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(360) 296-4020
5614 Starry Rd 
Bellingham WA 98226-9714
Inspector: Curtis C Brown
Licensed Home Inspector DOL#368
Licensed Structural Pest Inspector WSDA# 76712

Standard Condo Inspection

Client(s):  Happy Client
Property address:  1234 Hometown Dr
Bellingham WA 98765
Inspection date:  Friday, September 25, 2020

This report published on Saturday, May 15, 2021 12:18:03 PM PDT

Curtis C Brown, Owner
Washington State Licensed Home Inspector DOL #368
WSDA Licensed Structural Pest Inspector #76712

Thank you for using CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC for your Home inspection. I understand how important your home inspection is to you and your family. Buying a home is probably the most expensive purchase you will ever make, and your business is very important to me, and my family. If there is any way I can help you after your home inspection, please do not hesitate to contact Curtis at the phone number or email provided on this report. If you find this report useful and informative please refer CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC to your friends, your Realtor and anyone you believe could benefit from my services. CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC not only performs inspections for purchasers, but also for people planning to sell a home who wish to estimate the amount of work that needs to be completed before listing the house.

A site diagram is NOT prepared as part of a standard home inspection report. However, if wood destroying insects or potential evidence of their activity was seen at the time of the inspection, then a complete wood destroying organism inspection was conducted (WAC 16-228-2045). If such a report was required, a Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) inspection control number will be present, above the client's name, at the top of this report. WAC 16-228-2045 REQUIRES THAT A DIAGRAM BE PREPARED FOR WOOD DESTROYING ORGANISM (WDO) INSPECTION REPORTS. A COPY IS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST.

A home inspection is not invasive, it is a visual assessment. The inspection is, as limited by the tight time-lines of real estate transactions, it is not technically exhaustive and the inspector spends limited window time on premises. An inspector is looking for significant safety and defect issues to the components of a home. Pointing out minor or cosmetic deficiencies is at the discretion and courtesy of the inspector. Never the less, please understand that some recommendations made on a home inspection report include enhancements or upgrades that are optional and are, by all means, not "mandatory" repairs. Since the appearance of a home, especially interior decor, is a matter of personal taste, the client is responsible for determining that finish surfaces, colors, cleanliness and design features meet his or her expectations. In a related matter, any fog that might be inside thermal-pane windows is largely weather dependent and an inspector may not be able to identify glazing problems as a result of variations in temperature, humidity, weather and lighting conditions.

The inspector cannot see through or into wallpaper, walls, siding, concrete or floors, insulation, carpets, ceilings, under roofing materials, down into soil, tight-lines, drains, vent or waste pipes, floor/toilet /sink connections, ducting, gutters or downspouts that are full of debris or behind creosote or soot. Areas that are not accessible or the view is obscured because of furniture, appliances, storage or other belongings and coverings are excluded. Overflows at sinks and tubs are not tested -- doing so could cause water damage inside wall cavities. A home inspector does not guarantee that a roof will withstand a heavy windstorm nor ascertain that it has not leaked in the past nor that it will not leak at some time in the future. In a related matter, gutters may not withstand heavy snowfall or compacted ice. The roof covering may conceal roofing defects. Solar roofing systems, including any components on the roof or in an attic, are excluded.

Standard procedures: Only normal controls are operated (thermostats, light switch, faucets, etc). Wood stoves, fireplaces and pilot lights will not be lit. Devices that are not functional will not be plugged-in, nor will circuit breakers, or main shut-off valves be operated. Furniture, storage and appliances will not be moved or disassembled during the home inspection -- with the exception of (1) the "dead front" cover will usually be removed from the electric panel; (2) front panels may be removed at some HVAC appliances. Care and caution is taken in removing fronts or covers, from electric panels or openings into attics, but sometimes the procedures can unavoidably leave minor cosmetic marks on finished surfaces.

CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC makes every effort to perform a thorough inspection, within reasonable time-lines and the limitations specified, but makes no warranties about the home other than reporting on the conditions that were noted and apparent at the time of the inspection. Some defects may have been concealed or intermittent so those problems might go unreported. It is not possible, in the course of an inspection, to check every component at a home or to identify every problem. The standards of practice for home inspection state that the inspector shall view, operate or test a representative number of components at the exterior and the interior: readily accessible siding and trim, windows, doors, walls, light switches, receptacles, etc. An inspector does not get on furniture to view or operate windows or other components. High exterior locations at the home, such as siding, trim or soffit areas below eaves, due to safety and typical access issues, may be viewed from the ground and not from a ladder. High electrical receptacles, under eaves, may not be evaluated. Complex mechanical devices, such as freezer icemakers or fresh water systems are excluded. Washing machines and dryers are excluded. Sewage related septic/private disposal systems including septic tanks, sewage grinders/ejector pumps are usually fully or partially concealed from view or below grade and the components and mechanisms are not opened or inspected for performance or function. The exclusion includes air pumps, ultraviolet systems and all related electronics, alarms and wiring. Remote electric distribution (sub) panels may be concealed from view and may not be apparent to the inspector. If such systems are known to be present, or are later found to be on premises, recommend that the tanks, pumps/grinders, panels and related components be, as required, further evaluated/serviced by qualified professionals.

