View as PDF

View summary


(360) 296-4020
5614 Starry Rd 
Bellingham WA 98226-9714
Inspector: Curtis C Brown
Licensed Home Inspector DOL#368
Licensed Structural Pest Inspector WSDA# 76712

Standard Home Inspection

Client(s):  Happy Client
Property address:  123 Main St
Lovely Town WA 98765
Inspection date:  Wednesday, January 20, 2021

This report published on Saturday, May 15, 2021 12:19:12 PM PDT

Curtis C Brown, Owner
Washington State Licensed Home Inspector DOL #368
WSDA Licensed Structural Pest Inspector #76712

Thank you for using CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC for your Home inspection. I understand how important your home inspection is to you and your family. Buying a home is probably the most expensive purchase you will ever make, and your business is very important to me, and my family. If there is any way I can help you after your home inspection, please do not hesitate to contact Curtis at the phone number or email provided on this report. If you find this report useful and informative please refer CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC to your friends, your Realtor and anyone you believe could benefit from my services. CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC not only performs inspections for purchasers, but also for people planning to sell a home who wish to estimate the amount of work that needs to be completed before listing the house.

A site diagram is NOT prepared as part of a standard home inspection report. However, if wood destroying insects or potential evidence of their activity was seen at the time of the inspection, then a complete wood destroying organism inspection was conducted (WAC 16-228-2045). If such a report was required, a Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) inspection control number will be present, above the client's name, at the top of this report. WAC 16-228-2045 REQUIRES THAT A DIAGRAM BE PREPARED FOR WOOD DESTROYING ORGANISM (WDO) INSPECTION REPORTS. A COPY IS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST.

A home inspection is not invasive, it is a visual assessment. The inspection is, as limited by the tight time-lines of real estate transactions, it is not technically exhaustive and the inspector spends limited window time on premises. An inspector is looking for significant safety and defect issues to the components of a home. Pointing out minor or cosmetic deficiencies is at the discretion and courtesy of the inspector. Never the less, please understand that some recommendations made on a home inspection report include enhancements or upgrades that are optional and are, by all means, not "mandatory" repairs. Since the appearance of a home, especially interior decor, is a matter of personal taste, the client is responsible for determining that finish surfaces, colors, cleanliness and design features meet his or her expectations. In a related matter, any fog that might be inside thermal-pane windows is largely weather dependent and an inspector may not be able to identify glazing problems as a result of variations in temperature, humidity, weather and lighting conditions.

The inspector cannot see through or into wallpaper, walls, siding, concrete or floors, insulation, carpets, ceilings, under roofing materials, down into soil, tight-lines, drains, vent or waste pipes, floor/toilet /sink connections, ducting, gutters or downspouts that are full of debris or behind creosote or soot. Areas that are not accessible or the view is obscured because of furniture, appliances, storage or other belongings and coverings are excluded. Overflows at sinks and tubs are not tested -- doing so could cause water damage inside wall cavities. A home inspector does not guarantee that a roof will withstand a heavy windstorm nor ascertain that it has not leaked in the past nor that it will not leak at some time in the future. In a related matter, gutters may not withstand heavy snowfall or compacted ice. The roof covering may conceal roofing defects. Solar roofing systems, including any components on the roof or in an attic, are excluded.

Standard procedures: Only normal controls are operated (thermostats, light switch, faucets, etc). Wood stoves, fireplaces and pilot lights will not be lit. Devices that are not functional will not be plugged-in, nor will circuit breakers, or main shut-off valves be operated. Furniture, storage and appliances will not be moved or disassembled during the home inspection -- with the exception of (1) the "dead front" cover will usually be removed from the electric panel; (2) front panels may be removed at some HVAC appliances. Care and caution is taken in removing fronts or covers, from electric panels or openings into attics, but sometimes the procedures can unavoidably leave minor cosmetic marks on finished surfaces.

CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC makes every effort to perform a thorough inspection, within reasonable time-lines and the limitations specified, but makes no warranties about the home other than reporting on the conditions that were noted and apparent at the time of the inspection. Some defects may have been concealed or intermittent so those problems might go unreported. It is not possible, in the course of an inspection, to check every component at a home or to identify every problem. The standards of practice for home inspection state that the inspector shall view, operate or test a representative number of components at the exterior and the interior: readily accessible siding and trim, windows, doors, walls, light switches, receptacles, etc. An inspector does not get on furniture to view or operate windows or other components. High exterior locations at the home, such as siding, trim or soffit areas below eaves, due to safety and typical access issues, may be viewed from the ground and not from a ladder. High electrical receptacles, under eaves, may not be evaluated. Complex mechanical devices, such as freezer icemakers or fresh water systems are excluded. Washing machines and dryers are excluded. Sewage related septic/private disposal systems including septic tanks, sewage grinders/ejector pumps are usually fully or partially concealed from view or below grade and the components and mechanisms are not opened or inspected for performance or function. The exclusion includes air pumps, ultraviolet systems and all related electronics, alarms and wiring. Remote electric distribution (sub) panels may be concealed from view and may not be apparent to the inspector. If such systems are known to be present, or are later found to be on premises, recommend that the tanks, pumps/grinders, panels and related components be, as required, further evaluated/serviced by qualified professionals.

An inspector is assessing systems or components to determine if they are functional. An inspector will not suggest that a new system or component be installed simply for the sake of updating if it appears that the old system is functional or would be operational if repaired or maintained. It is not reasonable to expect every system or component in every home to be in new or perfect condition. Systems and components age. Older systems are often serviceable -- they operate but they are typical of a home of a given age. In any home, systems and components require at least some ongoing maintenance. Comments or observations involving household appliances are at the discretion of the inspector. The state standards of practice do not require the inspector to report on the condition of household appliances -- exceptions being that the inspector will, when possible, report on the operation of most HVAC equipment and water heaters. Conditions at a home and with appliances can, and will, change from day to day. It is assumed that the buyer wishes to purchase the home and the seller wishes to sell. The inspector must act in an unbiased manner. It is not the role of the inspector to create unreasonable concerns in an effort to influence the negotiations.

Clients ask if service or repairs should be performed prior to, or after, closing. That decision is left to the client. But please realize that the inspection is not exhaustive and the inspector is a generalist and not an expert in other licensed trades. The inspector is looking for clues as to problems and an inspector cannot predict when it might be more practical to replace a problematic component or system. At times a repair can be as expensive as replacement costs and sometimes undetected or hidden damage may lead to unexpected expense. A defect in one component can cause an unanticipated but related problem at another location: a marginal roof or failed sump pump could result in moisture issues and fungal concerns elsewhere. Rot, wood destroying organisms or even a missing, or failed, flashing might lead to concealed damage. Therefore, it is recommended that, prior to closing, client(s) have in hand estimates from qualified professional contractors or specialists for service/repairs or replacement of problematic components or systems. That would include, but is not limited to, decks, siding, structure, rot and wood destroying organisms, roofs, water leaks or water intrusion, drainage, skylights, gutters, chimneys, fireplaces, wood stoves, electrical systems, plumbing and heating.

It is the recommendation of Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC that all work be completed by qualified and, as applicable, licensed contractors, builders, remodelers, plumbers, pest control applicators, electricians, roofers, HVAC and chimney professionals. Since an inspector cannot foresee the future and will not attempt to predict all of the ramifications or potential costs associated with any given problem, consultation with a qualified specialist is worthwhile. If this protocol is adhered to, the client has more options should the workmanship later be found to be sub-standard. Additionally, I recommended that all qualified parties or specialists, when on-site, be asked to not only make essential repairs but to also further evaluate a system or component and to make recommendations as to other beneficial repairs, improvements or upgrades.

Buyers often allow sellers to make repairs, or the repairs may be deferred until after closing. Those options are at the discretion of the parties involved and any governmental agency that might oversee the process. If repairs are completed in a suitable manner, by qualified parties prior to closing, the client minimizes the chances of unexpected surprises after closing. Regarding buyer or homeowner repairs, it is not the intent of a report to specify the exact means of repair for any given problem. Again, consulting with a qualified professional is required. A client performs, or accepts the work of another non-professional, at his or her own risk. And, of course, all appropriate city, county or municipal building permits should be acquired when work is done.

A home inspection is a practical approach to evaluating visual deficiencies. With few exceptions, the inspector does not know, nor confirm, if prior remodeling or construction work was performed with, or without, building permits. A home inspector is not checking for compliance with codes or verifying compliance with manufacturer's specifications. In fact, codes evolve over the years. For example, in homes that are not of recent construction, escape routes and window sizing may not be in compliance with modern emergency egress requirements. An inspector does not count bolts in the sill plate at any home. It may be unfair, except in the matter of critical safety issues, to expect a home built under previous standards to conform to recent codes. A professional or specialist, when performing service or making other repairs, is in a good position to determine if systems and components are installed per manufacturer's guidelines or the applicable building codes.

Mold, mildew and microbial growths are excluded substances per the standards of practice for home inspection. The inspector is searching for wood destroying organisms (rot) and conducive conditions. Fungus (or yeasts) are common and sometimes present in bathrooms, attics or crawl spaces. However, the report will not identify species of fungus other than wood decay fungi or rot. Microbial growths are the result of excess moisture or a lack of ventilation. Therefore, any fungal issues reported, with the exception of rot, will be referred to as conducive conditions. A client who wishes to have a mold or mildew inspection should, in addition to the standard home inspection, contract with a firm that specializes in locating and/or identifying microbial growths and mold. If remodeling is done, where walls and ceilings are opened, wallpaper removed, homeowners might find concealed issues, related to moisture that will have to be addressed during the remodel.

A home Inspection is NOT an environmental survey; therefore, a qualified specialist or environmental testing firm should be hired by the client if he or she wishes to have further evaluation/testing for any excluded substances such as asbestos, radon, lead, urea formaldehyde, odors; noise, toxic or flammable chemicals, water or air quality, PCB’s or other toxins, electro-magnetic fields, underground storage tanks, proximity to toxic waste sites, carbon monoxide, vermin, pet urine. Any comments, related to these matters, that are offered in the report are provided as a professional courtesy and they do not alter the limitations that are established in the state standards of practice and the executed home inspection contract.

This report confines itself to conditions apparent at the time of the inspection. The inspector is not an arborist and is not assessing the condition of trees on the property. Seasonally there may be more ground or runoff water than at other times of the year. It is usually not possible to predict flooding. Therefore, if seasonal moisture problems develop, recommend consultation with a drainage professional. When mechanical means is utilized to control runoff water, the inspector will attempt to locate and view the pump(s) and, if possible, operate them. Inspector does not guarantee the adequacy or performance of any drainage system that might be in place to control flooding or runoff water. It is possible that the inspector will not locate all pumps (sump or ejector) on premises if they are partially covered, submerged and not readily apparent.

Thank you for using Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC for your home inspection. I know your home inspection is important to you. If I can help after the inspection, please contact me. If you are happy with Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC please refer my company to anyone who you believe could benefit from my services. Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC performs inspections for purchasers and, also, for homeowners and sellers.

CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC adheres to the standards of practice of the state of Washington WAC 308-408C) These standards are established to encourage high ethical standards and professionalism in the home inspection industry. To read the standards please visit:


This report is the exclusive property of CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized person

How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas. Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type. Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Concern typeCautionaryA recommendation to enhance safety. Not necessarily urgent but, in some instances, it might be
Concern typeReplace/RepairPlan on replacement,, or repair, with work to be done by qualified parties
Concern typeRepair/MaintainRecommended repairs that may involve ongoing upkeep. Work to be completed by qualified parties
Concern typeReview/EvaluateQualified professional to service/repair/replace/evaluate. Or, as applicable, clients to evaluate information and determine their level of concern
Concern typeMaintenance/Service (repair)Requires maintenance, professional service or appropriate repair
Concern typeVisual limitationsCondition that, potentially, conceals moisture-related issues or damage. At client's option, accept as is/maintain or arrange for further evaluation or invasive contractor review
Concern typeMonitorKeep an eye on (periodically monitor) the condition or device. Maintain, repair or replace as might be required
Concern typeOn-site notesObservations, comments or suggestions noted by the inspector
Concern typeInformationalInformational comment, but might include recommendations for small repairs or upgrades
Concern typeDamageDamage caused by weathering, deterioration or wood destroying organisms
Concern typeConducive conditionsConditions conducive for wood destroying insects or organisms (Wood-soil contact, shrubs in contact with siding, roof or plumbing leaks, etc.)

