Squeaking or creaking noises occur when walking on sections of flooring. This is usually caused where the subfloor decking is not adequately fastened to the framing below. For example, not enough glue was used and/or nails were used rather than screws. In most cases, this is only an annoyance rather than a structural problem. Various solutions such as Squeeeeek No More and Counter Snap fasteners exist to correct this. Repairs to eliminate the squeaks or creaks may be more or less difficult depending on the floor covering, and the access to the underside of the subfloor. Recommend having a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. Both right and left units at squeaky floors

Area(s) mainly were: Both units

Squeeeeek No More Kit
123) Repair/Maintain, Comment - Minor cracks were found in area(s). They do not appear to be a structural concern, but the client(s) may wish to repair these for aesthetic reasons.

Cracks can form due to seasons and changes in temperature and humidity.

video on "nail pop" repairs

Areas were:

Both units
Photo 123-1 
Photo 123-2 
Photo 123-3 
124) Repair/Maintain, Conducive conditions - Window glazing putty on windows was missing and/or deteriorated. Putty should be replaced and/or installed where necessary. For more information on replacing window putty, visit:
Photo 124-1 
125) Repair/Maintain - 2 windows that were built to open, will not open, or open only minimally due to their being painted shut, damaged and/or deteriorated in some way. Repairs should be made as necessary, and by a qualified contractor if necessary so windows open fully, and open and close easily.
Photo 125-1 
126) Repair/Maintain - 2 doors would not latch when closed. Recommend correction such as, aligning strike plates with latch bolts and/or replacing locksets.
Marked with a blue dots on the latch plates
Photo 126-1 
Photo 126-2 
127) Repair/Maintain - Gaps existed in flooring where sections met. Consider improving from aesthetic reasons and to help protect sub flooring.
Photo 127-1 
Photo 127-2 
128) Repair/Maintain - Deterioration was observed at an entry door location. Recommend repairs as needed.
Photo 128-1 
129) Minor Defect, Maintain - The weatherstrip around the entry door was missing/deteriorated or had gaps to allow air leakage or water infiltration. Weatherstrip should be installed where missing and/or replaced where needed.
Photo 129-1 
130) Minor Defect, Maintain - Two locksets were damaged and/or deteriorated. Lockset(s) should be replaced as necessary.
Photo 130-1 
Photo 130-2 
131) Monitor - Stains were found in two ceiling area(s). However, no elevated levels of moisture were found. The stain(s) may be due to past roof and/or plumbing leaks. Recommend asking the property owner(s) about this, and monitoring the stained area(s) in the future, especially after heavy or prolonged rain.
Photo 131-1 
Photo 131-2 
132) Comment - Minor cracks were found in walls in one area(s). They do not appear to be a structural concern, but the client(s) may wish to repair these for aesthetic reasons.
Photo 132-1 
Insulation material: None visible
Pier or support post material: Masonry
Beam material: Built up wood
Floor structure above: Solid wood joists
133) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Guardrails/handrails were missing from sections of elevated surfaces with "high" drop-offs. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of falling. Guardrails should be installed at drop-offs higher than 30 inches, but in some cases it is advised to install them at shorter drop-offs. Recommend installing as necessary.
Photo 133-1 
134) Safety, Repair/Maintain - Tread for the stairs were cracked/damaged. Recommend repairing as needed to help ensure firm footing.
Photo 134-1 
135) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Conducive conditions - Areas of elevated moisture levels or wet areas were found in section(s) of the basement. Accumulated water is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms and though common, should not be present in the basement. Finished walls, fixtures, etc restrict observations. Recommend evaluation and repair as necessary. Typical repairs for preventing water from accumulating in the basement include:
  • Repairing, installing or improving rain run-off systems (gutters, downspouts and extensions or drain lines)
  • Improving perimeter grading
  • Repairing, installing or improving underground footing and/or curtain drains

Ideally, water should not enter the basement, but if water must be controlled after it enters the basement, then typical repairs include installing sump pump(s) or interior perimeter drains.
Photo 135-1 
Photo 135-2 
Photo 135-3 
Photo 135-4 
136) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Observed two cracked joists. Recommend evaluation and repair to help ensure proper support. A typical repair is sistering.