An inspector is assessing systems or components to determine if they are functional. An inspector will not suggest that a new system or component be installed simply for the sake of updating if it appears that the old system is functional or would be operational if repaired or maintained. It is not reasonable to expect every system or component in every home to be in new or perfect condition. Systems and components age. Older systems are often serviceable -- they operate but they are typical of a home of a given age. In any home, systems and components require at least some ongoing maintenance. Comments or observations involving household appliances are at the discretion of the inspector. The state standards of practice do not require the inspector to report on the condition of household appliances -- exceptions being that the inspector will, when possible, report on the operation of most HVAC equipment and water heaters. Conditions at a home and with appliances can, and will, change from day to day. It is assumed that the buyer wishes to purchase the home and the seller wishes to sell. The inspector must act in an unbiased manner. It is not the role of the inspector to create unreasonable concerns in an effort to influence the negotiations.

Clients ask if service or repairs should be performed prior to, or after, closing. That decision is left to the client. But please realize that the inspection is not exhaustive and the inspector is a generalist and not an expert in other licensed trades. The inspector is looking for clues as to problems and an inspector cannot predict when it might be more practical to replace a problematic component or system. At times a repair can be as expensive as replacement costs and sometimes undetected or hidden damage may lead to unexpected expense. A defect in one component can cause an unanticipated but related problem at another location: a marginal roof or failed sump pump could result in moisture issues and fungal concerns elsewhere. Rot, wood destroying organisms or even a missing, or failed, flashing might lead to concealed damage. Therefore, it is recommended that, prior to closing, client(s) have in hand estimates from qualified professional contractors or specialists for service/repairs or replacement of problematic components or systems. That would include, but is not limited to, decks, siding, structure, rot and wood destroying organisms, roofs, water leaks or water intrusion, drainage, skylights, gutters, chimneys, fireplaces, wood stoves, electrical systems, plumbing and heating.

It is the recommendation of Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC that all work be completed by qualified and, as applicable, licensed contractors, builders, remodelers, plumbers, pest control applicators, electricians, roofers, HVAC and chimney professionals. Since an inspector cannot foresee the future and will not attempt to predict all of the ramifications or potential costs associated with any given problem, consultation with a qualified specialist is worthwhile. If this protocol is adhered to, the client has more options should the workmanship later be found to be sub-standard. Additionally, I recommended that all qualified parties or specialists, when on-site, be asked to not only make essential repairs but to also further evaluate a system or component and to make recommendations as to other beneficial repairs, improvements or upgrades.

Buyers often allow sellers to make repairs, or the repairs may be deferred until after closing. Those options are at the discretion of the parties involved and any governmental agency that might oversee the process. If repairs are completed in a suitable manner, by qualified parties prior to closing, the client minimizes the chances of unexpected surprises after closing. Regarding buyer or homeowner repairs, it is not the intent of a report to specify the exact means of repair for any given problem. Again, consulting with a qualified professional is required. A client performs, or accepts the work of another non-professional, at his or her own risk. And, of course, all appropriate city, county or municipal building permits should be acquired when work is done.

A home inspection is a practical approach to evaluating visual deficiencies. With few exceptions, the inspector does not know, nor confirm, if prior remodeling or construction work was performed with, or without, building permits. A home inspector is not checking for compliance with codes or verifying compliance with manufacturer's specifications. In fact, codes evolve over the years. For example, in homes that are not of recent construction, escape routes and window sizing may not be in compliance with modern emergency egress requirements. An inspector does not count bolts in the sill plate at any home. It may be unfair, except in the matter of critical safety issues, to expect a home built under previous standards to conform to recent codes. A professional or specialist, when performing service or making other repairs, is in a good position to determine if systems and components are installed per manufacturer's guidelines or the applicable building codes.

Mold, mildew and microbial growths are excluded substances per the standards of practice for home inspection. The inspector is searching for wood destroying organisms (rot) and conducive conditions. Fungus (or yeasts) are common and sometimes present in bathrooms, attics or crawl spaces. However, the report will not identify species of fungus other than wood decay fungi or rot. Microbial growths are the result of excess moisture or a lack of ventilation. Therefore, any fungal issues reported, with the exception of rot, will be referred to as conducive conditions. A client who wishes to have a mold or mildew inspection should, in addition to the standard home inspection, contract with a firm that specializes in locating and/or identifying microbial growths and mold. If remodeling is done, where walls and ceilings are opened, wallpaper removed, homeowners might find concealed issues, related to moisture that will have to be addressed during the remodel.

A home Inspection is NOT an environmental survey; therefore, a qualified specialist or environmental testing firm should be hired by the client if he or she wishes to have further evaluation/testing for any excluded substances such as asbestos, radon, lead, urea formaldehyde, odors; noise, toxic or flammable chemicals, water or air quality, PCB’s or other toxins, electro-magnetic fields, underground storage tanks, proximity to toxic waste sites, carbon monoxide, vermin, pet urine. Any comments, related to these matters, that are offered in the report are provided as a professional courtesy and they do not alter the limitations that are established in the state standards of practice and the executed home inspection contract.