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at

Table of Contents

General Information
Exterior & Site
Attached Garage
Electric System
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)
Water Heater
Plumbing System & Laundry
Crawl Space(s)-Foundation
Interior Areas

View summary

General InformationTable of contents
Inspection overview: This is a visual inspection performed to meet with the Washington Standards of Practice and applicable state guidelines. Issues, concerns and recommendations are referenced in appropriate report sections. Various limitations and exclusions are described in both the inspection contract and the report.
Clickable hyperlinks make it possible for clients to navigate to photos, videos and additional information. Links are operational if a report is accessed from an "online" computer: Lesser operating systems in Smartphones and mobile devices may not support full functionality. When reports are saved and viewed in PDF format, access to hyperlinks will be restricted as a result of limitations in Adobe software.
Prior to sending a report to a client, all external hyperlinks are electronically checked to verify that they are working and not broken. Unfortunately, the internet being as it is, at times a link may be unavailable or temporarily out of service as a result of maintenance at a website or a server.
Report number: xxxxxxxx012021S
Water "on" to the site: Yes
Electricity "on" to the site and at the service panel(s): Yes
Gas "on" to the site: Yes
Structures inspected: One house & Attached garage
Start time: 12:15 pm
Ending time: 4:15 pm
Present during inspection: Real estate agent
Client(s) present for discussion at the end of inspection: Yes
Form of payment: Client's paid with credit card onsite, Thank you
Age of building: 2004 Build (17 years old)
Source of information utilized when estimating building age: County assessor / municipal records
Occupied and/or furnished: Unoccupied, generally unfurnished, but appliances are present
Front of building faces: Northerly
Main entry: Northerly
Secondary entrance(s): Southerly
Directions verified by mapping service: Yes, Google
To see a map or aerial view of the property and neighborhood, click on this link: (map disabled for client privacy)
Weather conditions: Cloudy
Temperature: Cool
Ground condition: Damp
Recent weather: Drizzle (light rain)
Overnight temperature: Cold
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: engineering (geotechnical or structural), building or landscape architecture, identifying bearing points and bearing walls or calculating loads, classifying specific manufacturers’ products or the composition of building materials, product recalls, compliance with installation specifications or various building codes, tracking permits, all components or systems excluded by the Washington Standards of Practice, extent of damage or deficiencies, environmental survey, identifying hazardous wastes/materials (lead or lead-based paints, asbestos products, radon gas, urea-formaldehyde/formaldehyde, residue or toxins as a result of drug use, microbial bodies-mold, etc.), insulation R-values, life expectancy or remaining life of appliances/components or systems, flood zones, potential for flooding or slides, runoff water, erosion, sufficiency of drainage, presence and operation of septic or private sewage systems and/or ejector-grinder pumps/components including wiring-electronics/alarms, warning/safety labels, emergency lighting, security/alarm systems, fire extinguishers and fire suppression or sprinkler systems and associated equipment, adequacy of attachment of shelves, cabinets, cupboards, brackets, etc.
1) Visual limitations: The inspection process may be impeded by various factors, e.g., building materials, paint and finished surfaces, plants growing near a building, intrinsic design elements, marginal lighting. Inspector cannot see into, through or behind, walls, roofing, vegetation, flashings, etc. Every problem cannot be identified in the course of a visual home inspection, concealed or undiscovered deficiencies may exist. The report provides a general overview of onsite conditions. If issues of significance are reported, clients should arrange for contractor review (testing or invasive investigation) into areas of concern. When clients arrange for repairs, vs. sellers hiring contractors, purchasers are usually in a stronger bargaining position if work is later found to be substandard.

State law has classified specific conditions as "deficient." A licensed inspector will report state mandated deficiencies although remedying such problems might prove to be difficult, impractical, or unpopular with sellers or property owners. This is not an environmental survey: The presence of potentially hazardous substances or microbial bodies-mold are excluded per the Washington Standards of Practice.
2) PNW region pests: Pests such as rodents (mice, rats or squirrels), aggressive species of insects (hornets or wasps), nesting birds or potentially destructive woodpeckers, bats in some areas, and wood destroying insects are frequently seen in this region. Rodents will climb and a mouse can squeeze through a hole the size of a dime. A rat can pass or gnaw through a hole the size of a quarter and a squirrel can go through a 1 1/2" diameter opening. If observed onsite, I report signs of pests and vulnerabilities that might lead to infestation. At this property, there appeared to be significant rodent intrusion into the substructure. See "Crawlspace-Foundation" section for further comments. Access and view are often restricted, property owners should be on the lookout for pest activity. As necessary, block any potential entry points. Correct conditions that are conducive to attracting pests: establish sufficient clearances between plants and the exterior, eliminate wood to soil contact, excess moisture and/or access to food sources. Pests are opportunistic, nomadic, and rodents can be a health concern. If an infestation is suspected, implement corrective measures and/or consult with a licensed pest management firm. Carpenter ants are more active seasonally, typically in warm weather than at other times of the year.
3) Procedures and general limitations: This home is unfurnished. Appliances, and any belongings, stored items, rugs, window coverings, etc., will not be moved to gain access. If the view is restricted, or if any areas were not readily accessible, those locations are excluded. When belongings have been removed, concerns that were not readily apparent, at the time of inspection, might be revealed.

At an unoccupied home, when fixtures and facilities are seldom in use, a small or concealed plumbing leak might not be readily apparent. Since the inspector runs a limited amount of water, clients moving into an unoccupied property are encouraged to run significant quantities of water and to be on the lookout for subtle problems. If/as might be necessary, consult with a licensed plumber. In instances where plumbing issues are referenced in a report, I advise clients to arrange for a professional assessment of fixtures and plumbing system.
4) Scope: The inspection is non-invasive, not exhaustive, and it does not include destructive testing, removing or moving building materials or components, itemizing all damage that might be present, or providing estimates of repair costs, verifying certificates of occupancy or permit/code compliance. Inspector assesses, operates or tests a representative number of components, e.g., cladding, roof, windows, doors, skylights, lights, receptacles, heat sources, plumbing fixtures, cabinets and interior surfaces. Seldom do I identify a specific manufacturers' products or speculate as to the composition of building materials. Thousands of items have been produced, and then painted, over the years. Any attempt to classify products, by manufacturer or composition, is a good faith guesstimate on the part of inspector based on available view. If a report references issues of significance, prior to closing or setting a final sales price, clients should arrange for further evaluation and obtain cost and repair estimates from qualified parties. In professional trades, qualified parties are those persons who were trained to work in a specialized field and they have appropriate contractor's licenses; for example, licensed electrical contractor, licensed plumbing contractor, licensed HVAC contractor, licensed roofing contractor, etc. When a job can legally be carried out by an unlicensed person, that individual should be capable of providing further guidance. Prompt follow-up, by seeking the advice of qualified professionals, diminishes the chances of discovering unpleasant or costly surprises after completing price negotiations or closing.
5) Standard Home Inspection (WAC 308-408C-010) compliant inspection: If observed, I report wood decay fungi (rot) and "conducive conditions" -- deficiencies defined by the state as contributing to the likelihood of attracting wood destroying organisms. It is not possible for the inspector to document every instance of wood decay fungi or all conducive conditions that might be present. Therefore, when conducive conditions (wood to soil contact, vegetation growing near or against cladding, etc.) or rot are referenced in the report, clients should arrange for qualified professionals to evaluate the conditions/damage and to provide cost and repair estimates. This report is limited to those conditions that were observed at the time of the inspection.

Note: This standard home inspection conforms to the Washington State Standards of Practice that regulate home inspectors. The report is not defined as a complete wood destroying organism inspection. In accordance with state law, if the presence of wood destroying insects-damage had been identified or suspected, I would have recommended contacting a licensed pest management firm.
6) Form 17: The home inspection is only part of the process that purchasers participate in when buying a property. Clients should study Form 17 (the real property disclosure statement) and, as applicable, follow-up on the information therein. Sellers, an exception being at some bank owned properties, are obligated to disclose known deficiencies with the building or the lot. Those deficiencies may not be observable at the time of the inspection; for example, signs of past moisture, flooding or matters involving pests. Due diligence on the part of clients includes studying Form 17, verifying listing information and data that is available from the Whatcom County Assessor's Office:
7)  Throughout the body of this report, there will be multiple references (links to videos and/or articles, and specific language) to "King of the House Inc." Steven L Smith, owner and operator of King of the House Inc., is my mentor, friend, and associate in the home inspection industry. Steven has provided this content to me with his permission to assist in the quality of information in this report.
Exterior & SiteTable of contents
Apparent foundation type: Crawl space
Foundation wall/stem wall material (where observed): Poured concrete
Footing material (where observed): Poured concrete (most footings are at/below grade and minimally or not visible)
Foundation cracks or irregularities noted: If observed, any cracks appeared to be unremarkable
Wall structure (assumed structure, since wall cavities are inaccessible): Wood frame
Exterior trim and/or fascia: Wood, Vinyl trim
Transition flashings (protection against moisture) over horizontal trim at observable locations: Vinyl flashings, typical of vinyl siding installations, obscure the view of any other flashings that might be present, Flashing missing at foundation vents
Apparent exterior wall covering: Vinyl siding
Entry/exterior door(s): Metal-clad hinged with window, Synthetic (fiberglass, vinyl and/or composite) hinged
Exterior window(s) type and/or material: Double pane synthetic (vinyl, composite and/or fiberglass) sashes/frames
Drip cap flashings (moisture protection) over weather exposed window trim and/or windows: Vinyl flashings, typical of vinyl siding installations, obscure the view of any other flashings that might be present
Entryway landing(s): Wood deck
Secondary landing(s): Concrete surface
Metal transition flashing (protection against moisture) at landings/porches/decks and exterior walls: Undetermined, lack of sufficient view due to building materials that were in place or design elements. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage. Qualified party to further assess and repair/replace as might be necessary
Lag screws, anchors or bolts at landings/porches/decks: Undetermined, did not verify due to lack of view or design elements. Anchors, when present, guard against pull-away. Qualified party to further assess and repair/replace as might be necessary
Deck, porch and/or balcony material: Wood
Driveway material: Concrete
Driveway/garage entry of sufficient size to maneuver a vehicle: Yes
Walkway/sidewalk material: Concrete
Patio material: Concrete
Exterior faucet(s)/hose bibb(s): Leak(s) noted. Faucet(s) are of frost-free design with backflow preventers. Qualified party to repair, Faucet(s) not tested/excluded
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: fences, storm/screen doors and window screens, motorized shades, shutters, awnings, detecting fog in-between double pane window or door glazing, adequacy of all flashings, unattached garages, outbuildings, greenhouses, gazebos, pergolas, trees on the property, detached stairways and walkways, tightlines, drain lines, catch basins, irrigation systems, backflow prevention devices, ponds, water features, retaining walls, sufficiency of onsite drainage, erosion control, properties of soil
8) DamageVinyl exterior: Vinyl (siding, panels, trim, soffit, etc.) has been manufactured for many years and the long-term durability of exterior materials is dependent on installation details, flashing-caulking and overall maintenance and care. The vinyl flashings, typically installed with the siding, obscure the view of transitions, joints, connections or metal flashings that might be present. Therefore, the sufficiency of flashings cannot be fully assessed. Vinyl material is subject to mechanical damage and melting, e.g., careless use of lawnmowers, children throwing baseballs, hot barbecues, etc. Limitation: Since vinyl becomes brittle over time, and might crack if subjected to prying, inspector does not pull on the material in order to report on the type/condition of any wraps or surfaces under siding.

At this home, the vinyl siding and flashing components appeared to be intact (with some localized damage), with the exception of missing flashings around the crawlspace/foundation vents. Minimally, I recommend monitoring crawlspace vent openings, as damage occurs, qualified party to repair replace as necessary. Ideally, qualified contractor would install vinyl flashing components around vents openings to prevent premature deterioration. As to the extent of damage noted at time of inspection; there are a fair number of localized mechanical damaged areas noted at the lower portions of the siding, typically due to lawnmower and/or weed-eater damage. For repairs or replacement of damaged areas, I recommend consulting with a general contractor well-versed in vinyl siding applications.

Despite vinyl having been originally promoted as a product that does not require paint, specialized paint is available for refinishing vinyl siding. Faded and sunlight impacted materials, if intact and undamaged, can be refinished. However, if vinyl is broken or melted, replace those materials prior to painting. Additional information on cleaning and painting vinyl materials is available at this link:

Photos below are examples of damaged vinyl siding at the structure:
Photo 8-1 Missing flashing around the vent openings can cause premature deterioration to vent frames and possibly allow moisture into the structure. Minimally, I recommend monitoring and replacement as necessary when deterioration occurs. Ideally, flashings should be installed at all appurtenances associated with vinyl siding
Photo 8-2 An example of corner trim damage (this photo is northeast corner)
Photo 8-3 
Photo 8-4 
Photo 8-5 This and the previous two photos were examples of localized mechanical damage
Photo 8-6 Vinyl flashings appeared to be installed around all windows and doors with the exception of this wood component between the two windows at the living room. At time of inspection, the paint at this wood trim was failing. I recommend maintaining this wood trim to prevent premature deterioration. Qualified party should sand exposed wood, install caulking any gaps where necessary, prime and paint as per current building practices
9) At the front step, uniformity of risers and/or riser height, is not in accordance with current safety standards due to settlement at the walkway. To prevent tripping falls, steps should not vary, one from another, by MORE THAN 3/8" and maximum riser height is 7 3/4".