Side 1
Side 2
Photo 136-1 
Photo 136-2 
137) Comment - Many wall, floor, foundation walls, and/or ceiling surfaces were obscured by large amounts of furniture and/or stored items. Many areas couldn't be evaluated. Recommend asking sellers to clear areas for evaluation.
Photo 137-1 
138) Comment - The basement had fixed coverings such as walls and or ceilings. If excess moisture is present for long enough lengths of time mold is a possibility. Fixed coverings limit the amount of observable areas. It is beyond the scope of a home inspection to tear open areas to expose concealed spaces.

Be aware that mold is naturally occurring and that "mold free" areas are not naturally occurring. If you have a concern about mold consider having a mold air samples and swab samples taken to help determine if elevated levels of mold exist.

Coverings also prevent direct observation of foundation.
Sewer Line ScopeTable of contents
139) Major Defect, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - There was a damaged section line observed. We recommend further evaluation of all lines and repairs of all damaged areas.
Photo 139-1 
Photo 139-2 
Photo 139-3 
140) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The camera was unable to proceed beyond approximately 63 feet. This may be due to tightness of turns, friction, offsets, or debris. We were unable to safely proceed. Recommend having the line cleared/cleaned and further evaluated and repairs as needed prior to closing.
141) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - There was root growth present which is commonly a result of a damaged drain line or offset connections. We recommend further review and repairs as needed.
Photo 141-1 
Photo 141-2 
Photo 141-3 
Photo 141-4 
Photo 141-5 
142) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - There was an offset in the drain line where two pipe sections are not properly connect and there is a "lip" which can cause clogging, leaks and access to roots. We recommend further review and repairs as needed.
Photo 142-1 
Photo 142-2 
143) Repair/Maintain, Comment - An area of the line appeared to be more level than desired evident by debris/build up. No significant amount of buildup nor blockage was found in this area. Recommend cleaning in the near future to help prevent an clogs.

Approximately 31-34 feet
Photo 143-1 
144) Comment - A sewer scope was requested of the main drain line from house to city or private sewer connection. Sewer line scope is done from the clean out towards the city connection or if system is on a septic system then to the septic tank.

From the inside view of a line, offsets, root growth, blockage, breaks can be found. It is not possible to determine if leaks absolutely exist due to viewing from the interior and not on the exterior of the pipe nor is it possible to determine the thickness/strength and longevity of pipes, especially cast iron.

Distance measurements of findings are estimates. Distance can also limited by the length of scope and location of clean outs.

It is recommended that concerns identified be repaired and further evaluated as needed before closing as some conditions (such as root growth) can conceal other issues.
145) Comment - It should be understood that sometimes due to extent of debris or roots found, we are unable to fully access line. We recommend further review of lines by a qualified plumbing contractor in these cases when cleared and the lines can be better accessed at that time.
146) Comment - Here is the link to the video that was taken for the sewer scope inspection.

You should not regard this inspection and report as a guarantee or warranty of the property and its components. It is not. It is simply a report on the general condition of the property at a given point in time. Furthermore, as a homeowner, you should expect problems to occur; roofs will leak, drain pipes will become blocked, and components and systems will fail without warning. For these reasons, you should take into consideration the age of the house and its components and keep a comprehensive insurance policy current. If you have been provided with a home protection policy, read it carefully. Such policies usually only cover insignificant costs, such as that of rooter service, and the representatives of some insurance companies are very likely to charge you for a service call and then deny coverage on the grounds that a given condition was preexisting or not covered because of an alleged code violation or a manufacturers defect. Therefore, you should read such policies very carefully, and depend upon our company for any assistance and consultation that you may need. It is highly recommended that the suggested repairs, corrections, evaluations, etc be done prior to the end of your due diligence time period if possible or before closing. Evaluations and repairs can reveal issues not visible during a home inspection or beyond the scope of a home inspection.

It is beyond the scope of the inspection to confirm if the structure uses a septic or a public sewer system. Recommend confirming with seller.