This report confines itself to conditions apparent at the time of the inspection. The inspector is not an arborist and is not assessing the condition of trees on the property. Seasonally there may be more ground or runoff water than at other times of the year. It is usually not possible to predict flooding. Therefore, if seasonal moisture problems develop, recommend consultation with a drainage professional. When mechanical means is utilized to control runoff water, the inspector will attempt to locate and view the pump(s) and, if possible, operate them. Inspector does not guarantee the adequacy or performance of any drainage system that might be in place to control flooding or runoff water. It is possible that the inspector will not locate all pumps (sump or ejector) on premises if they are partially covered, submerged and not readily apparent.

Thank you for using Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC for your home inspection. I know your home inspection is important to you. If I can help after the inspection, please contact me. If you are happy with Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC please refer my company to anyone who you believe could benefit from my services. Curtis C Home Inspection Services,LLC performs inspections for purchasers and, also, for homeowners and sellers.

CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC adheres to the standards of practice of the state of Washington WAC 308-408C) These standards are established to encourage high ethical standards and professionalism in the home inspection industry. To read the standards please visit:


This report is the exclusive property of CURTIS C HOME INSPECTION SERVICES, LLC and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized person

How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas. Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type. Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Concern typeCautionaryA recommendation to enhance safety. Not necessarily urgent but, in some instances, it might be
Concern typeRepair/MaintainRecommended repairs that may involve ongoing upkeep. Work to be completed by qualified parties
Concern typeReview/EvaluateQualified professional to service/repair/replace/evaluate. Or, as applicable, clients to evaluate information and determine their level of concern
Concern typeMaintenance/Service (repair)Requires maintenance, professional service or appropriate repair
Concern typeVisual limitationsCondition that, potentially, conceals moisture-related issues or damage. At client's option, accept as is/maintain or arrange for further evaluation or invasive contractor review
Concern typeMonitorKeep an eye on (periodically monitor) the condition or device. Maintain, repair or replace as might be required
Concern typeOn-site notesObservations, comments or suggestions noted by the inspector
Concern typeInformationalInformational comment, but might include recommendations for small repairs or upgrades
Concern typeConducive conditionsConditions conducive for wood destroying insects or organisms (Wood-soil contact, shrubs in contact with siding, roof or plumbing leaks, etc.)

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at

Table of Contents

General Information
Exterior & Site
Built-in Garage(s)
Electric System
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)
Fireplace(s), Insert(s), Freestanding Stove(s)
Water Heater
Plumbing System & Laundry
Crawl Space(s)-Foundation
Interior Areas

View summary

General InformationTable of contents
Inspection overview: Condo: This is a visual inspection performed to meet with the Washington Standards of Practice and applicable state guidelines. Issues, concerns and recommendations are referenced in appropriate report sections. Various limitations and exclusions are described in both the inspection contract and the report. At a condo, typically, maintaining exterior areas is the responsibility of the condo association and maintaining interior surfaces/components falls upon the homeowner. Condo association covenants vary, so ask to see the specific rules that apply to this building. The inspector might comment on both exterior and interior issues and may attempt to provide guidance as to whom is responsible for repairs, which is simply a guess on the part of the inspector, so clients should verify specifics with the condo association. The focus of this report will be the contracted for dwelling, the exterior immediately around it, and inside the unit -- not the common areas outside or near other units. Sometimes a problem that might directly impact a client's property will be described in the report even if that issue was noted in a common area. If present, elevators and any fire safety devices (fire extinguishers, fire escapes, fire alarms and sprinkler systems, etc.) are excluded. This inspection is limited to a visual evaluation of the systems and components that are located within the dwelling unit inspected. The current condition of "Common Elements" are excluded from this inspection. Such elements include, but are not limited to:
  • The building site condition, structural stability, drainage systems and insulation
  • All exterior surfaces, materials and structure
  • All roof surfaces, materials and structure
  • All attic spaces
  • The building foundation, floor substructure and all spaces below, such as basements and/or crawl spaces
  • All stairs, landings, porches, hallways, walks and balconies, elevators, utility metering, parking stalls/ports
  • All decks, patios, pools, spas, recreational areas/equipment
  • All common areas on the property
Any comments regarding these items in this report have been made as a courtesy only. Consult with the Home Owner's or Condo Association regarding these items.
Clickable hyperlinks make it possible for clients to navigate to photos, videos and additional information. Links are operational if a report is accessed from an "online" computer: Lesser operating systems in Smartphones and mobile devices may not support full functionality. When reports are saved and viewed in PDF format, access to hyperlinks will be restricted as a result of limitations in Adobe software.
Prior to sending a report to a client, all external hyperlinks are electronically checked to verify that they are working and not broken. Unfortunately, the internet being as it is, at times a link may be unavailable or temporarily out of service as a result of maintenance at a website or a server.
Report number: XXXXXX092520C
Water "on" to the site: Yes
Electricity "on" to the site and at the service panel(s): Yes
Gas "on" to the site: Yes
Structures inspected: One condo
Start time: 8:45 am
Ending time: 11:25 am
Present during inspection: Buyers son
Client(s) present for discussion at the end of inspection: Yes
Form of payment: Credit card payment provided, Thank you
Type of building: Condo
Age of building: 1995 Build (25 years old)
Source of information utilized when estimating building age: County assessor / municipal records
Occupied and/or furnished: Unoccupied, generally unfurnished, but appliances are present
Front of building faces: South
Main entry: Westerly
Secondary entrance(s): Southerly, Garage
Directions verified by mapping service: Yes, Google
To see a map or aerial view of the property and neighborhood, click on this link: (map disabled for client privacy)
Weather conditions: Rain
Temperature: Mild
Ground condition: Wet
Recent weather: Rain
Overnight temperature: Mild
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: engineering (geotechnical or structural), building or landscape architecture, identifying bearing points and bearing walls or calculating loads, classifying specific manufacturers’ products or the composition of building materials, product recalls, compliance with installation specifications or various building codes, tracking permits, all components or systems excluded by the Washington Standards of Practice, extent of damage or deficiencies, environmental survey, identifying hazardous wastes/materials (lead or lead-based paints, asbestos products, radon gas, urea-formaldehyde/formaldehyde, residue or toxins as a result of drug use, microbial bodies-mold, etc.), insulation R-values, life expectancy or remaining life of appliances/components or systems, flood zones, potential for flooding or slides, runoff water, erosion, sufficiency of drainage, presence and operation of septic or private sewage systems and/or ejector-grinder pumps/components including wiring-electronics/alarms, warning/safety labels, emergency lighting, security/alarm systems, fire extinguishers and fire suppression or sprinkler systems and associated equipment, adequacy of attachment of shelves, cabinets, cupboards, brackets, etc.
1) Visual limitations: The inspection process may be impeded by various factors, e.g., building materials, paint and finished surfaces, plants growing near a building, intrinsic design elements, marginal lighting. Inspector cannot see into, through or behind, walls, roofing, vegetation, flashings, etc. Every problem cannot be identified in the course of a visual home inspection, concealed or undiscovered deficiencies may exist. The report provides a general overview of onsite conditions. If issues of significance are reported, clients should arrange for contractor review (testing or invasive investigation) into areas of concern. When clients arrange for repairs, vs. sellers hiring contractors, purchasers are usually in a stronger bargaining position if work is later found to be substandard.