The sidewalk at the front landing has settled towards the structure resulting in a large gap and variations in height, may be tripping hazards. At client's discretion, consult with a flat work-paving contractor. Over time, most paved surfaces will settle and develop cracks. Depending on exposure and water penetration, it could become necessary to eventually replace materials. Cracks can often be sealed to protect against the negative effects of moisture. This online video, produced by a manufacturer of concrete sealant products, describes a method of waterproofing cracks in flat surface paving:

If concerned, repair or replace sloped/settled walkway and have steps modified as necessary, with work to be completed by a general contractor. Craftsmanship to comply with prevailing safety guidelines and good building practices.
Photo 9-1 Portion of the sidewalk leading to the front landing has settled significantly
Photo 9-2 Sidewalk settlement has resulted in a large gap and potential tripping hazard
Photo 9-3 Front landing step at the sloped sidewalk has occurred a tall step. Inconsistent rises at steps and risers taller than seven and three-quarter inches are potential trip/fall hazards
10) DamageConducive conditionsThe faucet/hose bibb at the east side of the home leaked during a standard water pressure test. This procedure puts back pressure on a faucet, not unlike having a nozzle in the "off" position on a hose. I suggest tightening the bonnet (looks like a nut) at the valve stem and/or tightening or replacing the vacuum breaker. If any complications arise that go beyond the scope of routine maintenance, consult with a plumber. Based on appearance, the device(s) is probably of frost-free design (lesser likelihood of seasonal freezing). Also, backflow prevention was apparent, which decreases the risk of gray water entering the potable water system.

The hose bib at the west side of the home was not fully evaluated due to a damaged handle, faucet would not operate in its current condition. I recommend further review: Install new handles as necessary. All work to be performed by qualified party.

If hoses are left on faucets in winter, or if the piping runs through unheated space, even frost-free hose bibbs and pipes are susceptible to seasonal freezing. For additional information on hose bibb leaks, follow this link:

An informative article on various types of frost-free faucets and backflow prevention, is available here:
Photo 10-1 East hose bib (exterior faucet) leaked at the stem while under pressure test
Photo 10-2 West hose bib was not operated due to damage handle. The faucet is a frost free, anti-siphon design. If any issues are noted when handle is replaced, I recommend consulting with a plumber. Handle should be replaced by qualified party with component specific or compatible to this brand of faucet
11) Conducive conditionsPerimeter grading of the ground slopes toward the structure. Sloped terrain, depending on soil conditions, can contribute to poor drainage and runoff water accumulating around a foundation or seepage into substructure areas. Grade soil, as might be necessary, at a slope ratio of 1" per foot for a minimum 6 ft out from the building -- so runoff water is directed away from the structure. Any work to be completed by qualified party. In a related matter, establish and maintain, as minimums, 4" to 6" of clearance between earth and siding products.

The negative slope is most notable at the West and East sides of the structure.
Photo 11-1 Westside of structure, negative slope at foundation. Improper runoff of significant water events can result in moisture intrusion to the substructure
Photo 11-2 East side of structure also appears to have a negative slope, especially at the southeast corner where a missing downspout has eroded a large hole in the corner of the surrounding area
Photo 11-3 Example of efflorescence. Efflorescence is a mineral deposit that occurs as moisture passes through the porous concrete material. This photo is the base of the stem wall at the footing, at the center section of the West side of the foundation.

At time of inspection no significant standing water intrusion was noted. However, improving the perimeter grade around the structure in conjunction with repairing missing downspouts and maintaining gutters will reduce the occurrence of water/moisture intrusion into the substructure
12) The fence and gate at the southwest corner was leaning significantly. I recommend qualified party repair as necessary. Evaluating property offenses is beyond the scope of a standard inspection. When repairs are performed at fences, any wood rot that is located at time of repairs should be replaced with the sound wood.
Photo 12-1 
13) Windows: windows were operated and noted to be functional at time of inspection. No window screens were installed. Windows may not provide ventilation during months when insects are active. Windows, access to and view, may be obstructed by belongings, window coverings, breakables, height, etc. Inspector evaluates a number of windows, not necessarily every window, and looks for discernibly cloudy double pane glazing. Sometimes, fog can be elusive and less noticeable, depending on temperature, humidity, sunlight, shade and cleanliness of panes. I do not provide an inclusive list of potentially fogged or compromised windows. Client(s) should verify personal satisfaction with windows. If need be, clean glass prior to making a definitive determination. Any repairs should to be completed by qualified contractor.

Since materials and design elements are obscured from view by trim, siding, etc., it is usually not possible to assess the sufficiency of all flashings, caulking or flanges at window or door installations.
Photo 13-1 Windows were functional at time of inspection, however missing screens can be a nuisance, or inconvenience when trying to ventilate the home in warmer temperatures, allowing insects into the home
14) Conducive conditionsVegetation (plants, trees, shrubs, vines) is close to/in contact with the exterior. Vegetation, situated near the building, is conducive to the onset of rot or attracting wood destroying insects. Cut back or remove vegetation, establish a minimum 6" to 12" gap between plants and the exterior. All work to be completed by qualified party. Vegetation, near the building, obstructs access, obscures the view and might conceal damage from, or activity by, wood destroying organisms. An online video, descriptive of other commonly seen "conducive conditions," is available here:
Photo 14-1 Vegetation can trap moisture against the structure, and can create a path for insects. It is recommended to maintain foliage at least 6 inches away from exterior preferably 1 foot
Photo 14-2 As vegetation matures, besides the conducive condition of moisture retention and insect attraction, some vegetation could cause damage to gutters, fascia, soffit and or roof. I recommend maintaining tall shrubbery away from the wall and roof overhang to prevent premature damage
15) Entry/exterior door(s): Doors were operational at the time of the inspection.
16) Any cracks, or variations in height, at the driveway do not appear to be tripping hazards. Over time, most paved surfaces will settle and develop cracks. Depending on exposure and water penetration, it could become necessary to eventually replace materials. Cracks can often be sealed to protect against the negative effects of moisture. This online video, produced by a manufacturer of concrete sealant products, describes a method of waterproofing cracks in flat surface paving:
17) Exterior & site (general information and limitations): Procedurally, inspector views a representative number of accessible components at the exterior -- siding, trim, fascia, windows, doors, etc. In the interest of safety, soffit and high exterior areas will be viewed from the ground. Where the view is restricted, for any reason, that location is excluded: Inspector is, per state law, exempted from traversing areas beneath decks-porches with less than 60" of clearance from the underside of joists to grade. Critical design elements are often obscured from view; therefore, it is impossible to assess the integrity of all transition flashings, window flanges and windows. If exterior issues are reported, clients should obtain cost and repair estimates from general contractors. Further review, by specialists, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Attached GarageTable of contents
Floor material: Concrete
Garage to house design (accessible/observable areas) fire-resistant: Yes
Suitability of fire-resistance at garage to house door(s): Wood (assumed to be solid-core). Based on general appearance, probably fire-resistant
Self-closer on garage to house door(s): Yes, device was functional
Ignition sources (such as gas and/or electric water heaters, furnaces, etc.) elevated a minimum of 18" over floor: Yes, risk of fire is lessened if ignition sources are elevated over the floor
Vehicle door(s) apparent material: Metal
Vehicle door(s) type: Sectional overhead
Vehicle door(s) auto-reverse: Functional when tested high (standing position), Functional when tested low (floor level position)
Vehicle door(s) sensor eyes (should be mounted 4" to 6" over the floor): Functional
Bollard(s) in place (bollards protect furnace-water heater(s) from forward moving vehicles): Yes
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: walls/floors/ceilings/receptacles/switches that are obstructed by storage, warning labels, detailed safety analysis or balance of vehicle doors, function of remote controls and keypads, absolute sufficiency of overall garage to house fire-resistance
18) Garage/laundry appliances: The laundry area is in the garage. To reduce the chances of appliances inadvertently igniting flammable gasoline vapors that might accumulate near the garage floor, certain electro-mechanical devices and gas appliances, electrical receptacles, appliance motors, etc., should be raised a minimum of 18" over the floor. Many newer dryers and washing machines can be placed at floor level, depending on design type and manufacturer specifications. I recommend further review: prior to purchase, study the laundry equipment manuals or search online, to determine appliance suitability for the application, or consult with appliance installation-repair professional. If modifications or repairs are necessary, any work should be completed by qualified professional.

Risk is appliance's ignition source lighting flammable gasoline vapors. Applies to many gas and electric dryers.
Photo 18-1 
19) The wall button(s), for opening and closing the powered vehicle door(s), was mounted too low. As a precautionary measure, to make it difficult for youngsters to operate vehicle doors, mechanical opener/operator buttons should be installed, as a minimum, 5 ft above the highest horizontal surface (floor, stairs, etc.) a person could stand on. I recommend further evaluation: Reposition the button(s), work to be completed by qualified party, so as to comply with standard safety guidelines.
Photo 19-1 For child safety, as per current guidelines, vehicle garage door opener buttons should be a minimum of 60 inches off the highest walking surface
20) The garage, including the walls, floor, ceiling, and the connecting door to the house, was built to provide limited resistance to the spread of a fire between the garage and the dwelling. A garage interior, if it is in close proximity to the residence, must be fire-resistant: no openings or holes in drywall that could allow a fire in the garage to spread to other parts of the home. At a minimum, drywall should be installed at the garage side of shared walls. If the attic over the garage communicates with the attic over the home, or if there is living space above the garage, the garage ceiling requires drywall as well. Small gaps around pipes, vents, ducts, conduits or junction boxes, should be firestopped with fire-resistant sealant/caulking. The floor, usually concrete, must be noncombustible. For additional information on fire-resistance, click on the link (near the bottom of this report section) in "Garage (general information and limitations)."
21) Garage (general information and limitations): Attached or built in garages must provide limited resistance to the spread of a fire between the garage and habitable space. Establishing fire-resistance entails installing drywall at critical wall and ceiling areas, also, a garage floor, usually concrete, must consist of noncombustible material. Inspector does not assess the balance adjustment at overhead doors, manually release openers/operators or disassemble mechanisms, due to the difficulties involved in reattaching components. If door balance is improperly set, primary implications include unnecessary wear, overheating and failure of operator motors or mechanisms. When garage issues are reported, I recommend evaluation and repairs as necessary, work to be completed by qualified professionals. Further review, by a general contractor, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. An article that describes in detail garage to house fire-resistance, may be accessed at:
Roof inspection method: Traversed
Roof type: Sloped (Approximately 4/12 pitch)
Roof felts present (moisture resistant underlayments beneath roofing materials): Yes, verified at one, or more, location(s)
Drip edge flashings (protection against moisture) at eaves: No, drip edge flashings did not become common until recent years. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage at roof sheathing and fascia
Drip edge flashings (protection against moisture) at rake of roof: No, rake flashings did not become common until recent years. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage at rafters/fascia and roof sheathing
Plumbing stack flashings: Boot type (rubber)
Gutter and downspout material(s): Aluminum
Debris in gutters/downspouts: Yes, require cleaning. Maintain as might be required seasonally and over time
Apparent roof covering: Architectural-grade composition (estimated 25-30 year life from the time of installation. Actual lifespan may vary)
Apparent multi-layer roof (old roofing in place below roof surface): No
Roof ventilation system(s) based on exterior/roof view: Roof box vent(s), Soffit venting
Estimated age of roof: Estimated, Original to building
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: flashings, underlayments, sufficiency of roofing fasteners (length, sizing and quantities), multiple layers of roofing, detailed analysis of materials-composition, sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members, absolute adequacy of roof ventilation, guarantee or life expectancy of materials and components
22) DamageConducive conditionsExposed lumber: There are missing, or out of place, flashings over the rafter tails/fascia up at the roofline. This condition can contribute to wood decay fungi (rot). Rot was present at some rafter tails, most notably at the south gable. I recommend further evaluation: Qualified general contractor or roofer to correct/repair by removing any deteriorated wood and replacing it with sound materials. On a case by case basis, install or improve upon flashings -- so they direct runoff water from the roof over the rafter tails or fascia. Flashings, typically cut from shingles or metal, should extend approximately 2" over any tails. While onsite, professional to offer suggestions as to other beneficial repairs or upgrades. A photo of two rafters, one with a flashing and the other without, may be accessed at this link:

To see an online video, produced by King of the House Inc. on the topic of rot, please follow this link:
Photo 22-1 Southwest corner. Photo example of exposed/ damaged rafter tail (barge board). I recommend further review: qualified contractor to examine all gable trim components and repair as necessary. All rotted wood should be replaced
23) Conducive conditionsDownspout is detached at the southeast corner. Uncontrolled water runoff is conducive to the onset of rot or attracting other wood destroying organisms. Upgrade/repair downspouts and gutters if/as required. If necessary, consult with a gutter and downspout installation contractor.
Photo 23-1 
Photo 23-2 Missing downspout at the southeast corner. Uncontrolled runoff has created a significant hole near the foundation, water intrusion into the substructure is possible as a result. I recommend qualified party such as a gutter down installer reattach missing gutter and confirm that underground drain is operational.

