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All Buildings Inspection LLC

http://www.allbuildingsinspection.com
allbuildingsinspection@gmail.com
(608) 732-0359
2238 County Road A 
Platteville WI 53818

2018 Sample Home Inspection Report

Client(s):  Valued Clients
Property address:  5000 Street Names
Any Place, WI 53500
Inspection date:  Monday, January 1, 2018

This report published on Monday, October 15, 2018 8:21:32 AM CDT

Wisconsin Home Inspector Registration No. 1744-106.
Wisconsin Master Electrician License No. 998643.
Wisconsin UDC - Construction Inspector Certification No. 998643.
My responsibility to you, my client, is a fiduciary one http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiduciary , and that the inspection reporting be factual, in accordance with applicable laws https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/code/admin_code/sps/professional_services/131/131 .


This report is the exclusive property of All Buildings Inspection LLC and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any person not authorized by the client(s) is prohibited. A home Inspector may not (per WI Statute s.440.975(7)(b)) deliver a home inspection report to any person other than the client without the client's consent.


This home inspection report includes an inspection of, and report on, all of the following items that are present on the property at the time of the home inspection. This in accordance with The Standards of Practice of the Wisconsin Department of Safety and Professional Services Chapter 131. The home inspector is required to perform a reasonably competent and diligent home inspection of the readily accessible installed systems and components required to be inspected under s. SPS 131.32 to detect observable conditions of the improvements to the residential real property. The inspection is not required to be technically exhaustive. This report does not determine market value or marketability of a property, nor does it state whether a property should or should not be purchased.

The contents of this report are the written opinions of the inspector, based on examinations of the buildings observable systems and components on the date and time of the inspection.

The inspector is not required to perform any of the following for this type of inspection:
*Calculate the strength, adequacy or efficiency of components
*Enter any area or perform any procedure that may cause physical damage to property or cause harm to the inspector or other persons
*Operate any component that is inoperable or that does not respond to normal operating controls
*Disturb insulation or move personal items, furniture, pets, equipment, vegetation, soil, snow, ice, or debris that obstructs access to or visibility of a component
*Test for and verify the presence of any hazardous substance
*Determine the effectiveness of components installed to control or remove suspected hazardous substances
*Project or estimate the operating costs of components
*Predict future conditions, including the failure of components
*Inspect cosmetic items, underground items, or items not permanently installed
*Disassemble any component except for removing access panels that are normally removed by occupants

How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas.  Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type.  Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Concern typeSafety or health riskA material adverse fact. This condition poses a significant health or safety risk if left uncorrected
Concern typeMaterial adverse factA material adverse fact. The condition of this item significantly reduces or negates the functionality or structural integrity of the item
Concern typeRepair or replaceIf not repaired, the described condition will have a significant adverse effect on the life expectancy of that or another related item
Concern typePlease read this statementThis comment contains important information. Please read.
Concern typeCautionary statementIf not modified or repaired, the described condition has the potential to result in an adverse effect on that and/or another inter-related item. The extent of the potential and any adverse effect depends on unpredictable future conditions or circumstances
Concern typeMonitor and/or MaintainRecommend monitoring and/or maintaining this condition in the future
Concern typeLow priority itemThis condition does not present any significant safety or structural concern, but has the potential to result in some undesirable consequences if not corrected
Concern typeMoney saving tipThis comment gives information which can potentially save on heating and cooling costs
Concern typeInformational statementThis comment is informational in content

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at https://www.reporthost.com/glossary.asp

Table of Contents

Standards of Practice for Home Inspectors
General information
Grading and Site Drainage
Exterior Utilities
Exterior Structure
Exterior Cladding and Accessories
Front entry porch
Rear Deck
Interior Systems
Stairway to the lower basement level
Fireplace
Gas Fireplace
Kitchen
Laundry area
Main entry vestibule
Living room
Dining room
Hallway
Bedroom southeast
Bedroom southwest
Lower level den
Wet bar area
Bedroom on the lower level
Bath Room on the main floor
Bath Room on the lower level
Attic
Basement / Foundation
Furnace
Air conditioning
Electric System Circuitry
Electric Service Panel
Plumbing and Fuel Systems
Well and Septic - basic information
Garage
Roof

Standards of Practice for Home Inspectors
Table of contents
1) Every Wisconsin home inspection report must meet five specific requirements, as outlined in Wisconsin Administrative Code SPS 131.33:
1. List the items that a home inspector is required to inspect. That list is in the next comment paragraph of this report.
2. List those required items that the home inspector actually did inspect.
3. Describe the condition of those inspected items.
4. Describe any defect that is detected by the home inspector (within those required items) that, if not repaired, will have significant adverse effect on the life expectancy of the item.
5. Lists any material adverse facts that a home inspector has knowledge of or has observed.

"Defect" is defined in Wisc. Stat. 440.97(2m) as "a condition of any component of an improvement that would significantly impair the health or safety of future occupants of a property or that, if not repaired, removed, or replaced, would significantly shorten or adversely affect the expected normal life of the component of the improvement."
Wisc. Stat. 440.975(3cm) additionally directs the home inspector to describe "any defect that is detected by the home inspector during his or her home inspection. A home inspector is not required to use the term "defect" in describing a defect in the written report ... A home inspector may not use the term "defect" in a written report ... unless that use is consistent with s.440.97(2m).
See additional information regarding "defect" in last paragraph below.

“Material adverse fact” is defined in SPS 131.02(17) as “a condition or occurrence that is generally recognized by a competent home inspector as doing any of the following:
a. Significantly reducing the functionality or structural integrity of components or systems of the improvements to the property being inspected.
b. Posing a significant health or safety risk to occupants of the improvements."
That definition, which the home inspector is legally bound to, is substantially different from the definition given on lines 57-66 of the "Disclosure to Customers" (an appendix that may be attached to the "WB-11 Residential Offer to Purchase").

The items, from lines 4 and 5 above, where described in this report, are highlighted in the report as being one of the following:
1. Safety or health risk.
2. Material adverse fact.
3. Repair or replace.
As one can see by the above State codes and definitions, those items are similar, but not identical, in scope to “defects” as defined below in an “Offer To Purchase” document.

If you have a signed “WB-11 Residential Offer To Purchase,” lines 64 to 114 identify “Conditions Affecting the Property or Transaction.” Many of those conditions are termed as having or being “defects.”
“Defect” as defined in the “Offer To Purchase” on lines 182 – 184 is different from that which the home inspector is legally required to follow. WB-11 defines "defect" as “a condition that would have a significant adverse effect on the value of the Property; that would significantly impair the health or safety of future occupants of the Property; or that if not repaired, removed or replaced would significantly shorten or adversely affect the expected normal life of the premises.”
Lines 425 - 426 restrict that description, stating that defects "do not include structural, mechanical or other conditions the nature and extent of which Buyer had actual knowledge or written notice before signing this Offer."

Please read all documents and reports carefully and thoroughly.
2) Wisconsin administrative code (SPS 131 Subchapter IV - Standards of Practice) requires a home inspector to perform a reasonably competent and diligent home inspection of the readily accessible installed systems and components required to be inspected. Those requirements are in the list below.

Minimum legal requirements for a Wisconsin Home Inspector direct a reasonably competent and diligent home inspection to perform an inspection of, and report on, all of the following items that are present on the property at the time of the home inspection:

EXTERIORS. A home inspector shall observe and describe the condition of all the following:
1. Wall claddings, including type.
2. Flashings and trim.
3. Entryway doors and at least one window per side of a dwelling unit.
4. Garage door operators, including whether any garage door operator automatically reverses or stops when meeting reasonable resistance during closing.
5. Decks, balconies, stoops, steps and porches including railings.
6. Eaves, soffits, and fascias.
7. Grading, drainage, driveways, patios, walkways, and retaining walls that abut the dwelling unit.
8. A home inspector shall operate all entryway doors, garage doors, and at least one window per side of a dwelling unit (or course, the windows are operated from the inside of the home).