Heating and Cooling systems
Furnaces typically will last 15-20 years. With proper maintenance they can last longer. Air conditioners also have a typical life expectancy of 8-15 years. Heat pumps typically last 15-20 years. The estimated useful life for boiler system is 25-40 years. It is normal to have issues with systems as they age. Be sure to have regular maintenance done.

As of January 2006, air conditioning manufacturers are no longer allowed to manufacture products, or certain individual components (condensers, evaporator, compressors) for systems with less than a 13 SEER rating. As existing inventories of older efficiency style components are depleted, replacement of the A/C unit may be required in place of repairs.

Note: R22 has been the standard refrigerant used in air conditioners for many years. The problem with this refrigerant is that it is both less efficient and less environmentally friendly than R410a refrigerant. The government-mandated shift away from R22 refrigerant is an attempt to make homes more efficient and reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses into the environment. As of 2010 R22 is no longer allowed to be used in newly-manufactured air conditioners. It is beyond the scope of an inspection to determine the type of refrigerant used.

Crawl Spaces
Crawl spaces should all be viewed periodically. Although not desirable it is common for moisture levels to be higher here than in other areas of the home. Recommend quarterly viewing so as to catch water intrusion and moisture related issues quickly.

Roof materials
It is beyond the scope of the inspection to give the life expectation of roofing materials. There are many factors that effect the aging process such as color, angle, orientation, ventilation and type of material. Any mention of age is a rough estimate based upon experience and is in no way an guarantee of the actual age. We recommend asking seller if you want specific age information. It is also beyond the scope to determine if a roof has more than one layer of materials. lower layer can be concealed by drip edges and flashings.

Roofs are designed to shed water like an umbrella and are not “waterproof”. In events of wind driven rains, and periods of intense rain, water can sometimes blow into areas such as ridge vents, roof vents and valleys and present leaking conditions. This occurrence is rare, but can possibly happen in severe storm events. Unless it is raining at the time of inspection, some roof leaks may not be identified during the inspection process.
As prescribed in the inspection authorization and agreement, this is a visual inspection only. Roofing life expectancies can vary depending on several factors. Any estimates of remaining life are approximations only.

Ceiling fans cannot be checked for proper mounting inside attic spaces where concealed by insulation.

The accuracy of breaker labeling is beyond the scope of the inspection.

Please be aware that inspecting for rodents is outside the scope of home inspections. If we see obvious indications of activity we will note it. If we note it that should not be taken that we conducted a pest inspection. It is also very common for mice and similar sized critters to enter all homes at sometime. Please do not be alarmed if you have such house guests at sometime.

What are Molds?
Molds are simple, microscopic organisms, present virtually everywhere, indoors and outdoors. Molds, along with mushrooms and yeasts, are fungi and are needed to break down dead material and recycle nutrients in the environment. For molds to grow and reproduce, they need only a food source and any organic material, such as leaves, wood, paper, or dirt and moisture. Because molds grow by digesting the organic material, they gradually destroy whatever they grow on. Sometimes, new molds grow on old mold colonies. Mold growth on surfaces can often be seen in the form of discoloration, frequently green, gray, brown, or black but also white and other colors. Molds release countless tiny, lightweight spores, which travel through the air.
Everyone is exposed to some mold on a daily basis without evident harm. It is common to find mold spores in the air inside homes, and most of the airborne spores found indoors come from outdoor sources. Mold spores primarily cause health problems when they are present in large numbers and people inhale many of them. This occurs primarily when there is active mold growth within home, office or school where people live or work. People can also be exposed to mold by touching contaminated materials and by eating contaminated foods.
Molds produce health effects through inflammation, allergy, or infection. Allergic reactions (often referred to as hay fever) are most common following mold exposure. Typical symptoms that mold-exposed persons report (alone or in combination) include: Respiratory problems, such as wheezing, difficulty breathing, and shortness of breath
Nasal and sinus congestion, Eye irritation (burning, watery, or reddened eyes) Dry, hacking cough, Nose or throat irritation, Skin rashes or irritation Headaches, memory problems, mood swings, nosebleeds, body aches and pains, and fevers are occasionally reported in mold cases, but their cause is not understood.
Molds will grow and multiply whenever conditions are right and sufficient moisture is available and organic material is present. Be on the lookout in your home for common sources of indoor moisture that may lead to mold problems: If you suspect that you may have mold, contact a specialist.