State law has classified specific conditions as "deficient." A licensed inspector will report state mandated deficiencies although remedying such problems might prove to be difficult, impractical, or unpopular with sellers or property owners. This is not an environmental survey: The presence of potentially hazardous substances or microbial bodies-mold are excluded per the Washington Standards of Practice.
2) PNW region pests: Pests such as rodents (mice, rats or squirrels), aggressive species of insects (hornets or wasps), nesting birds or potentially destructive woodpeckers, bats in some areas, and wood destroying insects are frequently seen in this region. Rodents will climb and a mouse can squeeze through a hole the size of a dime. A rat can pass or gnaw through a hole the size of a quarter and a squirrel can go through a 1 1/2" diameter opening. If observed onsite, I report signs of pests and vulnerabilities that might lead to infestation. Access and view are often restricted, property owners should be on the lookout for pest activity. As necessary, block any potential entry points. Correct conditions that are conducive to attracting pests: establish sufficient clearances between plants and the exterior, eliminate wood to soil contact, excess moisture and/or access to food sources. Pests are opportunistic, nomadic, and rodents can be a health concern. If an infestation is suspected, implement corrective measures and/or consult with a licensed pest management firm. Carpenter ants are more active seasonally, typically in warm weather than at other times of the year.
Typically, with condominium complexes, rodent control is the responsibility of the condo owners association. I recommend confirming parties of responsibility and maintain as necessary to prevent vermin entry and damage.
Photo 2-1 Rodent bait boxes were present at the exterior
Photo 2-2 Trap was noted in the crawlspace. Rodent control should be maintained
3) Unoccupied: At an unoccupied home, when fixtures and facilities are seldom in use, a small or concealed plumbing leak might not be readily apparent. Since the inspector runs a limited amount of water, clients moving into an unoccupied property are encouraged to run significant quantities of water and to be on the lookout for subtle problems. If/as might be necessary, consult with a licensed plumber. In instances where plumbing issues are referenced in a report, I advise clients to arrange for a professional assessment of fixtures and plumbing system.
4) Scope: The inspection is non-invasive, not exhaustive, and it does not include destructive testing, removing or moving building materials or components, itemizing all damage that might be present, or providing estimates of repair costs, verifying certificates of occupancy or permit/code compliance. Inspector assesses, operates or tests a representative number of components, e.g., cladding, roof, windows, doors, skylights, lights, receptacles, heat sources, plumbing fixtures, cabinets and interior surfaces. Seldom do I identify a specific manufacturers' products or speculate as to the composition of building materials. Thousands of items have been produced, and then painted, over the years. Any attempt to classify products, by manufacturer or composition, is a good faith guesstimate on the part of inspector based on available view. If a report references issues of significance, prior to closing or setting a final sales price, clients should arrange for further evaluation and obtain cost and repair estimates from qualified parties. In professional trades, qualified parties are those persons who were trained to work in a specialized field and they have appropriate contractor's licenses; for example, licensed electrical contractor, licensed plumbing contractor, licensed HVAC contractor, licensed roofing contractor, etc. When a job can legally be carried out by an unlicensed person, that individual should be capable of providing further guidance. Prompt follow-up, by seeking the advice of qualified professionals, diminishes the chances of discovering unpleasant or costly surprises after completing price negotiations or closing.
5) Standard Home Inspection (WAC 308-408C-010) compliant inspection: If observed, I report wood decay fungi (rot) and "conducive conditions" -- deficiencies defined by the state as contributing to the likelihood of attracting wood destroying organisms. It is not possible for the inspector to document every instance of wood decay fungi or all conducive conditions that might be present. Therefore, when conducive conditions (wood to soil contact, vegetation growing near or against cladding, etc.) or rot are referenced in the report, clients should arrange for qualified professionals to evaluate the conditions/damage and to provide cost and repair estimates. This report is limited to those conditions that were observed at the time of the inspection.