ROOFS. A home inspector shall describe the methods used to observe the roof (the inspector is not required to walk on the roof). A home inspector shall observe and describe the condition of all of the following.
1. Roof coverings, including type.
2. Roof drainage systems.
3. Flashings.
4. Skylights, chimneys and roof penetrations.
5. Signs of leaks or abnormal condensation on building components.

INTERIORS. A home inspector shall observe and describe the condition of all of the following:
1. Walls, ceilings and floors.
2. Steps, stairways, balconies and railings.
3. Counters and all sink base cabinets.
4. A random sample of doors and windows.
5. Separation walls, ceilings, and doors between a dwelling unit and an attached garage or another dwelling unit.
6. Signs of water penetration into the building or signs of abnormal or harmful condensation on building components.

INSULATION AND VENTILATION. A home inspector shall observe and describe the condition of all of the following:
1. The presence or absence of insulation in unfinished spaces.
2. Ventilation of attics and foundation areas.
3. Kitchen, bathroom, and laundry venting systems.

FLOORING SYSTEMS. A home inspector shall observe and describe the type and condition of flooring systems.

FOUNDATIONS. A home inspector shall observe and describe the type and condition of the foundation.

COLUMNS. A home inspector shall observe and describe the type and condition of columns.

PLUMBING SYSTEMS. A home inspector shall operate all plumbing fixtures, including their faucets and accessible exterior faucets attached to the dwelling unit.
A home inspector shall observe and describe the condition of all of the following:
1. Interior water supply and distribution system, including piping materials, supports, fixtures, functional flow and drainage, leaks and cross connections.
2. Interior drain, waste and vent system, including traps, drain, waste, and vent piping, piping supports and leaks.
3. Hot water systems, including water heating equipment, normal operating controls, automatic safety controls, and the exterior surfaces of chimneys, flues, and vents.
4. Fuel storage and distribution systems, including interior fuel storage equipment, supply piping, venting, supports and leaks.
5. Sump pumps.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. A home inspector shall observe and describe the condition of all of the following:
1. Service entrance conductors.
2. Service equipment, grounding equipment, main over current device.
3. Main and distribution panels, including their location.
4. Amperage and voltage ratings of the service, including whether service type is overhead or underground.
5. Branch circuit conductors, their over current devices, and the compatibility of their ampacities and voltages, including any aluminum branch circuit wiring.
6. The operation of a representative number of installed lighting fixtures, switches and receptacles located inside the house, garage and any exterior walls.
7. The polarity and grounding of all receptacles within 6 feet of interior plumbing fixtures, in the garage or carport, and on the exterior of inspected structures.
8. The operation of ground fault interrupters.
9. The functionality of the power sources for smoke detectors.

HEATING SYSTEMS. A home inspector shall operate the system using normal operating controls and open readily accessible panels provided by the manufacturer or installer for routine home owner maintenance.
A home inspector shall observe and describe the condition of all of the following within a permanently installed heating system:
1. Heating equipment and distribution systems.
2. Normal operating controls and energy source.
3. Automatic safety controls.
4. Exterior surfaces of chimneys, flues and vents.
5. Solid fuel heating devices.
6. The presence of an installed heat source in each room.

CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING. A home inspector shall operate the systems, using normal operating controls and open readily accessible panels provided by the manufacturer or installer for routine home owner maintenance.
A home inspector shall observe and describe the condition of all of the following:
1. Cooling and air handling equipment, including type and energy source.
2. Normal operating controls.
3. The presence of an installed cooling source in each room.
General information
Table of contents
Style of building: Any style
Buildings inspected include: House with attached garage
Client's name: Valued Clients
Report number: 18WI0101A
Signed: Charles J Staab, manager All Buildings Inspection LLC. Wisconsin license no 1744-106, expiration date 12/14/2018.
Inspection fee: $375.00 for the home inspection, Paid in full. Thank you
Present during inspection: Buyer, Buyer's Realtor
State of Occupancy: Unoccupied but furnished
Estimated age of the building: Any age
Type of building: Single family
Weather conditions: Partly cloudy
Recent precipitation: No significant precipitation the past week, Heavy rains previously
Temperature: 70's
Ground condition: Dry, at the surface of the ground
Main entrance faces: East
Basement type: Mostly finished
The following items were excluded from this inspection: Private sewage disposal system, Private well, Shed
3) This sample report does not contain photos.
All regular inspection reports do include photos of applicable components and/or systems when determined such photos can help explain some comments.
4) Definitions of common terms in this report:

Readily accessible - Available for visual inspection without requiring moving of personal property, dismantling, destructive measures, or actions that will likely involve risk to persons or property.
Satisfactory - Indicates the component is functionally consistent with its original purpose but may show signs of normal wear.
Marginal - Indicates the component will likely require repair or replacement anytime within 5 years.
Poor - indicates the component will need repair or replacement now or in the very near future.
5) Recommend that all repairs and modifications to the building's structure or grounds be performed by an experienced, qualified, insured (and licensed if required) tradesperson.

Where recommendations for repair, replacement, etc are made in this report, the use of such trades people for that purpose is strongly suggested.
6) Every component and system of buildings does require some degree of maintenance, repair, and replacement at varying times in the future. Nothing is truly maintenance free. Things wear out, quit working, deteriorate, break, etc.

Remaining serviceable life spans of components cannot be accurately predicted.
A home inspection reports on "readily accessible" and "observable" conditions of components at the time of the inspection (invasive measures are not conducted during inspections). Some conditions can give indications of imminent failure (or necessary maintenance). Such conditions, if present, are noted in the report.

Even when components and systems are diligently maintained, breakdowns and failures can occur. Normal building maintenance repair and system replacements do occur, and can sometimes be monetarily costly.
7) The level and quality of insulation in the side walls and around windows and doors cannot be determined through the normal scope of a home inspection. Insulation may or may not be present in the side walls.
If desired, recommend consulting with a qualified insured insulation contractor to determine the level (if any) of insulation present, and to provide appropriate recommendations.

See information regarding attic insulation in the Attic Section.
Grading and Site Drainage
Table of contents
Public sidewalks: Not applicable
Private walks: Concrete, Uneven sections were present, creating a tripping or stumbling potential, Portions of the walk sloped towards the house, at the rear side
Driveway and parking area: Concrete, Typical cracks were present
Steps present in the yard: Some steps were loose underfoot (resulting in a tripping or stumbling potential), The steps were located in the rear yard.
Stair handrail and guards: None present
Grading and drainage around the perimeter: See comment below
Rain gutters: Painted metal, Some areas were clogged, See comment below
Downspouts and extensions: Underground extension tubes were present (recommend annually flushing the underground tubes with water from a hose to ensure they are not clogged)
Fences and retaining walls: Wooden wall, Not an integral part of the house
8) Moisture stains were observed in the basement utility room.

Conditions noted in this and other sections can contribute to the potential for past present and future moisture intrusion. Note that certain weather factors in the future can also increase that potential.
Correction of the noted conditions can reduce, but not eliminate, the potential for future water entry.

See additional information in the Basement Section.
9) The following grading conditions result in an increased potential for water to enter the basement:
1. The grading along the rear of the house had an inadequate slope away from the house.
2. The concrete walk at the rear of the house sloped back towards the house.

Such conditions allow surface water to travel to the house foundation. See additional information in this section and in the Basement Section.
10) Soil was in contact with or less than 6" from the bottom of the siding along some sides of the house.
Maintaining a minimum space of 6" between earth and the bottom of siding can reduce the potential for water entry and resultant damage to the siding and internal wall assemblies.
11) The basement window on the north side was set below grade, without any provisions for a cover over it. Such wells can collect water and snow melt, increasing the potential for water to enter the basement.

Installation of properly sized, sealed, and attached well covers can reduce the potential of water in the basement.
12) Some sections of rain gutters were clogged with debris.
Clogged gutters easily overflow, sending water down to the foundation.
Splashing water can damage the siding and internal wall assembly, and can saturate the ground, resulting in a potential for water entry into the basement or lower level.

Cleaning the rain gutters now and in the future as necessary (perhaps twice a year) can reduce the potential for water damage.
13) Some shrubbery or thick vegetation was growing next to the house. Vegetation in close proximity to the home's siding and other components can create conditions conducive to moisture damage, including rot, mold and mildew, and insect/rodent infestation.