Also note; this photo shows another exposed rafter tail (barge board), which appeared to be the condition all gable trim tails
24) Rubber plumbing stack flashings have a lifespan of about 10 to 12 years. Exposure to the sun, age and weathering eventually leads to cracks in rubber or even seepage. In light of the age, discoloration and deterioration of rubber flashings, I recommend repair/replacement as necessary, work to be completed by roofer. Qualified professional, while onsite, to evaluate the roof covering, appurtenances and associated flashings, roof-attic ventilation if applicable, and offer suggestions as to other beneficial repairs or upgrades.
Photo 24-1 
Photo 24-2 
25) Conducive conditionsGutters contain accumulated debris. That condition impedes drainage and can result in overflowing, seepage at ends/corners/where downspouts attach, and even deterioration of roof sheathing at the eaves. Clean/maintain gutters, downspouts and any associated drains and connections. If necessary, reseal ends and corners and/or adjust slope. As applicable, consult with a gutter and downspout repair or installation contractor.
26) Conducive conditionsSome of the nail heads on the roof are exposed/unsealed, a condition that results in a heightened risk of seepage into attic or interior space. I recommend further evaluation and appropriate repairs such as applying tar or mastic over fasteners. Work to be completed by roofer. Professional, while onsite, to assess the roof covering appurtenances and associated flashings, roof-attic ventilation if applicable, and offer suggestions as to other beneficial repairs or upgrades.
Photo 26-1 Exposed fasteners at Ridge is typical and inevitable at most roofs at least one location. It appeared that there were some exposed fasteners at the ends of the ridge caps. I recommend a qualified party seal exposed fasteners as necessary. This would also include expose fasteners at flashings
27) Conducive conditionsAbandoned appurtenances (old satellite mounts) are present up on the roof. I recommend removing any unnecessary rooftop appurtenances and repairing-roofing over any holes that remain. All work to be completed by qualified roofing contractor.
Photo 27-1 
28) Conducive conditionsDrip edge flashings were not installed at the eave(s) and gable ends (rake). Over time, lack of flashing can lead to rot at fascia and/or roof sheathing. I recommend monitoring conditions or, at client's option, have a roofer install flashing. A photo of a composition roof, with drip edge eave and rake flashings, is accessible here:

Prior to July 2014, when standard guidelines changed, drip edge eave and rake flashings were often not installed at the time of construction.
Photo 28-1 
29) Conducive conditionsMoss, growing here, obscures the view of roofing materials-components and makes for a slippery roof surface. This condition is conducive to premature deterioration of roofing materials. Remove and/or control moss with Moss B Ware, or a similar product, sold at home stores. Follow manufacturers' recommendations. Work to be completed by roofer. This may be primarily a cleaning and maintenance issue but, when all of the roof is clear, visible and readily accessible, qualified professional to review the roof covering, appurtenances and associated flashings, roof-attic ventilation if applicable, and offer suggestions as to other beneficial repairs or upgrades.
Photo 29-1 
30) The age of the roof was undetermined/unknown to inspector. Based on overall observable condition at time of inspection, it is assumed to be original to the structure. An estimate of remaining life or certification of any roof or associated components is beyond the scope of this process. No assurances are provided that a roof is immune to damage resultant from extreme weather or strong winds. Determining that no leaks exist would necessitate further inspections during a variety of conditions including heavy rainfall and gusty wind. Roof-attic ventilation may be referenced, but I cannot guarantee adequacy of venting, since doing so would require monitoring over time. If a client wishes to obtain a roof certification (warranty against future problems-damage or a guesstimate of remaining life) contact a roofing firm that participates in such programs.

Annual review: Roofs are exposed to severe weather and adverse conditions. Defects develop quickly, with little warning, and minor failings can turn into big problems. On a periodic basis, hire a professional to clean and assess the roof surface, flashings, penetrations, etc. to make sure that they're watertight. As applicable, depending on circumstances, enter attic space to obtain a supplementary view. Regularly cleaning a roof prolongs surface life and a roofing contractor is best prepared to not only clean but, also, identify and correct, subtle deficiencies. Annual roof cleaning is ancillary to resolving any other issues referred to in this report.
Photo 30-1 The staining of the roof was undetermined. It is possible it is related to insufficient ventilation at the attic, but from the roof surface there were vent covers for the two bathroom exhaust and the discoloration was not adjacent to the bathroom vent locations. From the limited view of the attic, I did not note any significant discoloration in the sheathing that would indicate moisture issues. If concerned, I recommend further review by qualified roofer. Minimally, I recommend maintaining moss on the roof with products designed to control moss growth on roof surfaces
Photo 30-2 
31) Roof (general information and limitations): Reportable issues include damage or excessive wear at roofing, loose flashings or fasteners, accumulated organic debris and moss, problems at penetrations and appurtenances. Roofing materials restrict the view of flashings, fasteners and underlayments. I attempt to identify observable deficiencies at accessible locations, but I cannot foresee all problems that might develop. If roof (or attic) issues are reported, clients are advised to obtain detailed cost and repair estimates from a licensed roofing contractor. Further review, by a specialist, could uncover irregularities that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.

Whenever abandoned appurtenances are present, it is advisable to remove those components, and patch/roof over, any holes that remain. Any work to be completed by qualified roofing contractor.
Inspection method: Viewed from the attic access point(s). Attic spaces have inaccessible areas where view, ingress and maneuverability are restricted by minimal clearances, insulation, piping, ducts, etc.
Location(s) of attic access hatch/door cover(s) that were observed and/or inspected: Southwest bedroom
Roof structure (where observed): Trusses
Ceiling structure (where observed): Trusses
Roof-attic sheathing (where observed): Oriented strand board (OSB)
Roofing nails or other fasteners visible under roof-attic sheathing: Yes, when fasteners penetrate through roof-attic sheathing, it is indicative of improved attachment of roofing materials. Visual limitations apply, inspector is unable to verify the absolute sufficiency of all fasteners or the means of securing roofing and/or flashings
Roof-attic ventilation system(s) based on attic view: See "Roof" report section
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: structural components, wiring/ducts obscured from view by insulation or lack of access, behind covers at walls or ceilings if hatches are obscured from view or of undetermined purpose or if removal could cause cosmetic damage, calculating insulation R-values, loads or sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members, absolute adequacy of overall attic ventilation, identifying bearing points and walls, minor cosmetic disruptions at walls and ceilings caused by truss uplift or similar condition, microbial bodies-mold
32) When it is practical and safe to do so, I will partially traverse the attic. This attic does not have flooring in place over structural members and insulation obstructs the view. An accidental misstep would damage the ceiling. Furthermore, tramping on insulation reduces R-values and vulnerable components (wiring, pipes, lights, ducts), are often concealed under insulation. Taking into consideration those factors, the interior of the attic was viewed from the hatch. Unavoidably, several locations are excluded such as low clearance soffit-eave areas. Space with less than 30" of headroom is considered to be inaccessible. Unseen problems may exist at difficult to reach or inaccessible locations.

Any building owner should, on a regular basis, check inside attic space. The sufficiency of ventilation involves air changes, relative humidity, and factors that are not easily assessed during the course of a single inspection. Clients are advised to look for indications of condensation-moisture on roof sheathing, overheating, bird or insect/bee entry, etc. If problems become apparent, when monitoring attic conditions over time, consult with a qualified service provider.
Photo 32-1 From the hatch, I observed loose fill insulation at the ceiling, batt insulation at the vaulted ceiling over the living room. Moisture readings were normal, not elevated in structural wooden components. Cardboard baffles were visible at the soffits and openings at upper box vents from viewable areas of the access and a properly insulated vent duct was noted at the West bathroom exhaust fan. However, termination points of exhaust fans were not fully determined due to limited access. I recommend further review by qualified parties such as an insulation or ventilation contractor to determine proper expulsion to the exterior from interior exhaust vents. In a related matter, Also see "Interior Areas" section for comments regarding kitchen ventilation
33) Attic/roof (general information and limitations): Manufactured trusses, present here, are designed by engineers. Since trusses are engineered, it is disallowed for anyone other than an engineer to modify or cut structural members (chords and webs). Observable attic areas are viewed to see if trusses appear to be compromised. I describe attic-roof ventilation, but do not guarantee adequacy of venting: Doing so would require consistent monitoring over time and years. Problems may go undiscovered at inaccessible locations, and any areas that were not traversed are excluded. Usually, inspector is unable to assess sufficiency of combustible clearances between vents/chimneys and flammable materials. If attic (or roof) issues are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates from licensed contractors. Further review, by specialists, could uncover irregularities that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. At wood roof structure such as trusses and, lesser so, rafters, seasonal differentials in humidity can cause "uplift," small wall or ceiling cracks in drywall at seams, joints, finished corners. Typically, uplift is a cosmetic matter, not considered to be a structural concern of significance.

Inspector attempts to view accessible attic space. Points of entry (knee wall or ceiling hatch covers, etc.) might not be discovered as a result of furniture, belongings or certain design elements. Any openings that were inaccessible, concealed, and not entered are excluded. At client's discretion, ask property owner(s) if he/she is aware of additional access hatches that were not described in this report. If so, have any such areas opened and inspected.
Electric SystemTable of contents
Location of electric meter: Exterior, easterly
Overload protection type (primary service): Circuit breakers
Service entrance type: Underground (service lateral)
Location of main service panel(s): Attached/built in garage
Location of main service disconnect(s): Breaker at top of service panel
Estimated service amperage: 200
Main disconnect rating (amps): 200
Service grounding conductor-electrode rod verified: Not seen/verified where checked. Electrician to review adequacy of onsite grounding
System bonding connections verified (protection against electrical shocking hazards): Noted at metallic water piping and rigid gas piping. Continuity of electrical bonding connections was undetermined, as was the status of bonding at any flexible gas lines. Bonding may be compromised by sections of plastic tubing/fittings elsewhere in system. To obtain a detailed evaluation, consult with licensed electrician
Main service panel(s) front cover(s) removed: Yes
Conductors service entrance (type of metal) at main panel(s): Stranded aluminum (normal and acceptable)
Arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection, safeguard against arcing and fires, present/functional: Yes, devices were functional where checked. Testing and performance limitations apply
Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protected receptacle(s), safeguard against shocks in damp areas, present/functional: Yes, devices were functional where checked. Testing and performance limitations apply
Nominal onsite voltage: 120/125-240
Estimated nominal onsite utilization voltage read at 120/125V circuit (240 volt power is calculated/approximate): 122v
Branch circuit wire type or types (where/as observed) onsite: Non-metallic sheathed, Solid-strand copper, Stranded copper and/or stranded aluminum (typically employed at circuits for larger appliances)
Sub (remote distribution) panel(s) noted on the premises: Not seen/verified
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: outdoor lighting and associated wiring/photo cells/motion sensors/mercury vapor lights, AFCI protection and hardwiring to smoke/consumer alarms, visual identification of copper-clad aluminum (CCA) circuits or any concealed branch circuit wiring, non-standard receptacles (240 volts at dryers/ranges, electric vehicle power sources, compressors, power generators/transfer switches and wiring, any circuits that are not 120/125 volts, all low voltage and 3-phase circuits and transformers, battery power or battery backup), difficult to access receptacles or switches (floor mounted, out in the yard, high on ceilings, walls, behind appliances or machinery, under eaves, in attics, in crawl spaces) or any devices that are obstructed from view or at excluded areas, placement of tamper-resistant receptacles, sub-panels and/or junction boxes (other than those referenced), condition or presence of wiring under or over insulation
34) Receptacles (outlets) are missing cover plates in the garage. Therefore, exposed connections are easily accessible. As necessary onsite, install cover plates. Any work to be performed by qualified party.
Photo 34-1 There are multiple receptacles in the garage and it appeared that most all of them were missing cover plates
35) AFCI breakers (arc fault circuit interrupters) reduce the risk of house fires by safeguarding against overheating or arcing at specific circuits. AFCI test buttons were tripped and, as anticipated, power went out at specific circuits such as bedroom receptacles and lights. Inspector is not a code enforcement official and does not certify that receptacles and/or the electrical system conform to all past or present building codes. Since conditions change, and electrical components can fail, periodically check the function of AFCI protection devices.
36) The "main" service panel was inspected after first removing the front cover. Grounds and neutrals appeared to be properly tapped to the busbars in the panel. Earth electrode grounding was not confirmed, typically difficult to find with underground service. However, bonding to the metal gas and copper water supply pipes were noted and exposed pipes in the garage. A lockout device was installed at the circuit for the dishwasher. Lockouts should be in place at circuit breakers that control any appliances that are not within sight of the panel/disconnect AND if the appliances cannot be unplugged or switched off.
Photo 36-1 The cover was removed from the main electrical panel and wiring was observed
Photo 36-2 Normal line voltage was observed while on site
37) Lighting: The inspection of lights and lighting is not inclusive, nor an analysis of all such devices, nor of 3-way and 4-way switches, switched receptacles, motion detectors and dimmers. Often, if a light or a switch does not function, a bulb will be burned-out or missing. It is not uncommon to find wall switches that are abandoned, or they remotely control switched/split receptacles or outdoor fixtures with built in motion detectors or photocells. An inspector does not troubleshoot circuits, replace or swap-out bulbs. I recommend testing switches and replacing any burned-out or missing light bulbs and/or defective fixtures, switches or wiring. Electrical work, when/if necessary, should be completed by licensed electrician. Note: At fixtures in general, and if recessed or "can" ceiling lights are present, always put in replacement bulbs of the recommended size. With recessed lights, typically those made prior to 1982 and depending on manufacturer specifications, the metal fixtures may have to be separated from attic insulation.
38) Ground fault (GFCI) protection: Receptacles that were readily accessible, and are situated at many locations that require GFCI protection, were tested. Those evaluated were operational and GFCI protected circuits were present at; the kitchen which is protected with two separate GFCI receptacles. The exterior and garage were protected with the GFCI receptacle at the east wall of the garage, all receptacles on the west wall of the garage appeared to be in line with the GFCI receptacle on that wall. Both bathrooms were GFCI protected at the GFCI receptacle in the main bathroom. No receptacles were noted in the crawlspace or attic. If receptacles are noted in unconditioned areas such as crawl space and attics, those should be protected with GFCI receptacles or breakers.