Note: This standard home inspection conforms to the Washington State Standards of Practice that regulate home inspectors. The report is not defined as a complete wood destroying organism inspection. In accordance with state law, if the presence of wood destroying insects-damage had been identified or suspected, I would have recommended contacting a licensed pest management firm.
6) Form 17: The home inspection is only part of the process that purchasers participate in when buying a property. Clients should study Form 17 (the real property disclosure statement) and, as applicable, follow-up on the information therein. Sellers, an exception being at some bank owned properties, are obligated to disclose known deficiencies with the building or the lot. Those deficiencies may not be observable at the time of the inspection; for example, signs of past moisture, flooding or matters involving pests. Due diligence on the part of clients includes studying Form 17, verifying listing information and data that is available from the Whatcom County Assessor's Office:
7)  Throughout the body of this report, there will be multiple references (links to videos and/or articles, and specific language) to "King of the House Inc." Steven L Smith, owner and operator of King of the House Inc., is my mentor, friend, and associate in the home inspection industry. Steven has provided this content to me with his permission to assist in the quality of information in this report.
Exterior & SiteTable of contents
Apparent foundation type: Crawl space
Foundation wall/stem wall material (where observed): Poured concrete
Footing material (where observed): Poured concrete (most footings are at/below grade and minimally or not visible)
Foundation cracks or irregularities noted: If observed, any cracks appeared to be unremarkable
Wall structure (assumed structure, since wall cavities are inaccessible): Wood frame
Exterior trim and/or fascia: Vinyl trim
Transition flashings (protection against moisture) over horizontal trim at observable locations: Vinyl flashings, typical of vinyl siding installations, obscure the view of any other flashings that might be present
Apparent exterior wall covering: Vinyl siding
Entry/exterior door(s): Wood hinged
Exterior window(s) type and/or material: Double pane synthetic (vinyl, composite and/or fiberglass) sashes/frames
Drip cap flashings (moisture protection) over weather exposed window trim and/or windows: Vinyl flashings, typical of vinyl siding installations, obscure the view of any other flashings that might be present
Entryway landing(s): Wood deck
Driveway material: Concrete
Driveway/garage entry of sufficient size to maneuver a vehicle: No, there may be an access issue when entering garage
Exterior faucet(s)/hose bibb(s): Faucet(s) operable and of frost-free design with backflow preventers
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: fences, storm/screen doors and window screens, motorized shades, shutters, awnings, detecting fog in-between double pane window or door glazing, adequacy of all flashings, unattached garages, outbuildings, greenhouses, gazebos, pergolas, trees on the property, detached stairways and walkways, tightlines, drain lines, catch basins, irrigation systems, backflow prevention devices, ponds, water features, retaining walls, sufficiency of onsite drainage, erosion control, properties of soil
8) The steps at exterior stairway to the main entrance were not level. Treads were uneven and could pose a fall hazard. To prevent tripping falls, steps should not vary, one from another, by MORE THAN 3/8" and maximum riser height is 7 3/4" and level. Minimum stair width is 36" (handrail projection into stairway not to exceed 4 1/2") and minimum tread depth (nose of one stair to another) is 10". A graspable handrail that will support 200 lbs of pressure at the top, without significant movement, is required if there are four or more risers (including the landing). Graspable is defined, if flat material, as 1 1/4" to 2 3/4" wide. If the rail is round, graspable is defined as 1 1/4" to 2" in diameter. A handrail, positioned 34" to 38" above the nose of each riser or a landing, is easy to hold onto all the way up or down the stairs. If concerned, have steps/rails modified as necessary, work to be completed by general contractor. Typically, exterior walkways are the responsibility of the condo owners association. Craftsmanship to comply with prevailing safety guidelines and good building practices.
Photo 8-1 Steps are not level, tipped towards the nose, possible fall hazard
Photo 8-2 Steps out of level towards the nose. I recommend consulting with the condo owners association to have stairway repaired to current safety guidelines to prevent fall hazards
9) Common areas such as walkways, patios are typically the responsibility of a condo owners Association. At this structure, I observed significant damage to the stairway and patio area at the north side of the structure. Comments are provided to help improve occupant safety:

Cracks, or variations in height, at flat surface paving may be tripping hazards at the black patio area at the north side of the structure. At client's discretion, consult with the condo association to employ a flat work-paving contractor to repair or replace the steps and patio areas for safety purposes. Over time, most paved surfaces will settle and develop cracks. Depending on exposure and water penetration, it could become necessary to eventually replace materials.
Photo 9-1 (Northeast corner of structure) Besides the significant damage to the steps posing a likely fall hazard, as per current safety guidelines, steps with four or more risers should have a graspable handrail.
Photo 9-2 
Photo 9-3 If occupants can traverse the dilapidated steps to the patio safely, the patio itself also has significant amounts of settlement posing trip and fall hazards. I recommend consulting with the condo owners association to repair or replace for occupant safety
10) Conducive conditionsThe weatherstripping/gasket material at an entry/exterior door is a poor fit or damaged. I recommend further review: Repair/replace weatherstripping(s), as might be necessary, to better seal against moisture entry and to enhance energy efficiency. All work to be completed by qualified party.