Pruning all shrubbery and other plants away from the house can reduce the potential for premature damage to the siding and can reduce the potential for water and pest entry into the wall system and the basement.
Exterior Utilities
Table of contents
Observed fuel tanks: Liquid Propane tank above ground
LP gas regulator: The regulator vent was less than 18" above the ground, See comment below
Electric service entrance conductors: An overhead service drop to the building was present, The overhead service conductors traveled near or through tree branches, See comment below
Overhead service entrance conductor clearances: Clearances were safe. Satisfactory condition
Electric service conductors and/or conduit to the meter: The conductors were enclosed in PVC conduit, Satisfactory condition for external components
Service entrance conductors from the meter to the house: Service entrance conductors were housed in PVC conduit, Satisfactory condition for external components
Electric meter box: The box was not properly secured to the building, See comment below
Exterior Air Conditioner Unit or Heat Pump:
Location of condensor/compressor unit: Outside, along the north wall
Model: Carrier, model no. nnnnnnnnn
Serial number: 0034J697462
Approximate age: Manufactured in, 2000
Outside electric disconnect for the air conditioner: An electric disconnection device for the air condition was present
Condensor and compressor unit: Satisfactory condition for external components
14) LP gas regulator vents should be at least 18" above the ground to prevent blockage of the vent. The LP gas regulator vent was about 12 inches above the ground.

Recommend the LP gas provider evaluate and make necessary corrections for proper and safe functioning of the LP gas exterior system
15) The electric meter box was not properly secured to the wall. This allows it to be inadvertently jostled.
If left as is, the conductors inside the box can potentially be damaged, or dislodged from their terminals.

Recommend an electric company representative properly secure the meter box to prevent any movement.
16) The overhead electric service entrance conductors to the house traveled through tree branches.
Tree branches can easily damage or knock down power lines during storms, or if they fall due to disease or rot.
Proper pruning of the tree (by a qualified arborist) could reduce that risk.
17) The estimated useful life for air conditioning compressors is 15 - 20 years. Remaining useful life is difficult to determine. The amount of use or lack of use over the years plays a part in longevity. This unit was at that age range , and parts could fail at any time. Recommend budgeting for repairs or replacement over the next five years.
Exterior Structure
Table of contents
Footing material: Not readily accessible for evaluation, which is a typical and normal condition
Foundation material: Concrete
Condition of exterior portion of foundation: Cracks were observable above grade, See comment below, See additional information in the Basement Section
Exterior wall structure: Wood frame, No indications of structural distress were observed, See comment in the Exterior Cladding Section regarding wall coverings
Exterior appearance of roof structure: No indications of structural distress were observed, See comment in the Roof Section regarding condition of roof coverings and/or flashings
18) A vertical crack was present in the foundation walls where readily observable above grade. Such cracks do NOT weaken the foundation, but can potentially allow water to enter if certain conditions become present.

Sealing cracks can temporarily reduce (but not necessarily eliminate) the potential for water to enter the lower level.
See additional information in the Grading/Drainage Section and in the Basement Section regarding potential water entry.
Exterior Cladding and Accessories
Table of contents
Wall covering (siding): The majority of the house was clad with vinyl horizontal panels. Veneer brick was present on the front facade around the main entryway. See information below.
Soffits: Metal, The panels had ventilation perforations, Satisfactory condition for external surfaces
Fascia and rakes: Metal, Satisfactory condition where readily observable (the material located behind the rain gutters was not readily observable for full evaluation)
Flashings: See comment below, regarding lack of observable flashing for the veneer brick siding.
Corner trimming: Vinyl corners, Satisfactory condition
Window casing (trim): Observable surfaces were in satisfactory condition
Wall penetrations: Gaps were present at some penetration points, See comment below
Storm and screen windows: Storm/screen combination units, Some windows were missing storm/screen units
Basement window units: See comment in the Grading/Drainage Section, and in the Basement Section
Exterior portion of door systems: Combination storm screen door, Marginal condition
Exterior threshold: See comment below, regarding the rear door
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Receptacle(s) for which GFI protection is recommended DID have proper protection, Functionality was satisfactory
Exterior light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Water faucets: Faucet did not have a backflow check valve, See comment below
Chimney chase: Satisfactory condition
19) The electric receptacle on the south wall did not have a weather resistant cover.

Recommend that be corrected.
20) Veneer brick siding was present on some of the house. As with all types of siding, brick veneer can allow moisture to pass through under certain circumstances. To allow such moisture to properly dissipate from the wall cavity, certain construction techniques and materials were called for.

Weep holes and flashing were generally to be placed along the lower course of bricks, beneath windows, and above some windows and doors.
Weep holes and flashing were not present.

The lack of (or covering of) weep holes indicate a potential for in-wall moisture.
At the time of this inspection, there were NO indications of water entry on the wall surfaces inside of the house.

If any indications of moisture ever become noticeable on the interior of the home underneath windows, then recommend consulting with a qualified contractor to determine the cause of moisture intrusion.
21) There were holes and cracks in some of the vinyl siding panels.
Such cracks and/or holes can allow water and insects to penetrate behind the siding, potentially entering the wall system.
Repairing or replacing damaged sections can reduce that potential.
22) Caulk was missing or deteriorated around some penetration points.

Caulk is necessary to keep moisture, insects, and pests from entering the wall system. Caulk requires routine maintenance every several years. Recommend maintaining caulk now and in the future when necessary.

At the time of this inspection, there were NO indications of moisture damage on the interior of the house as a result.
23) Caulk along some vertical seams between vinyl siding and veneer brick was deteriorated.
Caulk has a relatively short life, about 5 - 10 years. Caulk helps reduce the amount of water penetrating the walls system, as well as wind, and pests.

Recommend replacing loose and missing caulk now and as necessary in the future.
24) Flashing was not present beneath the threshold of the door at the rear deck.

Flashing is typically placed beneath door thresholds to reduce the potential for water entry under the door.

At the time of the inspection, there were NO indications of water penetration beneath the rear patio style door.
If stains or moisture become apparent in the future, then recommend a qualified contractor evaluate and make necessary corrections.
25) The exterior water faucets did not have a back flow check valve.
Check valves prevent water in the hose from being siphoned back into the household water supply.
Such valves can be purchased at hardware stores.
26) Some of the vinyl siding on the north side had what appeared to be algae formations.
This is usually a result of prolonged shade and/or lack of full air movement.
The algae-like material will not harm the siding, but if left unchecked, has the potential to migrate to the back side of the siding and onto the underlying wall sheathing.

Occasional cleaning is advised.
27) The dryer exhaust hood was damaged.

Recommend this be corrected to reduce the potential of pests entering the ducting.
Front entry porch
Table of contents
Steps: Concrete, Satisfactory condition
Stair handrail and guards: Handrail not required when fewer than 4 risers are present
Floor: Concrete, Typical hairline cracks were present.
Guard rails: Guard rails not needed when the deck is less than 24" above grade
Roof support columns: Readily observable parts were in satisfactory condition
Beams and ceiling: Structural wood was wrapped in metal, unable to evaluate the structure behind the metal, Readily observable parts were in satisfactory condition
Grading beneath the deck: See comment in the Grading and Drainage Section, regarding the concrete walk's slope
Footings beneath the deck posts: The footings (if any exist) were beneath grade and not accessible for evaluation
Treated wood in contact with ground: When treated wood is in contact with earth, it should be additionally treated (by the manufacturer) to be "suitable for ground contact." This determination cannot be visually made. If not suitable for ground contact, pressure treated wood can deteriorate at or below grade. Recommend annually checking for deterioration at or just below grade.
Foundation for the deck: Pressure treated posts were present and extended into the ground, See informational note above regarding ground contact, Satisfactory condition at the time of the inspection
Beam supporting the end of the deck: The beam connections to the top of the posts were not built to modern era standards, See comment below
Joists under the flooring: Satisfactory condition
Ledger board attaching the deck to the house: The ledger board was secured in place with nails rather than bolts, The ledger board was installed without any method for water to be shed away from the house wall, See comment below
Diagonal supports for stability of decks more than 24" above the ground: Satisfactory condition
Staircase structure: The space between risers was greater than 4" (Where spaces greater than 4" exist, there is a potential for small children to fall through
Stair rail system: Satisfactory condition
Deck flooring: Damage was present, See comment below
Guard rail system: The newel posts were not attached to the deck properly, See comment below
28) The ledger board against the house wall had no readily observable flashing to divert water away from the back side of the ledger board.
Without proper flashing, water can flow between the back side of the ledger board and the house wall. This creates a potential for water damage to the house sheathing behind and below the ledger board.