When Things Go Wrong
There may come a time that you discover something wrong with the house, and you may be upset or disappointed with your home inspection.

Intermittent Or Concealed Problems.
Some problems can only be discovered by living in a house. They cannot be discovered during the few hours of a home inspection. For example, some shower stalls leak when people are in the shower, but do not leak when you simply turn on the tap. Some roofs and basements only leak when specific conditions exist. Some problems will only be discovered when carpets were lifted, furniture is moved or finishes are removed.

No Clues.
These problems may have existed at the time of the inspection but there were no clues as to their existence. Our inspections are based on the past performance of the house. If there are no clues of a past problem, it is unfair to assume we should foresee a future problem.

We Always Miss Some Minor Things
Some might say we are inconsistent because our reports identify some minor problems but not others. The minor problems that are identified were discovered while looking for more significant problems. We note them simply as a courtesy. The intent of the inspection is not to find the $200 problems; it is to find the $2,000 problems. These are the things that affect people's decisions to purchase.

Contractors' Advice
The main source of dissatisfaction with home inspectors comes from comments made by contractors. Contractors' opinions often differ from ours. Don't be surprised when three roofers all say the roof needs replacement when we said that, with some minor repairs, the roof will last a few more years.

Last Man In Theory
While our advice represents the most prudent thing to do, many contractors are reluctant to undertake these repairs. This is because of the "Last Man In Theory". The contractor fears that if he is the last person to work on the roof, he will get blamed if the roof leaks, regardless of
whether the roof leak is his fault or not. Consequently, he won't want to do a minor repair with high liability when he could re-roof the entire house for more money and reduce the likelihood of a callback. This is understandable.

Most Recent Advice Is Best
There is more to the "Last Man In Theory". It suggests that it is human nature for homeowners to believe the last bit of "expert" advice they receive, even if it is contrary to previous advice. As home inspectors, we unfortunately find ourselves in the position of "First Man In" and consequently it is our advice that is often disbelieved.

Why Didn't We See It
Contractors may say "I can't believe you had this house inspected, and they didn't find this problem". There are several reasons for these apparent oversights:

1. Conditions During Inspection
It is difficult for homeowners to remember the circumstances in the house, at the time of the inspection. Homeowners seldom remember that it was snowing, there was storage everywhere in the basement or that the furnace could not be turned on because the air conditioning was operating, et cetera. It's impossible for contractors to know what the circumstances were when the inspection was performed. Contractors also rarely understand the standards home inspectors are to follow.

2. The Wisdom Of Hindsight
When the problem manifests itself, it is very easy to have 20/20 hindsight. Anybody can say that the basement is wet when there is 2 inches of water on the floor. Predicting the problem is a different story.

3. A Long Look
If we spent 1/2 an hour under the kitchen sink or 45 minutes disassembling the furnace, we'd find more problems too. Unfortunately, the inspection would take several days and would cost considerably more.

4. We're Generalists
We are generalists; we are not specialists. The heating contractor may indeed have more heating expertise than we do.

5. An Invasive Look
Problems often become apparent when carpets or plaster are removed, when fixtures or cabinets are pulled out, and so on. A home inspection is a visual examination. We don't perform any invasive or destructive tests.

6. Taking advantage of a situation
Contractors may be desperate or eager for extra work. Is is too tempting for some to attempt to get work approval asap by telling the home owner that someone else will be paying for it.

Not Insurance In conclusion, a home inspection is designed to better your odds. It is not designed to eliminate all risk. For that reason, a home inspection should not be considered an insurance policy. The premium that an insurance company would have to charge for a policy with no deductible, no limit and an indefinite policy period would be considerably more than the fee we charge. It would also not include the value added by the inspection.