Besides the damaged weatherstripping, the exterior door was functional at time of inspection.
Photo 10-1 Damage door sweep at the base of the entry door. Possible loss of energy and water intrusion at the threshold
11) Vegetation (plants, trees, shrubs, vines) is close to/in contact with the exterior. Vegetation, situated near the building, is conducive to the onset of rot or attracting wood destroying insects. Cut back or remove vegetation, establish a minimum 6" to 12" gap between plants and the exterior. All work to be completed by qualified party. Vegetation, near the building, obstructs access, obscures the view and might conceal damage from, or activity by, wood destroying organisms. Vegetation maintenance should be the responsibility of the condo owners association.
Photo 11-1 Tree in contact with structure at the north side
12) Foundations (general information and limitations): Inspector assesses a poured concrete foundation from the exterior and, when practical to do so, from substructure areas. Visibility at the outside may be obscured by design elements, vegetation or earth. At substructure interior space, the inspection could be impeded by multiple factors: lack of access or marginal lighting, tight clearances, architecture and building materials themselves that restrict viewing, stored belongings, etc. Often, at foundation walls or footings, some cracking will be observed. In fact, most foundations will eventually develop a few settlement and/or shrinkage cracks. If observed by inspector, issues that might constitute material defects will be referenced -- significant cracking/structural concerns or moisture intrusion. To safeguard against seepage, locate and seal any existing cracks and monitor foundation for cracks that might develop/require maintenance in years to come. All work to be completed by qualified party. Foundation maintenance and/or repair would be the responsibility of the condo owners association. This online video, produced by a manufacturer of concrete sealant products, explains a technique for repairing small to moderate sized foundation cracks that might develop in the future:
13) Windows: A window at the living room would not latch. All other windows appeared functional at time of inspection. Windows, access to and view, may be obstructed by belongings, window coverings, breakables, height, etc. Inspector evaluates a number of windows, not necessarily every window, and looks for discernibly cloudy double pane glazing. Sometimes, fog can be elusive and less noticeable, depending on temperature, humidity, sunlight, shade and cleanliness of panes. I do not provide an inclusive list of potentially fogged or compromised windows. Client(s) should verify personal satisfaction with windows. If need be, clean glass prior to making a definitive determination. Any repairs should to be completed by qualified contractor.

Since materials and design elements are obscured from view by trim, siding, etc., it is usually not possible to assess the sufficiency of all flashings, caulking or flanges at window or door installations.
Photo 13-1 A window in the living room (window closest to the fireplace) would not latch at time of inspection. Typically, exterior windows are responsibility of condo associations. I recommend consulting with the association to determine responsibility and repair or replace as necessary by qualified party.
14) Hose bibb(exterior water faucet) was operational and, based on appearance, probably of frost-free design -- lesser likelihood of seasonal freezing. Also, backflow prevention was apparent, which decreases the risk of gray water entering the potable water system. If hoses are left on faucets in winter, or if the piping runs through unheated space, even frost-free hose bibbs and pipes are susceptible to seasonal freezing.
The hose bibb is located at the south side of the structure between the two vehicle garage doors
15) Exterior & site (general information and limitations): Procedurally, inspector views a representative number of accessible components at the exterior -- siding, trim, fascia, windows, doors, etc. In the interest of safety, soffit and high exterior areas will be viewed from the ground. Where the view is restricted, for any reason, that location is excluded: Inspector is, per state law, exempted from traversing areas beneath decks-porches with less than 60" of clearance from the underside of joists to grade. Critical design elements are often obscured from view; therefore, it is impossible to assess the integrity of all transition flashings, window flanges and windows. If exterior issues are reported, clients should obtain cost and repair estimates from general contractors. Further review, by specialists, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Built-in Garage(s)Table of contents
Floor material: Concrete
Garage to house design (accessible/observable areas) fire-resistant: Yes
Suitability of fire-resistance at garage to house door(s): Fire-listed label on door
Self-closer on garage to house door: Yes, but self-closing device requires adjustment, nonfunctional at time of inspection. Door does not reliably shut. Self-closing devices provide improved fire-resistance between the garage and interior space
Ignition sources (such as gas and/or electric water heaters, furnaces, etc.) elevated a minimum of 18" over floor: Yes, risk of fire is lessened if ignition sources are elevated over the floor
Vehicle door(s) type: Sectional overhead
Vehicle door(s) auto-reverse: Functional when tested high (standing position), Failed at low position, too much force required, or slow, to auto-reverse (safety issue)
Vehicle door(s) sensor eyes (should be mounted 4" to 6" over the floor): Functional
Exterior window(s) type and/or material: Double pane synthetic (vinyl, composite and/or fiberglass) sashes/frames
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: walls/floors/ceilings/receptacles/switches that are obstructed by storage, warning labels, detailed safety analysis or balance of vehicle doors, function of remote controls and keypads, absolute sufficiency of overall garage to house fire-resistance
16) The powered overhead vehicle door stops and then "auto-reverses" on impact, but it requires too much force, hard impact, before the door will reverse at the low position (when door meets the floor). The door should, upon closing on an object at mid-height or floor level, fully reverse. The door did auto reverse at mid height test, but not at the low floor test. Even if electronic sensor eyes are installed and functional, failure of auto-reverse is a safety concern -- especially so for children or pets. I recommend further evaluation: Overhead door contractor to adjust/repair/replace components, as might be necessary, and assess door/mechanism, balance and opener/operator. Three basic safety checks are commonly performed at motorized vehicle doors: (1) floor test, (2) mid-height test, (3) sensor eyes test. An article that better explains the testing procedures employed may be accessed at this link:

In a related matter, this condo unit has two vehicle garage doors. The larger door is the one of concern in the paragraph above. The smaller garage door is manual operation. That vehicle garage door was not properly balanced. The door would not stay in place when opened half way and fell to the ground. This is a potential safety hazard since the doors can fall when open and cause injury. I recommend a qualified contractor repair as necessary. Typically, vehicle garage doors are the responsibility of condo owners associations. I recommend consulting with the association to determine responsibility.
Photo 16-1 Adjusting balance at the manual vehicle garage door is done at the tension springs above the door. This can be a dangerous procedure to adjust. I recommend adjustment to vehicle garage door be performed by a vehicle garage door installation professional
17) The garage to house door does not self-close. A garage to house door should provide limited fire-resistance between the garage and interior space. Over the years, many garage to house doors have been equipped with self-closing hinges or springs, and, at the present time, such devices are considered to be essential. Qualified party to further evaluate: When self-closing mechanism is present, but non-operational, adjust or repair so door reliably shuts and seals at the jamb. If mechanism is not present, modify by installing self-closing hardware. An online video, produced by King of the House Inc., on the topic of garage fire-resistance may be accessed at this link:
Photo 17-1 Human entry doors from the garage should close and latch on their own as a fire protection precaution
Photo 17-2 The human entry door from the garage is a fire rated entry door and spring-loaded hinges were in place but adjustment is required for proper operation
18) The wall button), for opening and closing the powered vehicle door(s), was mounted too low. As a precautionary measure, to make it difficult for youngsters to operate vehicle doors, mechanical opener/operator buttons should be installed, as a minimum, 5 ft above the highest horizontal surface (floor, stairs, etc.) a person could stand on. I recommend further evaluation: Reposition the button(s), work to be completed by qualified party, so as to comply with standard safety guidelines.
Photo 18-1 For child safety purposes, vehicle garage door opener buttons should be a minimum of 5 feet above the highest walking surface.
19) The garage, including the walls, floor, ceiling, and the connecting door to the house, was built to provide limited resistance to the spread of a fire between the garage and the dwelling. A garage interior, if it is in close proximity to the residence, must be fire-resistant: no openings or holes in drywall that could allow a fire in the garage to spread to other parts of the home. At a minimum, drywall should be installed at the garage side of shared walls. If the attic over the garage communicates with the attic over the home, or if there is living space above the garage, the garage ceiling requires drywall as well. Small gaps around pipes, vents, ducts, conduits or junction boxes, should be firestopped with fire-resistant sealant/caulking. The floor, usually concrete, must be noncombustible. For additional information on fire-resistance, click on the link (near the bottom of this report section) in "Garage (general information and limitations)."
20) Garage (general information and limitations): Attached or built in garages must provide limited resistance to the spread of a fire between the garage and habitable space. Establishing fire-resistance entails installing drywall at critical wall and ceiling areas, also, a garage floor, usually concrete, must consist of noncombustible material. Inspector does not assess the balance adjustment at overhead doors, manually release openers/operators or disassemble mechanisms, due to the difficulties involved in reattaching components. If door balance is improperly set, primary implications include unnecessary wear, overheating and failure of operator motors or mechanisms. When garage issues are reported, I recommend evaluation and repairs as necessary, work to be completed by qualified professionals. Further review, by a general contractor, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. An article that describes in detail garage to house fire-resistance, may be accessed at:
Roof inspection method: Viewed from the ground, Excluded from the inspection due to access and safety concerns on the part of the inspector. Roofs at condominiums are typically the responsibility of the condo owners associations
Roof type: Sloped (Approximately 5/12 pitch)
Drip edge flashings (protection against moisture) at eaves: Undetermined, limited view/access. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage at roof sheathing and fascia
Drip edge flashings (protection against moisture) at rake of roof: Undetermined, limited view/access. Flashings, when present, guard against seepage at rafters/fascia and roof sheathing
Plumbing stack flashings: Undetermined, limited view/access
Gutter and downspout material(s): Aluminum
Apparent roof covering: Architectural-grade composition (estimated 25-30 year life from the time of installation. Actual lifespan may vary)
Roof ventilation system(s) based on exterior/roof view: Ridge vent(s), Soffit venting, Gable venting
Estimated age of roof: Undetermined
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: flashings, underlayments, sufficiency of roofing fasteners (length, sizing and quantities), multiple layers of roofing, detailed analysis of materials-composition, sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members, absolute adequacy of roof ventilation, guarantee or life expectancy of materials and components
21) Conducive conditionsDownspout is damaged at the southwest corner. Damaged or dented downspouts can restrict flow and downspouts and or gutters could overflow or leak. Uncontrolled water runoff is conducive to the onset of rot or attracting other wood destroying organisms. Upgrade/repair downspouts and gutters if/as required. If necessary, consult with the condo owners association to repair or replace as necessary by a qualified party, such as a gutter and downspout installation contractor.
Photo 21-1 Damaged downspout at the front entry to the condo
22) The age of the roof was undetermined/unknown to inspector. Roofs are typically the responsibility of condo owners associations, any concerns with the roof, I recommend consulting with appropriate members of the association. An estimate of remaining life or certification of any roof or associated components is beyond the scope of this process. No assurances are provided that a roof is immune to damage resultant from extreme weather or strong winds. Determining that no leaks exist would necessitate further inspections during a variety of conditions including heavy rainfall and gusty wind. Roof-attic ventilation may be referenced, but I cannot guarantee adequacy of venting, since doing so would require monitoring over time. If a client wishes to obtain a roof certification (warranty against future problems-damage or a guesstimate of remaining life) contact a roofing firm that participates in such programs.