The ledger board was attached to the house with nails (or possibly screws). Modern era construction standards call for properly sized and spaced bolts rather than nails.
Nails can more easily disengage from the house.

Those two conditions create a potential for premature degradation of the ledger board and its attachment to the house.
Recommend a qualified deck contractor evaluate those conditions and make necessary modifications to restore structural integrity of the deck.
29) The connection of the beam to the tops of the deck posts was constructed by attaching it to the sides of the posts.

Modern era construction practices call for deck beams to be resting upon a notch in the post, or directly on top of the post, with proper connectors.
30) The attachments of the newel posts to the deck were not properly connected. Their bases should be kept whole, rather than notched.
Such notches result in a guard system with reduced strength.
31) Damaged floor boards were present along the side of the house.

Recommend the damage be properly repaired or replaced.
Interior Systems
Table of contents
Flooring systems in the home: Information regarding the floor joists and structure for the main floor is in the Basement Section, The floor joists for the second floor were not readily accessible or observable for visual evaluation, No indications of structural concerns were observed
32) An insufficient number of smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors were installed.
Recommend installing additional smoke detectors as necessary so a functioning one exists in each hallway leading to bedrooms, and in each bedroom.
Recommend installing a carbon monoxide detector on each level of the home, placed so that a detector is located within 21' of each bedroom doorway.

Upon taking occupancy, proper operation and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms should be verified and batteries should be changed. These devices have a limited lifespan and should be replaced every 10 years.
33) Some of the window sashes and/or frames in the home were in need of maintenance to the finish. This is normal maintenance, usually required every 5 - 10 years. The finish deteriorates from the effects of normal condensation and sunlight. Recommend lightly sanding and refinishing.
Such maintenance can prolong the life of the wood sashes and frames.

A substance which may be mildew/mold was present on some of the window sashes.
A potential cause of this is typical condensation formation on the window panes.
Recommendation is to clean the affected areas with normal household detergent as necessary.
Information from the EPA regarding mold in the home can be found at the following web site: www.epa.gov/mold
34) Some interior surfaces were obscured by furniture and/or stored items, preventing a full evaluation of those areas.
Although reasonable efforts are made to do so, the inspector often cannot move large amounts of personal belongings, heavy furnishings, carpets or large appliances. When difficult-to-move furnishings, stored items or debris are present, those areas or items that are obscured, concealed or not readily accessible are excluded from the inspection.
The client should be aware that when furnishings, stored items or debris are eventually moved, damage or problems that were not noted during the inspection may be found.
35) Some lights inside and outside the home did not illuminate with switches. The likely cause was burned out light bulbs.

If the lights still do not turn on with new bulbs (always try a second bulb if the first doesn't illuminate), then recommend an electrician evaluate the fixture and circuit and make necessary corrections.
Stairway to the lower basement level
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Steps from main level: Uneven riser heights were present (this presents a potential for tripping or stumbling)
Handrails (and guards if applicable): None present, See comment below
Head room: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Cosmetic blemishes were present
36) The stair case had no handrail.
Adding an appropriate handrail can reduce the potential for stumbling or falling on the stairs.
Where located: In the living room
Type of fuel and unit: Wood burning unit
Construction material: Metal (prefabricated)
Damper: Operational
Miscellaneous: Built-in blower operated properly
Hearth extension: Code required distances from the fire box were met (Be advised that embers do not know the code requirements, and are known to occasionally fall onto flammable surfaces beyond the codified distance.)
Mantel: Satisfactory condition
Chimney type: Metal venting, through the roof, The interior of the flue was not readily observable for evaluation
37) If it will be used for wood burning in the future, recommend the chimney be inspected, cleaned, and repaired now (prior to first use) and annually by a qualified chimney service contractor. Such a maintenance schedule can reduce the risk of serious problems, which can include chimney fires and carbon monoxide infiltration.
Gas Fireplace
Table of contents
Where located: In the lower level den
Type of fuel and unit: Gas unit
Construction material: Metal (prefabricated)
Damper: Not applicable
Miscellaneous: Built-in blower operated properly
Hearth extension: The condition for the surface of the hearth extension was satisfactory
Mantel: Not applicable
Chimney type: Metal venting, through the wall, The interior of the flue was not readily observable for evaluation
Operation of the unit: See comment below
38) At the time of the inspection, this gas fireplace was found to be fully shut down (pilot light off and gas valves turned off).
The inspector does not ignite appliances when they are fully shut down in that manner. There was no indication from the sellers as to the reason for the shut down (it may be simple energy conservation, or there may be an unknown underlying issue).

Prior to finalization of the transaction, suggest asking the sellers to re-ignite the unit and demonstrate the fireplace's functionality.
Light switches: The 3-way switches (where 2 or more switches operate the same light) were improperly connected, resulting in inconsistent operation of the switches
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Some receptacles for which GFI protection is recommended had no GFI protection, See comment in the Electric System Circuitry Section
Electric receptacle for the refrigerator: It was not readily accessible and could not be fully evaluated
Light fixtures: Some lights did not turn on with the switch (see information in the Interior Systems Section)
Heat source units: Under cabinet register
Air conditioning source in the room: The same one that was used for heating
Cabinets: Satisfactory condition
Cabinet beneath sink: There was some cosmetic water damage to the internal base of the sink cabinet
Countertops: Caulk along the edges of the counter was missing or deteriorated, at the far right edge
Sink: Satisfactory condition
Garbage disposal: Functionality was satisfactory
Condition of faucets and spouts: Satisfactory condition
Water supply lines and valves beneath the sink: Water shut-off valves were present. They were not turned during an inspection due to the potential for breakage, There were no indications of active leaks
Drain systems: Functional drainage was satisfactory during the time of the inspection, The trap was observable and external components were in satisfactory condition, The fittings with the observable drain assembly were in satisfactory condition
Room exhaust: The unit did not vent to the exterior but rather moved the air through a filter built into the over-the-range unit, Functionality was satisfactory. (Note that air-flow rate is not determined during this type of inspection)
Window units: Double hung, Functionality was satisfactory
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Satisfactory condition
Doors: The door to the garage was not a fire rated door. See comment in the Garage Section
Floor: Cosmetic blemishes were present
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
Appliances: Dishwasher did operate, Range top burners did operate, Oven did operate, Refrigerator did operate, At the time of the inspection
Utility connection for range and oven: 240V receptacle was present, Satisfactory condition for external components
39) The drain tube from the dishwasher had no air gap in its length.