The inspector does not test receptacles that are in excluded locations, obstructed from view, out in the yard, high on ceilings, walls, under eaves or in crawl spaces. GFCI receptacles or breakers reduce the likelihood of serious electrical shocks in damp environments. In 2014, GFCI protection requirements were expanded upon: Now the devices are installed at multiple 120 volt branch circuits. If wiring is modified in the future, depending on the scope of the project, the permitting process may trigger mandatory upgrades. State law compels an inspector to suggest updating GFCI protection to meet with present guidelines, which are more stringent than when the house was built. However, whether or not a client follows through on that recommendation is optional. A diagram, illustrative of current placement for GFCI and AFCI (arc fault) protection, is available at this link:

Below is a list, not necessarily comprehensive, that describes a number of locations that require GFCI protection:

- Outdoor receptacles (120V), except those designated for ice melting equipment (must be dedicated circuits)
- Receptacles (120V) in garages, shops, outbuildings, crawl spaces, unfinished basements, mechanical rooms
- Receptacles (120V) in bathrooms, laundry rooms, kitchen countertop areas (including islands, desks, kitchen sinks)
- Any receptacles (120V) within 6 ft of the outside edge of any sink (utility, wet bar, laundry, kitchen, etc.)
- Circuits (receptacles/outlets) at dishwashers
- Receptacles (120V) supplying power to jetted tub pumps, motorized pool equipment and most other such devices, e.g., sump, ejector/grinder, well pumps)
39) Electric system (general information and limitations): A representative number of receptacles (outlets), switches and light fixtures are inspected. Receptacles or switches situated at difficult to access locations such as behind appliances, under eaves or high on the building are excluded, as are 240 volt, low voltage or other non-standard outlets, and those with childproof covers. Inspector will comment on GFCI (ground fault) and AFCI (arc fault) protected receptacles, but seldom is it possible to locate and test all such receptacles. Inspector does not verify specific placement of tamper-resistant receptacles: protection against shocks and electrical burns. Whenever a receptacle is replaced, tamper-resistant receptacles are now a mandatory upgrade at most locations. I do not trip overcurrent protection devices to verify accuracy of legends or count receptacles/switches to determine if circuits are overloaded. A report may reference electric service sizing, but capacity could be diminished by under-rated components in a system. Breaker sizing guidelines have changed over the years, so, except at new construction, amperage might be lesser than what would be installed today. Even simple electrical projects can pose safety risks, so always consult with licensed professionals. While onsite, an electrician should evaluate the system, report deficiencies and provide recommendations as to potentially beneficial upgrades or repairs. If significant issues are reported, I advise obtaining detailed cost and repair estimates. Specialized review, by a licensed electrician, could reveal deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. All panels that were inspected, not excluded, are referenced in the report. If additional panels that were not readily apparent to inspector are later found to be present, they should be reviewed by a licensed electrician.
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)Table of contents
Whole house ventilation/exhaust system with automatic timer present: Yes, Main bathroom
Heat source(s) at habitable/livable space: Yes
Distribution system heating and/or cooling: Ducts with supply registers
Forced air heating system manufacturer: Nordyne
Model number of heating appliance(s): G6RK 06C-12A
Serial number of heating appliance(s): G6A031206453
Estimated age of heating appliance(s) based on serial number(s) or other data: 17+ years old (manufactured in December 2003 as per code on data plate)
Energy source(s): Natural gas
Gas "on" to HVAC appliance(s): Yes
Occupant accessible fuel shutoff valve(s) observed at gas-fired appliance(s): Yes
Flexible gas connector(s) observed at heating appliance(s): Yes, present. In instances of seismic activity, flexible connectors protect against damage to gas lines
Electricity "on" to HVAC appliances: Yes
Electric disconnect or panel lockout at/for indoor heating appliance(s): Not applicable, heating appliance is within sight of electric panel
Heating appliance(s) operational: Yes
Estimated BTU's heating appliance(s): 60,000 input
Location of furnace-heating appliance filter(s): Behind/above metal grill at interior
Combustible clearances, from metal gas-fired appliance vent(s), to insulation or flammables: Not verified, insufficient access-view. HVAC technician to review in the future
Location of gas meter: Exterior, easterly
Location of main fuel shutoff: Gas meter
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of appliances or systems, rust or wear, continuity of ducts or exhaust vents, heating appliance filters and electronic air cleaners, humidifiers-dehumidifiers, fresh air systems, in-home ventilation including sufficiency of passive systems, motors and exhaust-circulation fans/blowers, thermostats and flue/duct terminations, sufficiency of backdraft dampers and screens, in-wall manifolds at boilers/hydronic heating systems, portable or window mount air conditioners, electric fireplaces, gas meters, propane tanks, outdoor gas hookups, condition or presence of sediment traps, operation of (in some cases presence of) shutoff valves at gas-fired or oil burning appliances, underground storage tanks (oil, gasoline, propane)
40) Furnace service/heating contractor review: The furnace was turned on and it was functional. The last service date, based on the service label was 2018 and the furnace, based on the view inside, would benefit from cleaning and service. Forced-air furnaces and associated components, according to manufacturers' estimates, have a life expectancy of 15-20 years. Actual lifespan may vary. Furnaces should be professionally cleaned and serviced annually to extend appliance life and to assure ongoing safety. I recommend further evaluation and service by an HVAC contractor: Professional review to include air-handler, airflow-balance, ducts, supply registers, connections, heat exchanger, combustible clearances and combustion air, vent for the length of its run, cleaning and, as applicable, gas piping, valves, carbon monoxide (CO) testing, condensate pump and drain line. A specialist could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a home inspection. When onsite, HVAC technician to explain routine maintenance procedures such as how to replace or clean filters. A heating contractor produced online video, descriptive of the procedures customarily included as part of HVAC service at a gas furnace, is available at this link:
Photo 40-1 The interior of the furnace was not significantly dirty at time of inspection, but could benefit from a service by a professional HVAC technician now and annually
41) I recommend replacing or washing HVAC filters upon taking occupancy depending on the type of filters installed. Regardless of the type, I recommend checking filters monthly in the future and replacing or washing them as necessary. How frequently they need replacing or washing depends on the type and quality of the filter, how the system is configured (e.g. always on vs. "Auto"), and on environmental factors (e.g. pets, smoking, frequency of house cleaning, number of occupants, the season).
Photo 41-1 The filter at this home is in the grill at the return air cover in the hallway adjacent to the west bedrooms
42) Over the past decade, and in prior years, many brands of heating appliances (furnaces, electric and gas heaters, gas fireplaces, wood burning appliances) and cooling equipment have been recalled. It is not practicable for an inspector to identify all recalled consumer products. An easy to use search feature intended to identify, upon inputting brands and/or model numbers, recalled heating-cooling systems, electric heaters and other defective household appliances may be accessed at:
43) Heat: A home should have a source of heat in every habitable room. Bathrooms, laundry rooms, closets, hallways, unfinished basements, etc. are not defined as habitable or livable space. While employing an infrared heat sensing instrument, I checked a representative number of accessible and readily apparent heat supply registers. When the heating appliance and air handler were running, those ducts and registers tested were blowing warm air.

Inspector provides a simple overview of the system. The process is not exhaustive. Sometimes, supply registers are obscured from view by belongings. I do not attest to the adequacy of all ducts, system balance or the sufficiency of airflow to all rooms. Such assurances would have to come from an HVAC professional. On a periodic basis, remove supply registers and vacuum inside the exposed ducts.
Photo 43-1 Infrared image example of a duct register while the furnace is running. Heat was noted in the bathrooms and all other livable rooms,
44) HVAC/heating system (general information and limitations): The heating and/or cooling system inspection is basic, visual and limited in scope. Inspector does not disassemble HVAC appliances nor assess heat exchangers, thermostat calibration, system sufficiency, all venting, ducts, supply registers and airflow to rooms. A heating professional has access to specialized equipment that will locate defective heat exchangers, identify vent deficiencies, and fully evaluate balance, sufficiency and continuity of ducting. If inspector reports any problems, or recommends service, all work and full system evaluation should be performed by licensed HVAC professional or, in some instances, a licensed electrician or plumber. Further assessment by specialists could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. Gas meters, fuel storage tanks (propane, heating oil), or associated piping, valves and connectors are excluded.
45) Basic exhaust-ventilation systems such as bathroom fans, laundry fans or range hoods will be described in the "Interior Areas" report section. Exterior vent hoods should be equipped with backdraft dampers (flappers) and screens (1/4"-1/2" wire mesh). Due to the complexities involved in doing so, inspector does not verify sufficiency of dampers or screens.
Water HeaterTable of contents
Manufacturer: American
Model number of water heater: G61-40S40-3N
Serial number of water heater: 0318136764
Estimated age of water heater(s) based on serial number(s) or other data: 18 years old (manufactured in 05/2003 as per data plate)
Capacity in gallons: 40
Type: Conventional tank(s)
Energy source(s): Natural gas
Gas "on" to water heater(s): Yes
Occupant accessible fuel shutoff valve(s) observed at gas-fired appliance(s): Yes
Flexible gas connector(s) noted at water heater(s): Yes, present. In instances of seismic activity, flexible connectors protect against damage to gas lines
Water heater(s) operational: Yes
Water shutoff valve(s): Yes, but valve(s) is not shutoff to test it, nor is there a detailed analysis of function
Water temperature at fixtures as verified by inspector (hot water at fixtures should not exceed 120 degrees F): 140°F
Hot water taps properly positioned at sink(s): Yes, hot at left side or as marked-identified on lever handle
Combustible clearances, from metal gas-fired appliance vent(s), to insulation or flammables: Appears to be adequate, insulation shield(s) present
Seismic restraints in place at tank water heater: Yes, straps/bands
Temperature pressure relief valve(s) installed: Yes
Drain line(s) at relief valve(s): Yes
Relief valve(s) drain line material: Copper
Relief valve(s) drain line discharge point(s) noted: Yes, terminates outside
Catch pan(s) under water heater(s): No, typical of a garage installation
Water pressure reducing valve observed in system: Yes, pressure reducer noted. When a pressure reducing valve is present, a thermal expansion tank is usually placed in supply piping by the water heater
Thermal expansion tank(s) installed: Yes, observed at/near water heater. If a pressure reducing valve is present, a thermal expansion tank is usually placed in supply piping by the water heater
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of appliances or systems, rust or wear, continuity of exhaust vents or heating elements, recirculation-circulation pumps, calibration or function of thermostats, concealed components at temperature pressure relief valves or drain lines, presence/function of mixing or anti-scald valves, point of use instant hot water dispensers/tanks/taps
46) The hot water temperature at fixtures reads as a minimum of 140 degrees Fahrenheit. The risk of scalding increases when temperature is set higher than 120°F I recommend adjusting/limiting the water temperature at fixtures to 120°F. Water temperature is regulated by thermostatic controls at/inside water heaters. Temperature may vary throughout the day, depending on when the appliance last heated water. Even though temperature at fixtures should be limited to 120°F, maintaining a higher tank temperature reduces the probability of bacterial growth inside the water heater. Therefore, a preferred means of lowering temperature involves installing a thermal mixing valve: Water at fixtures is restricted to 120°F, yet water in the tank will maintain a temperature of 130-140°F At client’s discretion, qualified party to adjust thermostat(s) or have a plumber install thermal mixing valve. To obtain more information on hot water safety, please visit:

An article, descriptive of thermal mixing valves, is available at this link:
47) Conducive conditionsThe water heater was manufactured in 2003. The anticipated useful life for a tank water heater, according to manufacturers' estimates, is 8 to 12 years. Actual lifespan will vary and, depending on corrosivity of water and other difficult to predict factors, electric tanks might outlast gas-fired tanks. Regardless, future life expectancy of this appliance and associated components cannot be determined. An aging water heater may fail unexpectedly, which can result in leakage and insufficient, or no, hot water. Due to the complications involved in dealing with a failed or leaking water heater, client(s) should consider contractor replacement of the appliance prior to more significant problems becoming apparent.
48) [iWater heaters (general information and limitations): Inspector does not evaluate pipes-tubing or vents that run inside walls, or valves, thermostats or burners-heating elements and other components that are not readily accessible. Undiscovered corrosion of a tank could be present, yet go unreported, as a result of lack of visibility or access. When issues with a system are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates. Due to the complexities of such devices, and a number of potential safety issues, any work and evaluation of water heater/plumbing system should be performed by a licensed plumber and/or an HVAC professional. Timely service, and specialized review, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. [/i]
Plumbing System & LaundryTable of contents
Water pressure (40-80 PSI "pounds per square inch" is normal range): 40 psi
Water pressure reducer observed in system: Yes
Location of "occupant accessible" main water shutoff valve: Attached/built in garage
Location of municipal/community connections/shutoffs and/or water meter (customarily located below grade): Front side at/below grade
Location(s) of assumed plumbing (waste/drain line) cleanout(s): Crawl space drain/waste piping
Plumbing vent stack or vent stacks present: Yes, multiple vents noted. The inspector verifies that vents are present, but does not perform detailed analysis of the adequacy of stacks
Water service: Municipal/city
Service pipe/tubing material (where observed): PVC plastic
Supply pipe/tubing material (where observed): Copper
Water supply pipes/tubing wrapped or insulated in substructure areas: Yes, covered. Water lines are above the underfloor insulation
Waste/drain pipe material (where observed): PVC plastic
Vent stack pipe material (where observed): PVC plastic
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: Water filters-filtration systems, aerators, softeners, under sink instant hot water dispensers/connections, recirculation-circulation or pressure booster and sump pumps, sewage ejector-grinder pumps or private sewage disposal systems and related electronics/alarms (may be present onsite unbeknownst to inspector), PEX by brand or fittings, presence/function of anti-scald or mixing valves and tub-shower pans and traps (usually obstructed from view) in substructure areas, life expectancy of appliances or components, washing machines and dryers, municipal or community shutoffs and water meters, water quality or potability, yard sprinklers/irrigation systems and associated wiring/controls/backflow prevention, floor and outdoor drains and drain lines
49) The exterior dryer hood contains an accumulation of lint. As the problem worsens, a blockage could lead to fire, or damage the thermal devices inside the dryer. I recommend cleaning the dryer hood, and associated ducting, now and as necessary in the future. Work to be completed by qualified party. To obtain additional information on dryers and ducting, please visit:
Photo 49-1 
50) The water pressure reading was at 40 PSI. 40-80 PSI is considered to be normal range for water pressure. Most plumbers suggest a setting of 50 to 60 PSI. Since pressure and flow are matters of personal preference, I suggest that clients run water from two or more faucets at a time. If pressure and/or flow are unsatisfactory, in client's view, consult with plumber. Water pressure may vary throughout the day depending on usage or neighborhood demand.
Photo 50-1 
51) At the time a clothes dryer is installed, I recommend against using foil-mylar or plastic accordion-type flex duct not be used. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission considers these types of ducts to be unsafe, and a fire hazard. They can trap lint and are susceptible to kinks or crushing, which can greatly reduce the air flow and cause overheating. I recommend installing a semi-rigid aluminum flex duct. I recommend repair/upgrade of ducting. Work to be completed, in a manner that complies with general safety guidelines, by qualified appliance installation-repair professional. To obtain additional information on dryers and ducting, please visit:

Also: At time close washer is installed, I recommend against using rubber water supply hoses. Rubber hoses are prone to eventual deterioration and leaks. I recommend replacing rubber supply hoses with long-lasting stainless steel braided washing machine hoses. Alternatively, consider an upgrade to "FloodSafe" auto-shutoff connectors: designed to stop the flow of water if leakage occurs. A wide assortment of hoses are available at hardware and home stores. A manufacturer produced online video that explains the operation of FloodSafe specialty hoses is available at this link:
52) Plumbing system (general information and limitations): When it is possible to do so, I check a plumbing system by running a limited quantity of water. Service, supply, drain, waste piping, components or valves that are inside walls, ceilings, buried (or otherwise unobservable) are excluded. As a result of these limitations, concealed problems may become apparent when occupants run water and use facilities on a consistent basis. Inspector does not assess underground service-supply, drain-waste piping, publicly owned components, private water systems and/or filtration, determine the presence, or functionality, of any sewage ejector-grinder pumps or private sewage systems. Even simple plumbing repairs can, unexpectedly, turn into complicated projects. Whenever work is required, consult with licensed professionals. While onsite, plumber should evaluate the system including fixtures, supply, drain and waste lines, venting, etc., and provide recommendations as to potentially beneficial upgrades or repairs. If significant issues with system/components are reported, I advise obtaining detailed cost and repair estimates. Specialized evaluation, by a plumbing contractor, could reveal deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
53) Shutoff valve(s) exclusion: Water supply shutoff valves, including any occupant accessible "main," municipal or street "mains," and dedicated shutoffs under/behind fixtures or appliances are not routinely operated. Only normal controls are tested such as sink and tub faucets. Prior to moving in belongings, client(s) should verify that shutoff valves are functional, readily accessible and situated at standard locations. Often, infrequently used shutoff valves are difficult to turn or they leak at valve stems. If problems become apparent, consult with plumber.
Photo 53-1 Apparent occupant accessible main water supply shut off was located in the garage between the furnace and water heater (red handle) just below the PRV (pressure reducing valve)
54) Plumbing fixtures inspected, including tubs, showers, toilets and sinks (possible exception being laundry sinks, which might be in this report section), are described in the "Interior Areas" report section. Outside hose bibbs/faucets that were inspected are usually referenced in the "Exterior & Site" report section.
Crawl Space(s)-FoundationTable of contents
Foundation wall/stem wall material (where observed): Poured concrete
Footing material (where observed): Poured concrete (most footings are at/below grade and minimally or not visible)
Foundation cracks or irregularities noted: If observed, any cracks appeared to be unremarkable
Location(s) of crawl space hatch(es) that were observed and/or inspected: East side of home
Bolts/anchors (observable locations) to secure structure to foundation: Yes, some bolts seen. Not verified as to spacing and number. Bolts anchor structural members to the foundation
Crawl space design: Unconditioned (ventilated) space
Foundation vents at crawl space: Yes
Number of walls with crawl space vents: Multiple sides
Foundation vents in crawl space open: Sporadic, open at some locations but blocked at others. Vents should be open except during extremely cold weather
Insulation installed underside of floor(s) situated above unheated crawl space: Yes, when present, underfloor insulation obstructs the view of many areas and is a limitation to the inspection
Insulation material (type) underneath floor: Fiberglass batt
Estimated underfloor insulation R-value, may vary in some locations (today crawl spaces are typically insulated to R-30 minimum): R-11 to R-19, approximately
Structural components: Joists, beams and posts
Support post and footing/pier pad materials: Wood posts on concrete piers and/or footings
Tops of posts/columns tied (positive connections): Yes, positive connections better secure tops of posts/columns to beams or other structural members
Bottoms of posts/columns tied (positive connections): Yes, positive connections better secure bottoms of posts/columns to pier blocks or footings
Sill plate lumber pressure-treated: Yes, pressure-treated lumber is more resistant to rot than untreated lumber
Beam material: Wood
Floor structure above: Engineered wood joists
Underfloor/subflooring material (where observed): Oriented strand board (OSB)
Plastic vapor barrier ground cover present over earth: Yes, but requires repair or replacement
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: inaccessible areas such as sill plates, ceiling-floor joists, beams, wiring, pipes, ducts, etc., areas obscured from view by insulation or other components, under slabs/footings/substructure locations that are not readily accessible, behind covers at walls or ceilings if hatches are obscured from view or of undetermined purpose or if removal could cause cosmetic damage, sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members such as posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, calculating loads, placement of bolts and anchors, squash blocks, web stiffeners, insulation R-values, identifying microbial bodies-mold, sump pumps (except as reported), absolute adequacy of overall substructure ventilation
55) DamageSigns of past or present rodent activity were noted in the form of odors, droppings, seed shells, traps and/or poison, dead rodents. Often it is not possible to determine the current status of pests. The most obvious intrusion point noted at time inspection would be the gap at the top of the crawlspace access. In some instances, traps and bait indicate that occupants are trying to prevent infestations. At this home I noted that some poison bait/poison blocks were improperly used in the crawlspace, i.e. not contained in a sufficient bait box. Rodents are commonly seen, often moving around from one location to another, and they can cause extensive damage. Mice and rats are able to pass through small (3/4" to 1") openings. If pests gain access to one area, they are likely to be active at other locations as well. I recommend further evaluation, consulting with a pest management professional. See additional recommendations in the "General Information" report section.

As a result of the apparent rodent infestation, some of the underfloor insulation has fallen down or it is damaged/missing. As a guideline, based on today's standards, underfloor insulation at floors above unheated space is rated at R-30 or better. I recommend further review and appropriate repairs: Install/re-install, or custom fit, insulation. Insulation should be tight to the underside of the floor above and the vapor barrier paper backing, on most modern batt insulation, is designed to face the warm side. Upside down insulation can result in moisture retention. All work to be completed by qualified professional. Underfloor insulation, when present, obscures the view including at structural lumber such as subfloor/floor, sill plate, joists, rim joist, etc. Inspectors do not pull down or move insulation; therefore, some areas are excluded from the inspection.
Photo 55-1 Example of rodent tunneling at insulation
Photo 55-2 On the top of the insulation and inevitably that nesting activity damages and displaces insulation
Photo 55-3 
Photo 55-4 Rodent debris and poison was noted throughout the vapor barrier. Some sections of the vapor barrier was damaged
56) Conducive conditionsSome crawl space vents are blocked, obscured by insulation -- venting impeded on the inside -- because underfloor insulation has been pushed-up against the screens. I recommend, on a case by case basis, adjusting/trimming insulation so all vents are fully open. Any work to be completed by qualified party.
Photo 56-1 Insulation visible from the exterior at foundation vents
Photo 56-2 A couple examples from the crawlspace showing insulation restricting ventilation at events
Photo 56-3 
57) Conducive conditionsCracking (size 1/8" or less wide and considered to be minor to moderate) was noted in the foundation. This type of cracking is seldom a structural concern, but it can be conducive to moisture entry. I suggest locating and sealing existing cracks and monitoring foundation for cracks that might develop/require maintenance in years to come. All work to be completed by qualified party. An article that describes different types of foundation cracks can be accessed here:

This online video, produced by a manufacturer of concrete sealant products, explains a technique for repairing small to moderate sized foundation cracks:

Inspector assesses a poured concrete foundation from the exterior and, when practical to do so, from substructure areas. Visibility at the outside may be obscured by design elements, vegetation or earth. At substructure interior space, the inspection could be limited by multiple factors: lack of access or marginal lighting, tight clearances, architecture and building materials themselves that restrict viewing, stored belongings, etc.
Photo 57-1 This (typical shrinkage) crack is noted at the West stem wall of the foundation, minimal water intrusion through the crack was apparent. In the inspectors opinion, correcting the slope away from the foundation would be a beneficial course of action to reduce water intrusion at the foundation. If concerned or if moisture is noted to continue through cracks once perimeter slope is corrected but I recommend patching cracks as necessary. Work to be performed by qualified party
58) Pest entry point: A gap that could allow pests or rodents access to the substructure area was noted at the crawl space opening. Mice and rats are often seen, able to gain entry through small (3/4" to 1") openings, and the creatures can cause significant damage to building materials. I recommend locating and eliminating any potential pest entry gaps, monitor the property for rodent activity, and, if necessary, consult with a pest management professional. If pests gain entry to any part of a building, they could be present at other areas as well. See additional recommendations in the "General information" report section.