Air gaps are necessary to prevent debris from the disposal and/or the waste pipe from being siphoned back into the dishwasher.
Air gaps can be achieved with above-the-counter air gap devices, or other methods employed by licensed plumbers.
Laundry area
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Doors: Satisfactory condition
Heat source units: Floor register
Air conditioning source in the room: The same one that was used for heating
Countertops: Satisfactory condition
Cabinets: Satisfactory condition
Utility sink: Satisfactory condition
Condition of faucets and spouts: Satisfactory condition
Water supply lines and valves beneath the sink: Mineral deposit build-ups were present, See comment below
Drain systems: An S trap was present (The water seal in S traps can be siphoned out, resulting in sewer gas escaping into the house. Recommend replacing the S trap with a properly vented P style trap if the presence of sewer gas becomes apparent)
Cross contamination points observed: None
Dryer vent: Ribbed aluminum duct was being used. Ribbed aluminum ducts can collect lint, which is flammable. Recommend replacing the ribbed aluminum duct with rigid or flexible metal duct
Washing machine hook up water lines and valves: Water shut-off valves were present. They are not turned during an inspection due to the potential for breakage, There were no indications of active leaks
Washing machine drainage: The washer had clothing in it. The machine was therefore not operated. The functionality of the drain was not tested, The configuration of the drain system was not readily accessible for evaluation
Gas shut-off valve: Satisfactory condition
Floor: Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and/or observable
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
Window units: Casement, Functionality was satisfactory
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Broken glazing was present, See comment below
40) Cracked window glass was present in the casement window unit.
Recommend the glass pane be replaced.
41) The hot water supply line beneath the sink had a build-up of mineral deposits. This indicates the fitting and/or valve were weakened. If bumped, or valves are turned, leaks could easily develop.
If moisture becomes apparent, then recommend a plumber evaluate and make necessary correction
Main entry vestibule
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Window units: Side lights and transom window were in satisfactory condition
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Satisfactory condition
Doors: Exterior, It was difficult to turn the deadbolt. Adjusting the door and/or the strike can potentially restore proper operation of the deadbolt
Floor: Satisfactory condition
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Loose sections were present
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
Closets: See comment below, regarding the light fixture
42) The closet light fixture was too close to the closet shelving.
The minimum distance between a covered incandescent type light fixture and any storage shelf or hanger should be 12".

Replacing the fixture with a covered flourescent bulb fixture can correct that situation.
Living room
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: 3-slot receptacle did not have a grounding connection (see comment below)
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Ceiling fan: The fan wobbled during operation. Balancing the blades and/or re-securing the hanging rod can potentially reduce the wobble
Heat source units: Floor register
Air conditioning source in the room: The same one that was used for heating
Window units: Double hung, Fixed unit, Functionality was satisfactory
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Cloudy glass was present, See comment below
Floor: Cosmetic blemishes were present
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Water stains were present, See comment below
43) The three-slot grounding type electric receptacles on the east wall in this room had no grounding connection.
For improved electrical safety, recommend this be corrected.
44) Water stains and damage were present on the ceiling near the fireplace.
A moisture meter indicated moisture levels in the stained area were elevated above the measurements of non-stained areas.
This indicates one or more active leaks were present.

Recommend the ceiling sheetrock be removed to visually view the space above for potential water damage.
This type of inspection does not determine the definitive source of leaks.
If the source is not found and corrected, additional moisture damage will occur (including but not limited to rot, mold, and/or damage to thermal insulation).
Recommend a qualified contractor evaluate the conditions to determine a source of moisture, correct those conditions, and repair all observed damage.
45) The insulated glass pane in the center picture window was cloudy.
This was caused by a faulty seal around the glass perimeter. This condition is not repairable.
The only solution for correction is to replace the pane.
Dining room
Table of contents
Light switches: The switch was installed upside down, Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Heat source units: None present
Air conditioning source in the room: No air conditioning source
Window units: Double hung, Functionality was satisfactory
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Satisfactory condition
Floor: Satisfactory condition
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Baseboard trim was missing
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
Door: Exterior. Open and close functionality was satisfactory. See comment in the Exterior Cladding Section regarding lack of flashing beneath the threshold.
46) This room did not have a source for heat and air conditioning.
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors: A smoke alarm was present, Functionality was satisfactory, A carbon monoxide alarm was not present (see information in the Interior Systems Section)
Doors: Satisfactory condition
Floor: Cosmetic blemishes were present
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
Closets: Satisfactory condition
Bedroom southeast
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Reversed polarity was present, See comment below
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Ceiling fan: Functionality was satisfactory
Heat source units: Floor register
Air conditioning source in the room: The same one that was used for heating
Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors: No smoke alarm was present, Recommend adding one to this room. See information in the Interior Systems Section
Window units: Double hung, The window(s) operated with difficulty
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Satisfactory condition
Doors: The door opened and closed with difficulty. Adjusting and/or trimming the door and/or frame can potentially restore proper operation
Floor: Satisfactory condition
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
Closets: See comment below, regarding mildew/mold on a wall in the closet
47) The electric receptacle on the north wall had reversed polarity. This condition exists when the hot and neutral conductors are attached to the wrong terminals on the back side.
This condition can harm sensitive electronics, and can occasionally result in electric shocks.
Recommend this be corrected.
48) A substance which may be mildew/mold was present on the back wall in the closet.
Although a definitive cause cannot be determined during this inspection, a potential cause can be due to insufficient insulation in the walls, and insufficient air circulation in the closet.

Information from the EPA regarding mold in the home can be found at the following web site: http://www.epa.gov/mold/cleanupguidelines.html
Bedroom southwest
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Heat source units: Floor register
Air conditioning source in the room: The same one that was used for heating
Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors: A smoke alarm was present, Functionality was satisfactory, A carbon monoxide alarm was not present (see information in the Interior Systems Section)
Window units: Double hung, Functionality was satisfactory
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Satisfactory condition (Note: the glass pane in the storm window was cracked.)
Doors: Satisfactory condition
Floor: Satisfactory condition
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Cosmetic blemishes were present
Closets: The floor guides for the slide-by doors were missing
Lower level den
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Heat source units: Ceiling diffuser
Air conditioning source in the room: The same one that was used for heating
Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors: A carbon monoxide alarm was not present (see information in the Interior Systems Section)
Window units: Slide-by, Functionality was satisfactory
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Satisfactory condition
Floor: Cosmetic blemishes were present
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
Wet bar area
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Receptacle(s) for which GFI protection is recommended DID have proper protection, Functionality was satisfactory
Electric receptacle for the refrigerator: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Heat source units: Ceiling diffuser
Air conditioning source in the room: The same one that was used for heating
Cabinets: Satisfactory condition
Cabinet beneath sink: See comment below, There was some water damage to the internal base of the sink cabinet
Countertops: Satisfactory condition
Sink: Satisfactory condition
Condition of faucets and spouts: Leaks were present, See comment below
Water supply lines and valves beneath the sink: Water shut-off valves were present. They were not turned during an inspection due to the potential for breakage, There were no indications of active leaks
Drain systems: Functional drainage was satisfactory during the time of the inspection, The trap was observable and external components were in satisfactory condition, The fittings with the observable drain assembly were in satisfactory condition
Floor: Satisfactory condition
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
49) The internal base of the sink cabinet was damage. The leak beneath the faucet is likely a contributing factor.
50) A leak was observed below the faucet (beneath the counter) when the faucet was turned on.

Recommend a plumber evaluate and make necessary corrections.
Bedroom on the lower level
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Ceiling fan: Functionality was satisfactory
Heat source units: Electric baseboard, Functionality was satisfactory
Air conditioning source in the room: No air conditioning source
Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors: A smoke alarm was present, Functionality was satisfactory
Window units: Slide-by, The window(s) operated with difficulty, See comment below regarding egress
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Satisfactory condition
Doors: Satisfactory condition
Floor: Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and/or observable
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Numerous cracks and blemishes were present
Closets: Satisfactory condition
51) If the room will be used as a bedroom, a second means of egress should be provided from this floor.
The second means can be a window if the minimum clear open space is 20 x 24 inches, irrespective of height or width. No portion of the window or hardware can infringe upon this clear minimum open space.
A 20" x 24" rectangle should be able to pass through the opening when the window is opened normally.

Recommend consulting with a qualified contractor for egress options if the room will be used as a bedroom.

The window also did not fully open without a struggle.
Windows in bedrooms should be easily operable to allow them to be fully opened in an emergency.
52) The baseboard heater had an electric receptacle located above it.
Appliance cords using this receptacle may be damaged by the heat, resulting in a short-out, electric shock, and/or a fire.
Recommend the receptacle be removed, relocated, or sealed to prevent use.
Bath Room on the main floor
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: The receptacles for which GFI protection is recommended had no GFI protection, Reversed polarity was present, and below.
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Heat source units: Under cabinet register
Air conditioning source in the room: The same one that was used for heating
Cabinets: Satisfactory condition
Cabinet beneath sink: Satisfactory condition
Countertops: Satisfactory condition
Sink: Satisfactory condition
Condition of faucets and spouts: Satisfactory condition
Water supply lines and valves beneath the sink: Water shut-off valves were present. They were not turned during an inspection due to the potential for breakage, There were no indications of active leaks
Drain systems: Functional drainage was satisfactory during the time of the inspection, The trap was observable and external components were in satisfactory condition, The fittings with the observable drain assembly were in satisfactory condition
Condition of toilets: Functionality was satisfactory
Water shut-off valve for the toilet: A water shut-off valve was present. It is not turned during an inspection due to the potential for breakage, No active leaks were present
Tub and shower combination: Satisfactory condition
Condition of faucets and spouts: The shower head was not securely fastened. It moved freely behind the wall. Frequent movement can cause fatigue to the fittings behind the wall which can potentially result in a leak
Drain systems: The trap was not readily accessible for evaluation, Functional drainage was satisfactory during the time of the inspection
Bathroom ventilation: Through the ceiling, Unable to locate exhaust point, See comment below
Window units: Double hung, See comment below, regarding its close proximity to the tub/shower
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, See comment below
Doors: Satisfactory condition
Bathroom tiling: Shower surround, Satisfactory condition
Floor: Satisfactory condition
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Cosmetic blemishes were present
Closets: Satisfactory condition
53) The electric receptacle in this bathroom (near the sink) had reversed polarity. This condition exists when the hot and neutral conductors are attached to the wrong terminals on the back side.
This condition can harm sensitive electronics, and can occasionally result in electric shocks.
Recommend this be corrected.

See additional comment regarding GFI protection in the Electric Circuitry Systems Section.
54) The glass panes in the window adjacent to the tub/shower stall were not made of safety glazing (the glazing had no markings to indicate such). Safety glazing will break into small harmless bits rather than shards if someone were to fall into it.

Suggestions are to replace the glass with safety glazing, or install an appropriate barrier in front to prevent falling into the glass.
55) The bathroom ceiling vent did not extend to an exterior point. The termination point was unable to be determined.
The bath vents are designed to remove moisture from the air in the bathroom to an exterior point. If the vents have no duct, or the duct terminates in the attic or soffit region (without a fixed exterior soffit vent), the introduction of moisture into the attic spaces can cause damage such as delamination of sheathing, mold, and/or mildew.

Recommend locating and extending the vent duct to an exterior point.
Bath Room on the lower level
Table of contents
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Receptacle(s) for which GFI protection is recommended DID have proper protection, Functionality was satisfactory
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
Heat source units: None present
Air conditioning source in the room: No air conditioning source
Cabinet beneath sink: Satisfactory condition
Countertops: No functional counter existed
Sink: Satisfactory condition
Condition of faucets and spouts: Satisfactory condition
Water supply lines and valves beneath the sink: Water shut-off valves were present. They were not turned during an inspection due to the potential for breakage, There were no indications of active leaks
Drain systems: Functional drainage was satisfactory during the time of the inspection, The trap was observable and external components were in satisfactory condition, The fittings with the observable drain assembly were in satisfactory condition
Condition of toilets: Functionality was satisfactory
Water shut-off valve for the toilet: A water shut-off valve was present. It is not turned during an inspection due to the potential for breakage, No active leaks were present
Shower stall: Satisfactory condition
Drain systems: The trap was not readily accessible for evaluation, Functional drainage was satisfactory during the time of the inspection
Bathroom ventilation: None was present, See comment below
Doors: Satisfactory condition
Floor: Satisfactory condition
Trim at floor, ceiling, walls, windows, and doors: Cosmetic blemishes were present
Walls and ceiling: Satisfactory condition
56) This bathroom did not have a source for heat and air conditioning.
57) No ventilation system was present for the bathroom.
The installation of an appropriate ventilation system is recommended for proper removal of excess humidity from the room.
Inspection method: Partially traversed, Access throughout the attic was restricted due to lack of secure footing
Access description: Ceiling hatch was present, located in the upper hall, see comment below
Roof structure: Trusses, Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and observable
Roof decking: Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and observable
Structure for floor/ceiling below: Not readily accessible for evaluation due to placement of thermal insulation
Attic ventilation: Soffit vents, Continuous ridge vent, Satisfactory condition
Thermal insulation: Cellulose blown-in insulation, Satisfactory condition
Insulation depth: 10 inches, more or less. Satisfactory amount for this region.
58) Evidence was present which indicates that mice and/or bats have been (or were) present in the attic.
Tunnels were observed in the thermal insulation.

Sealing all gaps and openings around the foundation, walls, penetrations, and roof can reduce the potential for entry.
If complete elimination is desired, then recommend contracting with qualified exterminators after the home is substantially sealed as above.
59) The attic hatch did not have weather stripping around its perimeter and had no insulation over the top.

A significant amount of conditioned air can escape into the attic.
The lack of weather stripping and insufficient insulation can result in attic condensation (resultant formation of molds/mildew) and can result in higher heating and cooling costs.

At the time of the inspection, there were NO indications of molds or mildews in the attic.
Basement / Foundation
Table of contents
Foundation material: Poured concrete
Foundation wall conditions: No indications of moisture penetration were present at the time of the inspection, Most of the perimeter foundation walls were covered (which prevented full evaluation of the foundation walls), Satisfactory condition where readily accessible and/or observable (See comment in the Exterior Structures Section regarding an observed crack on the exterior.
Floor: Much of the base flooring was not readily observable under finish flooring. Those areas could not be fully evaluated, The areas of the base flooring which were readily observable were in satisfactory condition
Basement drainage: Sump pump was present, Functionality was satisfactory, Discharge was to an appropriate exterior location.
Girders and beams: Not readily accessible and/or observable for evaluation
Columns: Not readily accessible for evaluation
Joists: Wood, Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and/or observable
Sub floor condition: Fire stop material was not present at ceiling penetrations, See comment below
Window units: Marginal condition
Window glass: Single pane (non-insulated), See comment below
Light fixtures: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Some receptacles for which GFI protection is recommended had no GFI protection, See comment in the Electric System Circuitry Section
Insulation in the basement: Insulation was present in the box sill areas, Where readily accessible and/or observable
Radon mitigation system: A fan assisted system was present, At the time of this inspection, the liquid in the tube was at differing levels, indicative of proper operation.
60) The inspection does not guarantee or warrant that water will not accumulate in the basement in the future. Access to the basement during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. The inspection does not determine the adequacy of basement floor or stairwell drains, or determine if such drains are clear or clogged.

Note that all basement areas should be checked periodically for water intrusion, plumbing leaks and pest activity.

Structural components in the basement such as joists and beams, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by under-floor insulation or finish material are excluded from this inspection.
61) Moisture stains were present in the rear corner in the basement utility room.
A moisture meter showed elevated moisture levels of greater than 22% at the base of the wall.
Those conditions indicate a potential for future moisture related problems in the basement.

Factors contributing to water in basements include unusual weather patterns, changes to storm drainage systems controlled by the local city or municipality, tree roots doing damage to foundations, rain gutters leaking or overflowing, depressions and improper slopes in the grading outside, and drainage systems in the basement failing.
Unusual weather can force water to follow unusual paths.

To reduce the potential for wet basements, recommend keeping the outside perimeter of the house free of shrubs, trees, and thick vegetation. Recommend all landscaping, stoops, and walkways be set so water is channeled away from the house. Recommend rain gutters and downspouts be cleaned semi-annually, and all downspout extensions be placed or maintained so water cannot come back towards the foundation.
Use of one or more dehumidifiers in the lower level is recommended.
See additional information in the Grading and Drainage Section.

If problematic moisture continues to occur, then recommend a qualified basement contractor evaluate conditions inside and outside and make suggestions for water control.
62) A gap was present in the ceiling beneath the bathroom. This gap was for placement of the bathtub drain system.
In the event of a basement fire, such gaps can allow flames to quickly spread to the rest of the house.
Properly covering the gaps with flame resistant material can slow the spread of flames in the event of a fire.
63) The window in the basement utility area had only a single pane of glass in it. Such single panes can loose significant amounts of heated and cooled air.