The cover is inadequate, at the outdoor access opening to the crawl space. This deficiency can result in rodent/animal entry and moisture intrusion into the substructure area. I recommend installing a cover at the access point. The cover should be made of a rot-resistant and suitable material that is appropriate for the purpose, customarily metal or fiber cement products. All work to be completed by qualified party.
Photo 58-1 Significant size gap at the top of the crawlspace access can allow vermin into the substructure. Significant activity is noted in the substructure in the form of droppings, seed shells, odors, damage insulation, etc.
Photo 58-2 The cover at the crawlspace access well was in adequate, damaged. Moisture intrusion and or vermin intrusion possible
Photo 58-3 Conducive debris such as the wood panel in the base of the crawlspace access should be removed. Cellulose debris such as wood or cardboard attracts wood destroying insects and organisms
59) Conducive conditionsEarth is uncovered/exposed at some areas of the crawl space: inadequate vapor barrier ground cover. Evaporation from the ground can result in a damp/humid crawl space and high humidity at interior space -- conditions that are conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. The NW Clean Air Agency estimates that as much as 40% of the air inside a residence has evaporated up from substructure areas. I recommend further review: Repair/replace vapor barrier, as might be necessary, so all earth is covered. If additional material is required, employ 6 mil non-translucent polyethylene (black is preferred) with plastic installed to lay as flat as is possible and seams should overlap by a minimum of 24". Fold or cut ground cover, so it is not in contact with posts/structural lumber -- moisture that collects between plastic and the wood can lead to decay. All work to be completed by qualified party.
60) Conducive conditionsThe plastic vapor barrier ground cover is up against wood posts Fold or cut ground cover, so it is not in contact with posts/structural lumber -- moisture that collects between plastic and the wood can lead to decay. All work to be completed by qualified party.
Photo 60-1 
61) Seasonal conditions: in the PNW, typically in fall and winter, we experience more rainfall and runoff water than at other times of the year. Since conditions change, on a regular basis, crawl spaces should be entered and checked for standing water, plumbing leaks, fallen or damaged insulation, rodent activity and indications of insects such as wood shavings on the foundation wall, the sill or the crawl space floor. If any problems are seen, consult with appropriate contractors/service providers.
62) This building, based on the view at one (or more) observable location(s), appears to have some bolts that anchor a sill plate or structural lumber to the foundation. Bolts are, in most instances, partially or fully concealed by intrinsic design elements and/or insulation: Inspector does not search out or count bolts, washers or nuts, measure spacing between bolts or determine if anchors comply with past, or present, construction guidelines.
63) Unconditioned crawl space (general information and limitations): When present, underfloor insulation, ducting, piping or wiring can limit access and view. I report standing water and sump pumps that I see, or otherwise become aware of, during the course of the inspection. Since sump pumps are usually partially buried, they might go undiscovered. I do not guarantee that a crawl space has been dry in the past or assume that it will remain dry in the future. Any such assurances could only be provided after long-term monitoring, e.g., during varying seasonal conditions including heavy rainfall and melting snow. If a report references crawl space deficiencies, clients are encouraged to obtain cost and repair estimates. Professional contractors, after full assessment, should offer suggestions as to potentially beneficial repairs or upgrades. Further evaluation, by a licensed general contractor, could uncover problems that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Photo 63-1 At time of inspection, moisture readings and structural lumber in the crawlspace was not significantly elevated but could be improved with better ventilation at the vents and improved/repaired vapor barrier.
Interior AreasTable of contents
Status of secondary egress-ingress at bedroom(s): Window sizing, and height over floor and/or door placement, is in general accordance with current safety guidelines
Permanently installed kitchen appliances present during inspection: Range, Dishwasher, Refrigerator, Under-sink food disposal, Microwave oven
Properly designed/installed traps at sinks: Yes, P-traps
Water shutoff valves seen at sink(s): Yes
Water shutoff valves for all toilet(s): Yes
Shutoff valve for dishwasher(s): Yes
Air-gap anti-backflow device(s) at dishwasher(s): Yes, typically minimally visible, so not verified as to connections
Dishwasher(s) opened, inside viewed: Yes
Range(s) opened, inside viewed: Yes
Range(s) prone to tipping forward: Yes, range is "tippy," a deficiency that can result in injury. Install anti-tip bracket(s)
Stains or imperfections (past or present) noted at ceilings and/or walls: Some nail pops noted in the ceilings, various areas
Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm(s) present: Yes, not tested. Limitations apply
Smoke alarm(s) present: None identified
Electricity "on" to kitchen appliance(s): Yes
Gas "on" to kitchen appliance(s): Yes
Mechanical ventilation (range hood or exhaust fan in kitchen): Yes, fan built in microwave oven, however, termination point of fan exhaust was not located. I recommend that client(s) consider venting kitchen exhaust fan to the outdoors (see comments below)
Ceiling fan(s) operable: Yes, those fans that were checked ran. Visual limitations apply. Inspector cannot verify the means of attachment
Main entry doorbell operable: Yes, doorbell was functional at time of inspection, doorbell button at the exterior was damaged, if concerned qualified party to replace
Floor surfaces/finishes: vinyl/linoleum, carpet
Wall surfaces/finishes: drywall
Ceiling surfaces/finishes: drywall
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: telephone, satellite, cable, antennas, sound systems, intercoms, low voltage wiring, media centers, trash compactors, life expectancy of products, behind appliances, identifying Chinese drywall, small cracks in tiles/adequacy of support under tile floors, suitability of floor covering for specific purpose, moisture and odors at inaccessible floor coverings and walls, surfaces behind wallpaper, inside covers at walls/floors or ceilings if hatches are obstructed or of undetermined purpose, shower pans, steam showers-baths, bidets, window coverings, blinds and power blinds, thermal seals at windows, safety glass placement, adequacy of emergency egress, determining insulation R-values, gas shutoff valves at stationary appliances, cosmetic issues, minor visual disruptions at walls and ceilings caused by truss uplift or a similar condition, oven doors and temperature/timer function, convection and warming drawers-ovens and burners, grills, griddles, appliance lights, refrigerator-freezer temperature, ice makers, fresh water or water filtration systems, ceiling fans, sufficiency of exhaust fans or vent hoods, central vacuum systems, overflows at fixtures, appliances except as referenced in the report, microbial bodies-mildew and mold, identifying bearing walls and calculating loads
Whole house ventilation/exhaust system with automatic timer present: Yes, main bathroom
64) The range hood exhaust fan was turned on. Exhaust termination point was not located, suspected to terminate in the wall behind appliance -- not vented outdoors through the roof or the exterior wall. When operating, a gas range produces combustion gases-carbon monoxide. Therefore, if a gas range is present, the fan should be run whenever the range is in use. With a gas range, or any range, it is best to direct moisture produced during cooking and, as applicable, by-products of combustion to the outdoors. Regardless of the energy source of the range, I recommend that clients plan to modify the arrangement: duct the range hood to the outdoors. Any work, and further review, to be completed by qualified party.

Photos below are infrared examples of this determination. There was no exterior vent cover noted associated with the kitchen exhaust and no recirculating error was noted at the interior from the fan grill. Thermal imaging indicated elevated heat in the wall cavity when fan was operated with a cooktop burner on:
Photo 64-1 Kitchen view, above cabinet above microwave exhaust showing no visible exhaust duct from appliance
Photo 64-2 Infrared image of the same interior area above microwave showing elevated heat at the wall, suggesting exhaust terminates in the wall
Photo 64-3 Photo from the garage, opposite of the kitchen where the microwave exhaust is located
Photo 64-4 Infrared image from the garage side also indicates elevated heat at the wall cavity suggesting that exhaust termination is in the wall. As mentioned in comments above, there were no exterior exhaust covers noted associated with the kitchen. I recommend further review and repairs by qualified contractor so that kitchen exhaust properly terminates to the exterior.
65) The range/cooktop is gas. Main burners heated, as did the oven and broiler. However, the range tipped forward when pressure was applied. This is a safety concern, especially so for children, who might pull on or climb on the range. I recommend further review and appropriate repair: Install a standard anti-tip bracket to better secure the range. All work to be completed by qualified appliance installation-repair professional.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspector does not verify internal temperatures, the operation of timers, clocks, convection ovens, warmer burners or drawers, appliance lights, or seal/fit of gaskets. Due to potential pitfalls, I do not move appliances, remove drawers to view connections, gas valves, brackets, mounting hardware, etc. Upon taking occupancy, clients are encouraged to move appliances to obtain better access and view. If any issues are discovered, consult with knowledgeable repair persons.
66) Interior (recommendations, general information and limitations): The inspector views walls, ceilings, floors and assesses the condition of a representative number of windows, doors, cabinets, and electrical components. When belongings are present, access to or the view of numerous areas might be obstructed by appliances, furniture, window coverings and breakables. Inspector does not move appliances or furniture. After personal items have been removed, problems that were not identified at the time of the inspection might become apparent. I am focusing on significant concerns and do not dwell on cosmetic matters that the discerning purchaser is probably already aware of such as nail-pops, scuff marks, blemishes indications of past wear and use, countertops, cupboards and drawers, housekeeping, or subtle household odors. With the exception of new construction, most residences will display signs of previous occupancy. Regardless of the age and condition of a property, often individuals plan to renovate. Design and general appearance of interior decor are matters of personal taste. Therefore, it is client's responsibility to ascertain that interior features -- floor coverings, wall or ceiling surfaces, paint, cabinetry, appliances, etc. -- meet with personal expectations.

The photos below are examples of interior items to consider prior to purchase:
Photo 66-1 Paint/stain at some windowsills was deteriorated
Photo 66-2 Bathroom exhaust fan covers should be cleaned and maintained for better ventilation and to help prevent premature damage to fan motor
Photo 66-3 Missing component to hall bathroom door latch
Photo 66-4 Staining on vinyl floor at hall bathroom, appears to be cosmetic
Photo 66-5 Couple various small patches, this one is next to the toilet and hall bathroom
Photo 66-6 Nail pops are typical, not necessarily indication of any structural inadequacies. Cosmetic repairs to be performed by qualified party as necessary
Photo 66-7 Door track at closet door at South West bedroom damaged
Photo 66-8 Damage door at the main bedroom
Photo 66-9 Damaged weatherstripping at back exterior door, typically caused by pets
67) Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm(s): In a preliminary overview, I did not identify/locate CO alarms. Sometimes dual CO/smoke alarms (both features built into combination units) might be present but go unidentified. By law in Washington, at the time of a real estate sale, an approved CO alarm is required outside or, if necessary to provide sufficient coverage, inside each separate sleeping area and (as applicable) on each floor level. An inspector does not routinely test, count, or determine that an operable CO alarm is situated in every required location. Prior to assuming occupancy, clients should further assess alarms. If necessary, add/reposition/upgrade alarms so as to comply with state law and all prevailing safety protocols. All consumer alarms must be installed per manufacturers' specifications. Residents are advised to regularly test alarms, change batteries as needed, and replace any old or nonoperational alarms (10 years is the maximum estimated design life). For additional information on CO alarms, please follow this link:
68) The doorbell was operational at time of inspection but it was noted that the exterior button was damaged. If concern, I recommend replacing, work to be performed by qualified party.
Photo 68-1 
69) Tub(s)/shower(s) inspection: The gap, behind the tub spout, could allow moisture entry into the wall. If a spout gap is small enough, caulking can be applied. A more permanent solution is to put in place an escutcheon trim plate that can be installed at the back of the spout. I recommend further assessment, and appropriate repairs, with work to be completed by a qualified plumber.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A slow, intermittent or concealed leak might not be readily apparent at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at fixtures can result in interior damage. Caulk and/or grout around fixtures requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
Photo 69-1 In many cases, installing caulking on the top and sides of the spout can be sufficient. However if significant movement at the spout or shower surround damages caulking than an escutcheon trim plate would be the preferred option
Photo 69-2 
70) Smoke alarm(s) were present. Working smoke alarms, per general safety guidelines, should be put in each bedroom, any adjoining hallways, at every floor level and at enclosed interior staircases that lead to other occupied levels. An inspector does not routinely test, count, or determine that an operable smoke alarm is situated in every required location. Prior to assuming occupancy, clients should further assess alarms. If necessary, add/reposition/upgrade alarms so as to comply with state law and all prevailing safety protocols. All consumer alarms must be installed per manufacturers' specifications and smoke alarms may not be placed in corners. Some fire safety professionals suggest that all smoke alarms should be of the photoelectric type vs. commonly seen ionization alarms that can be slow to react to smoke and fire. For additional information on smoke alarms, please visit:
71) The dishwasher: the appliance was noted to have a proper air gap at the drain to prevent graywater returning into the appliance and was properly attached to the cabinetry. No visible defects noted at time of inspection. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations. For additional information on air-gaps, please follow this link:

The inspector is otherwise occupied onsite. Therefore, any assessment of the performance of the dishwasher is limited in scope. I may be unable to determine if it is operating properly. If the device is turned on, at inspector's option, a slow or intermittent leak could go undetected.
72) Toilet(s) inspection: Caulking has not been applied around the base of the toilet. Preferably, an installer will seal the front and sides of a toilet but leave a gap of a few inches at the back. The seal protects against moisture entry and is, also, hygienic in nature. The back of a fixture is left open so, if the wax ring-seal (under a toilet) leaks, a resident will be more likely to detect seepage and seek professional assistance. I recommend further evaluation, and appropriate repairs, with work to be completed by a qualified plumber.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A non-invasive moisture meter may be employed to check flooring at bases of toilets. Regardless, a slow, intermittent or concealed leak could be undetectable at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at toilets can result in interior damage. Depending on belongings present and flush mechanism attachment, inspector might not remove tank lids. Caulking or grout, around bases of toilets, requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
Photo 72-1 Hall bathroom. Stating on the floor below the toilet is an apparent past leak, no apparent water or elevated moisture readings were noted at time of inspection
Photo 72-2 Comparable moisture readings were taken around the open area of the bathroom floors and then around the toilets before and after multiple flushes. No elevated moisture was noted at time of inspection
73) Sinks inspection: sinks were functional at time of inspection. Hot and cold water were properly tapped as indicated at the faucets. Shut off valves were noted below sinks, proper P-trap were noted at drains and there was no significant staining or any water damage noted at time of inspection.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A slow, intermittent or concealed leak may be undetectable at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at sinks and piping can result in interior damage. Caulk and/or grout around fixtures requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
74) The nonprofit organization "Consumer Reports," estimates that more than 15 million household products, including kitchen appliances, water heaters, furnaces, electric and gas heaters and fireplaces, wood burning appliances, etc., have been recalled in the past decade. It is not possible for an inspector to identify all potentially recalled consumer items. A user friendly search engine that was created to track, upon entering manufacturer specific data, recalled products is available at:

Another online tool, helpful when attempting to identify the age of most of the commonly seen kitchen and household appliances, may be accessed at this link:

Kitchen appliances are excluded per the state standards of practice. Any comments that reference the age/condition of appliances are offered as a courtesy. The status of appliances can change with little or no warning. Areas beside and/or behind appliances are usually not accessible and any such locations, or associated wiring, plumbing or connections, are excluded. Inspector does not determine compliance with manufacturers' specifications or predict remaining life of any appliance.
75) The refrigerator/freezer: the appliance was turned on and empty at time of inspection. The refrigerator was cold and the freezer was colder. The light came on the refrigerator with the doors opened and the gaskets on the doors were in good condition at time of inspection. Damage was noted to the crisper door inside the refrigerator. I recommend consulting with the plant supplier for replacement.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life.
Ice makers and fresh water systems, when present, are excluded. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances and any associated systems meet with personal expectations.

Inspector did not assess the operation or cleanliness of coils, drip pans, appliance lights or the appropriateness of internal temperatures. Appliances will not be unplugged or moved to view connections, water lines or hookups. Periodically, coils, drip pans and interior surfaces require cleaning.
Photo 75-1 
76) The microwave oven: the above range microwave oven was operated using normal controls. The light came on when the door was open or appliance operated, and a cup of water was heated when operated. No defects noted to microwave operation. However ventilation through the microwave appeared to be insufficient. See comments in this section.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspector might turn on the appliance and attempt to heat a cup of water. I do not verify the operation of timers, clocks, appliance lights, or seal/fit of gaskets.
77) The food disposal was turned on. The device was operational at time of inspection, using normal controls i.e. switch on the wall at the left of the sink. No significant staining was noted at the drain connection in the power supply appeared to be properly connected. The average design life of a disposal is 10 to 12 years, actual lifespan may vary. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspection procedure: Inspector might run a disposal to determine if it operates and to check for leaks. I do not put food in a disposal to test grinding capabilities. On occasion, a jammed or bound disposal can be cleared by first turning off the circuit breaker to the device and then inserting a wrench into the underside of the disposal and spinning the mechanism. Any work or repairs to be performed by qualified plumber.
78) The ceiling fan was operable when tested. During the course of an inspection, it is not possible to verify the sufficiency of fan attachment to a ceiling or structure, since any means of attachment is concealed from view. Lights/fixtures, when present at ceiling fans, are excluded. It was noted on site that the ceiling fan could benefit from cleaning.
79) This home has a 24-hour ventilation system that can be set to operate automatically. The timer, located in the main bathroom, will control a simple whole house exhaust fan ventilation system. The purpose is to expel old air and in so doing, as the pressure is equalized, fresh air is drawn into the home. With today's well-insulated homes, this type of ventilation system is installed to reduce condensation and moisture. Typically, the system is set to operate the fan for 8 hours at a time and may be set to go on when it is not disruptive -- during the day or in the middle of the night while one is sleeping. Such devices are noted by the inspector, but they are not assessed as to sufficiency/function, nor is the timer tested. The timers should be set to automatically turn on the exhaust-circulation fan. When the fan runs, and expels old air, interior pressure equalizes and fresh air is drawn into the home. With today's tighter built houses, to reduce interior moisture and humidity, the ventilation exhaust fan should run for at least 8 hours at a time. At new house it suggests running fan 24/7. Placement of fans and controls varies from house to house, but this contractor online video describes the operation of a basic ventilation system:

An online video, produced by the NW Clean Air Agency, that describes the operation of a basic ventilation system is available at this link:

For general information on how automatic ventilation systems work, please visit:

To read more about ventilation systems, follow this link:
80) Bathroom exhaust fans were operated at time of inspection and appeared functional. To better control moisture-humidity in baths with tubs and/or showers, I recommend utilizing 60 minute timer switches that are present -- so bath exhaust fans will move air, expel steam, even after occupants have vacated bathrooms. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Periodically, small fans require cleaning, lubrication or, eventual, motor replacement. Any work to be completed by qualified parties.

A representative number of fans are performance tested. Seldom is it feasible for inspector to verify that every fan is "blowing air" to the outdoors. Ducts might be configured in wyes (restrictive and a less than optimal situation) with more than one fan sharing a single hood. Conditions change, fans and connections should be monitored to make sure that ducts remain attached in attic or substructure areas.
81) Vented windows: Fresh air inlets, controlled at the interior side of double pane vinyl frame windows, should be kept in the "open" position for most of the year. On a seasonal basis, in warm weather, if windows and doors are opened frequently (promoting changes of air) the inlets could be temporarily closed. However, if an air conditioner is in use, leave inlets open year round. Inlets balance air pressure by allowing fresh air into the building when heating, air handling, ventilation and exhaust systems are operating.
Photo 81-1 

Helpful Home Maintenance Check List for a Healthier Home
The following is a general maintenance guide for homeowners, some tips may not be relevant to your home. Recommend a common sense approach to this list and overall home maintenance.


1. Vacuum and clean all return air ducts/grills.
2. Purge garbage disposal by first filling kitchen sink with clean water, then turn on food disposer until water is drained through.
3. Change/clean air conditioning return filters monthly. This will help keep your air cleaner and system running more efficiently. Clogged air filters will make your system operate longer than required, thereby increasing your monthly bills.
4. Wash refrigerator/freezer interior walls and door liner with solution of 1-quart warm water: 2 tablespoons of baking soda and wipe dry.
5. Clean dishwasher filter (if provided), usually at lower spray arm, and wipe door gasket clean with a damp cloth.
6. Inspect lighting fixtures and replace blown light bulbs.
7. Clean clothes drier lint traps and or ducts to reduce fire risk.
8. Clean toaster oven crumb tray.


1.Inspect exterior doors to ensure they are weather tight. Adjust or replace weather stripping as needed.
2. Service doors (incl. garage doors) and drawers, clean and lubricate latches, hinges and guides.
3. Inspect and repair exterior caulking around windows, doors, and siding.
4. Replace/clean central heating system (furnace) filters.
5. Re-tighten knobs on kitchen cabinets, don't overtighten.


1. Have heating and air-conditioning systems inspected and serviced by licensed contractor.
2. Inspect and test smoke alarms and carbon monoxide detectors and replace back up batteries.
3. Check (GFCI) ground fault interrupted circuits.
4. Inspect and maintain proper drainage around home. Clean gutters and down-pipes and ensure water is flowing away from your home.
5. Inspect home for rodent droppings or other pests. Have home treated as needed.
6. Test sump pump for reliable operation, especially before any rainy season.
7. Wash fan housing and metal filter connected to range hood exhaust fans. These can be safely washed by placing them inside the dishwasher.
8. Vacuum coils behind refrigerator/freezer to remove dust; this will improve efficiency of unit.
9. Tap off a bucket of water from the hot water heater until it runs clean.


1. Inspect and repair settling cracks (if necessary).
2. Inspect and lubricate garage door tracks.
3. Inspect exterior paint for cracking and wear. Repaint or seal as needed.
4. Drain and refill water heater.
5. Trip main breaker on electric panel.
6. Inspect all electric cords and replace if necessary.
7. Inspect attic for water damage, birds, and rodents.
8. Inspect basement for moisture/mold and wood rot.
9. Inspect attic for signs of roof leaks or water damage, bird nests, rodent or squirrel nests, and clean if necessary.
10. Change water filters and have water softeners serviced.
11. Inspect roof flashings, chimney caps, shingles(for mold and damage) and caulking for possible damage.
12. Pressure wash deck, walkways and driveway.
13. Reseal wood decks with preservative and inspect and secure nails that may be protruding out. Nails have a tendency to pop out after very cold weather conditions.
14. Clean or replace oil filter(oil fired burner only).
15. Inspect outside electrical service feeder for exposed bare wires and tree interference.
16. Inspect basement/crawl space area for signs of termites and/or other wood-boring insects.
17. Use hose to wash off dirt from coil and fan in heat pump/condenser locate outside of house.
18. Inspect all hoses(and replace if necessary) connected to laundry washer unit.
19. Clean and seal ceramic tile grout lines in bathrooms/toilets/kitchen.
20. Check caulking at tub and shower, and replace if necessary.
21. Wash and blow clean bathroom exhaust fan grill and fan blades.
22. Wash windows(exterior and interior), screens, seals and ledges. Repair if necessary.
23. Clean and lubricate sliding glass door tracks and window tracks.
24. Check stucco joints around doors and windows.
25. Inspect the dishwasher's motor spin seal, and replace if necessary.
26. Inspect laundry washer, water fill hoses for cracks, blisters, corroded fittings and leaks.
27. Place beeswax or paraffin on built-in kitchen cabinets that have wooden guides.
28. Inspect for creosote deposits in the fireplace flue liner, these are black or brown residue of combustion that collects on the inner surfaces. If the buildup is more than 1/8 inch, remove it.
29. Vacuum around the gas hot water heater (especially near furnace) to remove dirt and grime.

Tips for clogged drains:

Keeping the Drains Clear:
1. By pouring a pot of hot water down the drain once a week will melt away any fat or grease that may have built up in the drain line or P-trap.
2. If you have a clogged drain, just pour a 1/2 cup of baking soda and 1/2 cup of white vinegar down the drain. Cover the drain and let the mixture sit for a few minutes, then pour a pot of hot water down the drain. This will break down fats and keep the drains smelling fresh.
3. Every six months, keep your drains clean by using a copper sulfide or sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaner, or other recommended drain cleaner available from your local store.

Other safety tips:

Ensure that you know where the following items are located:
1. Emergency contact telephone numbers.
2. Fire extinguishers and water hose pipes.
3. Heating gas/fuel main shutoff valve.
4. Main electrical disconnect circuit breaker (breaker box/service panel).
5. Main drain line clean out.
6. Main water shut off valve.
7. All window and door exits.

In addition to the above, carry out the following monthly safety checks:
Some of these items may have already be included in the home maintenance list, but these monthly safety checks are advisable for safety reasons:
1. Test ground fault circuit interrupter receptacles(GFCI's).
2. Test smoke and carbon monoxide alarms and replace batteries if necessary.
3. Inspect and lubricate (if necessary) all emergency exits, including windows and doors.
4. Inspection of heating unit and water heater for visual integrity.

Estimated life spans of most Home appliance:

1.Dishwasher water valves: 3-7 years
2.Range and oven: 18-20 years
3.Garbage disposal: 10 years
4.Microwave: 10 years
5.Refrigerator: 18-20 years
6.Laundry washer: 14 years
7.Laundry drier: 14 years
8.Refrigerator/Freezer: 18-20 years
9.Central air conditioner system: 15 years
10.Window mounted air conditioning system: 8 years
11.Bathtub/Sink: 50 years
12.Garage door opener: 10 years
13.Laundry water fill hoses: 3-5 years
14.Trash compactor: 10 years

Thank you for using CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICE LLC (360)296-4020