For better energy savings, recommend adding a 2nd layer of glazing (such as a storm window), or adding insulation to the window.
Location: In the basement utility room
Brand: Lennox
Model: nnnnnnnn
Serial number: 0025J555555
Approximate age: Manufactured in, 2000
Heating system energy source: Propane gas
Warm air systems: Central system
Heat exchanger: No portion of the heat exchanger was readily accessible, unable to evaluate
Carbon monoxide: Recommend installation of a carbon monoxide detector on each level of the building. See information regarding this in the Interior Systems Section
Exhaust and flue piping: Draft was fan induced with PVC tubing, Satisfactory condition, for external components, where readily accessible and/or observable
Air supply for combustion: The unit pulled combustion air directly from outside, Satisfactory condition
Distribution system: Metal ducts, Satisfactory condition for external components, where readily accessible and/or observable
System controls: Serviceman switch and fuse were present, Automatic safety controls are integral with the furnace and not readily accessible for testing
Filter: Disposable filter in use. Recommend it be changed every 2 months during the cooling and/or heating seasons, Satisfactory condition, The filter size was, 16x24x1
Thermostat locations: In the living room
Thermostat: Electronic, Functionality was satisfactory
Operation of the unit by normal controls: The system did respond as intended, The unit 's operation was satisfactory at the time of the inspection
Add on features: Humidification system, If the humidification system is used in the future, recommend reading the manufacturer's maintenance and use information. Improper use and lack of proper maintenance can result in damage to the furnace and mold in the ducts. If its use is not desired, then recommend it be disconnected
Drainage for condensation: Discharge was through a pipe to a drain, Satisfactory condition
64) The estimated useful life for forced air furnaces is 17 - 22 years. This furnace was at that age and can potentially need replacing at any time.

Recommend that this system be inspected, cleaned, serviced and repaired if necessary by a qualified heating and cooling technician annually in the future. Due to its advanced age, recommend the furnace be tested for Carbon Monoxide (CO) output during these check-ups.
65) The gas line to this furnace did not have a drip leg.
Drip legs are installed to allow any impurities in the gas to drop out of the main flow.

Suggest a proper drip leg be provided.
Air conditioning
Table of contents
AC energy source: Electric
Type of system: Central split system
Location of evaporator coils: Furnace supply plenum
Air handling equipment: Functionality was satisfactory
Drainage for condensation: Used the same system as the furnace
Method of cold air distribution: Furnace ducts
Location of condensor/compressor unit: Outside, along the north wall
Evaporator coils: The evaporator coils for the air conditioner unit were not readily accessible for evaluation. Having an air conditioner technician annually check the evaporator coils can increase the serviceable life of the unit.
Refrigerant lines: The lines did not have adequate support, Recommend providing adequate support
Thermostat: The same one used for the furnace, Functionality was satisfactory
Operation of the unit by normal controls: The system did respond as intended, The unit 's operation was satisfactory at the time of the inspection
66) Suggest that this system be inspected, cleaned, and serviced by a qualified heating and cooling technician annually in the future.
Electric System Circuitry
Table of contents
Reverse polarity and grounding for receptacles within 6 feet of interior plumbing fixtures, in the garage, and on the exterior: Some receptacles in those locations did not have proper polarity. See identification of those in previous and/or upcoming sections, See comment in this section regarding GFI protection of some receptacles
67) All communications systems for a house should be bonded to the home's grounding electrode system.
This includes any antenna tower, satellite dish, the telephone network panel, and any antenna discharge unit (splicing device).

Bonding the systems helps reduce induced voltage (arcing) between all those systems during lighting events.
68) The following areas had electric receptacles which did not have GFCI protection:
1. In the kitchen where located to serve counter top spaces. The one to the left of the range did not have GFI protection.
2. In the bathroom on the main floor.
3. In the utility room, the one for the water heater.

It is recommended that those areas be provided with GFCI protection.

GFCI protected receptacles are recommended (required for new construction and remodels) when the receptacle is within 6 feet of a water source, above all kitchen counters, and all areas where moisture may be present, such as exterior, garages, and basement utility areas.

"GFCI" stand for ground fault circuit interrupter. These receptacles have two buttons on the face, one for TEST and one for RESET. They are usually refered to simply as GFI's or GFI receptacles (or circuit breakers). A ground fault circuit interrupter is an electrical device that, if installed correctly in household branch circuits, could prevent over two-thirds of the approximately 300 electrocutions still occurring each year in and around the home. Installation of the device could also prevent thousands of burn and electric shock injuries each year.

The GFCI is designed to protect people from severe or fatal electric shocks. Because a GFCI detects ground faults, it can also prevent some electrical fires and reduce the severity of others by interrupting the flow of electric current.

GFI's constantly monitor electricity flowing in the circuit, to sense any loss of current. If the current flowing through the circuit differs by a small amount from that returning, the GFCI quickly switches off power to that circuit. The GFCI interrupts power in a fraction of a second, preventing a lethal dose of electricity. A small shock may result, but there would be no electrocution or serious shock injury.

GFI receptacles and circuit breakers can fail. It is important to test them once a month. To do so, simply depress the TEST button. Doing so should shut off electric current to the outlet (if not, have the device replaced immediately). Then depress the RESET button. Electric current should be restored right away (if not, have the device replaced immediately).

GFI's are frequently installed improperly. If the TEST and/or RESET buttons do not work properly, improper connections may be the cause.

Recommend a qualified electrician evaluate any faulty GFI devices and perform necessary corrections if required.
69) Electric type NM-B cables were present on wall surfaces in the basement utility room.
When routed along wall surfaces, the conductors can potentially be damaged.
Surface routed conductors should be given substantial protection, such as solid chases or conduit.
70) Uncovered junction boxes were present in the basement utility room.
Recommend they be provided with proper covers.
71) Most components of branch circuit runs are hidden from view. There is a possibility that additional improper connections and wiring do exist in the home, which were not readily accessible and unable to be noted in this report.
Electric Service Panel
Table of contents
Purpose of the panel: This is the electrical service panel (the primary panel)
Primary service type: Overhead
Primary service overload protection type: Circuit breakers
Service amperage (amps): 200
Service voltage (volts): 120/240
Location of panel: In the basement utility room
Obstructed access?: Obstructed by stored items
Manufacturer of the panel: Square D brand, type QO
Over current protection (fuses and/or circuit breakers): Satisfactory condition for external components
GFCI Circuit Breakers: Not applicable here
Main disconnect rating (amps): 200
This panel's amperage rating: 200 amps
Condition of the panel: Open slot(s) were present, See comment below
Panel's manufacturer label: The label gives information regarding internal device connections and allowable amperes, The label was present and legible
Location of main disconnect: Breaker at the top of this panel
Service or feeder conductors: Copper, Satisfactory condition, For readily accessible lengths
Bonding of neutral conductors, panel, and grounding conductors: Satisfactory condition
Grounding electrode systems: The readily observable grounding electrode connections were satisfactory. See additional suggestion below
Branch circuit wiring type: Non-metallic (type NM) sheathed, where readily accessible and observable
Are conductor ampacities correct for circuit breakers (or fuses): Ampacities for observable conductors were compatible with the overcurrent device, In readily accessible and observable areas (voltage systems were compatible)
Aluminum branch circuit wiring: None observed in readily accessible areas
Legend for breakers or fuses: Legends tell which breakers or fuses protect which circuits. Legends allow for rapid shut-off of breakers in case of an emergency or during service calls. The legend was filled out but not checked for accuracy
72) Exposed wiring and terminals existed in the service panel due to a cover missing from an open circuit breaker slot.
Such holes allow an easy entry for mice and other small pests.
Fingers and other objects can be inserted, potentially touching live contact points.

Recommend installing covers in open slots.
73) The neutral bus bars in the panel had multiple neutral conductors attached to some individual terminals.
Each neutral conductor must terminate within the panel in an individual terminal that is also not used for another conductor.
The reason for this requirement is to reduce the potential for loose conductors. A loose neutral or grounding conductor can result in an opened circuit, or in some circumstances, a potential for severe electric shock.
74) For improved electrical bonding grounding and safety, recommend bonding the metal plumbing water supply pipes to the grounding electrode system.
Doing so will reduce the potential for electric shock or property damage if any plumbing pipes or fixtures were to become energized by contact with live conductors or large static surges (such as indirect lightning strikes).
75) The air conditioner compressor unit required a maximum overcurrent device (fuse or circuit breaker) of 25 amps.

The circuit breaker for the unit in this electric panel had a 30 amp circuit breaker.
Non-compliance with the manufacturer's requirements could result in damage to the compressor motor and/or void any existing warranty. It can also result in over-heated conductors.
Recommend replacing the existing circuit breaker with a properly sized one.
Plumbing and Fuel Systems
Table of contents
Location of main water shut-off valve: In the basement utility room
Water service: Private
Well pump: Outside
Pressure tank: Located in the basement utility room
Water entry piping: Non-metalic, Satisfactory condition, on the interior readily accessible areas of the building
Main shut-off valves: Main shut-off valve was present, there were no indications of leaks
Accessible water distribution piping: Copper, Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and/or observable
Accessible valves and joints: Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and/or observable
Accessible Pipe supports and hangers: Not enough hangers for proper support, recommend installation of appropriate hangers where necessary for proper support
Functional flow: Satisfactory during the time of the inspection
Cross contamination points observed: None on the interior of the house
Accessible Drain waste and vent pipes: PVC, Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and/or observable
Accessible Pipe supports and hangers: Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and/or observable
Accessible drain traps visible in the basement: None readily accessible or observable for evaluation
Functional drainage: Satisfactory during the time of the inspection
Water softener. The functionality of the unit is not evaluated: Recommend continued use of the system
Softener components: No leaks were observed
Interior fuel storage system: None present
Accessible Fuel lines: LP gas, Copper, No leaks were detected, Satisfactory condition, Where readily accissible
Main fuel shut-off location: Valve on top of LP tank, beneath hood
Accessible Fuel line hangers and protection: Fuel lines had appropriate hangers, Satisfactory condition, Where readily accessible
Water Heater:
Type: Tank, LP gas
Brand name: AO Smith
Model No: nnnnnn
Serial No: 1225A125648
Capacity in gallons: 40
Approximate age: Manufactured in, 2012
Control devices for the water heater: A thermostat was present at the base of the tank and in operational condition
Tank conditions: Satisfactory condition, For the readily observable exterior tank enclosure
Cold water inlet valve: An inlet valve was present, There were no indications of active leaks
Temperature Pressure (TP) relief valve: The extension tube extending from the relief valve was too short, See comment below
Vent pipe and connections: Draft induced fan, Satisfactory condition, where readily accessible and observable
Electric receptacle for the water heater: The receptacle did not have GFI protection, See comment in the Electric System Circuitry Section
76) The water heater's temperature/pressure relief valve had an improper extension tube.

The tube should be of non-flexible material (such as copper or CPVC) and should contain no bends other than at the top of the heater.
It should terminate about 6" above the floor, next to the water heater tank.
77) The photo below shows the main water shut-off valve. In the event of a water leak, turn off this valve, then call a plumber.

Note, for purposes of this sample report, there are no photographs.
78) Many components of plumbing supply and DWV runs are hidden from view. There is a possibility that improper connections and configurations do exist in the home, which were not discovered and noted in this report.
79) Some plumbing water supply pipes were located in the basement utility room beneath the kitchen. There is a potential for the pipes to freeze during extreme cold weather in this area.
Recommend adding insulation to the accessible water pipes that are routed near the window.
80) The average life expectancy for water heaters is about 12 - 17 years, more or less.

Despite this, recommend budgeting for repairs or replacement in the near future when water heaters reach the 5 year mark

At the time of this inspection, its functionality was satisfactory.
Well and Septic - basic information
Table of contents
Well: Single dwelling, Easy access for service
Location of well: To the rear of the home
Location of pressure tank: In the basement utility room
Water pump performance: Satisfactory during the time of the inspection
Location of septic system: To the right of the home
81) The information supplied in this section does not constitute an inspection of the septic system nor the well and its pump.

Prior to final acceptance of the conditions of purchase, recommend giving consideration to having a licensed and qualified plumber inspect the septic system and the well and pump.
82) The State of Wisconsin requires private septic systems be inspected every three years. The county does send out notices when the three year inspection is due.
83) Recommend having the well water tested for bacteria and nitrates by a qualified lab every other year.
Type of structure: Attached, 2-car
Foundation material: The same as the house
Floor: Concrete, Typical cracks were present
Sill plates: Not readily accessible or observable behind finish wall material. No observable indications of moisture or moisture damage were present at the base of the outer perimeter walls at the time of the inspection
Vehicle doors: Overhead track, Motorized, Functionality was satisfactory
Remote control transmitter: A remote control transmitter was not located. Recommend asking the seller regarding remote control
Automatic opener: Operable
Safety Reverse: The electric eyes were set more than 6" above the floor, See comment below
Vehicle door frame: Metal clad, Cosmetic blemishes were present near the ground
Weather stripping for the overhead door: Satisfactory condition
Exterior service door: Metal clad, Satisfactory condition
Light switches: Functionality was satisfactory
General Branch Circuit Electric Receptacles: Receptacle(s) for which GFI protection is recommended DID have proper protection, Functionality was satisfactory
Lights: Functionality was satisfactory
Fire separation systems: See comment below
Window units: Double hung, Functionality was satisfactory
Window glass: Insulated glass panes, Satisfactory condition
Walls and ceiling: Cosmetic blemishes were present
Girders and beams: Steel, Satisfactory condition
Columns: Bearing wall, Satisfactory condition
Steps: Satisfactory condition, leading into the house
84) The safety reverse electric eyes for the overhead door were set more than 6" above the floor.
Small children and pets can be underneath the door path undetected when the eyes are set more than 6" above the floor.
Relocating the sensory eyes to a point 6" above the floor can reduce the potential for accidental crushing injuries.
85) The door leading to the interior of the home was not a proper fire-rated door.
Replacing the door with proper self-closing fire-rated door offers increased protection from garage fumes and fires.

Correction of this will not stop flames from spreading to the house, but can slow the rate of flame spread to allow greater time for escape and for emergency response.
Roof inspection method: Traversed
Roof type: Gable
Roof #1 Area: Entire house
Type of material for exposed roofing: Fiberglass asphalt composition shingles
Condition of Roof #1: Satisfactory condition
Roof penetrations: Plumbing vent stack, Chimneys/combustion exhaust, See comment below, regarding chimney flashing
Condition of the exterior components of the chimney: Satisfactory condition
Condition of boots: Satisfactory condition for readily observable top surfaces
Flashing: Chimney, See comment below
Roof ventilators: Satisfactory condition, for readily observable top surfaces
86) The flashing at the base of the chimney had gaps. This is a result of deteriorated sealants.

To reduce the potential for future leaks, recommend the sealants be replaced now and as necessary in the future.
87) Tree branches were near some of the roof surfaces. Tree branches can shorten the life of the shingles by preventing rapid drying of the shingles, and by dropping branches, leaves, and other debris on the surface of the roof. Recommend pruning trees so they're at least 10 feet away from the roof, or don't overhang the roof.
88) Ice dams can occur on almost any building in the winter if certain unique weather conditions are present, and when warm interior air rises into the attic or vaulted spaces from the habitable rooms.
Ice dams occur when snow accumulates on the roof to such an extent that it creates an insulating blanket over the roof and attic. They can also occur during minimal snowfall if the attic has insulation which is insufficient or improperly applied, if gaps are present through the building envelope into the attic or vaulted ceiling, and if there is insufficient ventilation in the attic. Proper ventilation can be blocked by heavy snow.
If the attic becomes warm enough to heat the roof deck to 32F or above, snow will melt. If the soffit regions (roof overhangs) are cooler than 32F, the melting snow will re-freeze over the soffits, creating ice, which will grow into a mass similar to a dam, blocking melted snow from running down the slope. This snow melt will then back up, usually finding its way into the building through the smallest openings in the roof structure.
There are ways to eliminate or greatly reduce ice dams. Methods include properly insulating, sealing, and ventilating the attic. Snow removal (if done at all) should be performed with proper snow roof rakes, and always from the ground.
Suggestions include consulting with roofing and insulation contractors for more information and possible courses of action for the prevention of ice dams, if they are problematic.

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