Annual review: Roofs are exposed to severe weather and adverse conditions. Defects develop quickly, with little warning, and minor failings can turn into big problems. On a periodic basis, hire a professional to clean and assess the roof surface, flashings, penetrations, etc. to make sure that they're watertight. As applicable, depending on circumstances, enter attic space to obtain a supplementary view. Regularly cleaning a roof prolongs surface life and a roofing contractor is best prepared to not only clean but, also, identify and correct, subtle deficiencies. Annual roof cleaning is ancillary to resolving any other issues referred to in this report.
23) Roof (general information and limitations): Reportable issues include damage or excessive wear at roofing, loose flashings or fasteners, accumulated organic debris and moss, problems at penetrations and appurtenances. Roofing materials restrict the view of flashings, fasteners and underlayments. I attempt to identify observable deficiencies at accessible locations, but I cannot foresee all problems that might develop. If roof (or attic) issues are reported, clients are advised to obtain detailed cost and repair estimates from a licensed roofing contractor. Further review, by a specialist, could uncover irregularities that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Photo 23-1 This roof was not traversed due to height and safety concerns by the inspector. Any issues noted with the roof should be addressed and repaired as necessary by the condo association owners
Inspection method: Viewed from the attic access point(s). Attic spaces have inaccessible areas where view, ingress and maneuverability are restricted by minimal clearances, insulation, piping, ducts, etc.
Location(s) of attic access hatch/door cover(s) that were observed and/or inspected: Main floor bathroom
Roof structure (where observed): Trusses
Ceiling structure (where observed): Trusses
Roof-attic sheathing (where observed): Oriented strand board (OSB)
H-clips installed at roof sheathing joints: Yes, verified in one, or more, location(s). H-clips, when present, are a deterrent to sag of roof sheathing
Roofing nails or other fasteners visible under roof-attic sheathing: Yes, when fasteners penetrate through roof-attic sheathing, it is indicative of improved attachment of roofing materials. Visual limitations apply, inspector is unable to verify the absolute sufficiency of all fasteners or the means of securing roofing and/or flashings
Roof-attic ventilation system(s) based on attic view: Ridge vent(s), Soffit venting, Gable venting (gable vents accompanied by upper ventilation may restrict airflow to some degree. Monitor attic conditions)
Moisture staining (at observable areas) on roof-attic sheathing: Yes, may indicate past or present ventilation or humidity issues
Insulation at/over ceiling at habitable-heated space: Yes
Apparent insulation material at habitable-heated space: Fiberglass loose fill
Baffles apparent at vented soffit (observable areas): Yes, baffles protect against insulation blocking soffit vents
Estimated R-value of insulation over habitable space, may vary in some locations (today, over habitable space, insulation is installed R-38 to R-49): R-30 to R-38, approximately
Insulation installed over/behind attic access hatch/door cover(s): Yes, insulation enhances energy efficiency over habitable space
Gasket material (weatherstripping) around attic access hatch/door cover(s): Yes, weatherstripping enhances energy efficiency and/or fire-resistance
Party wall (separation between multi-unit dwellings) observed: Not verified, limited access
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: structural components, wiring/ducts obscured from view by insulation or lack of access, behind covers at walls or ceilings if hatches are obscured from view or of undetermined purpose or if removal could cause cosmetic damage, calculating insulation R-values, loads or sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members, absolute adequacy of overall attic ventilation, identifying bearing points and walls, minor cosmetic disruptions at walls and ceilings caused by truss uplift or similar condition, microbial bodies-mold
24) Conducive conditionsRoof sheathing is lightly stained on the underside, indicative of ongoing high humidity in the attic and resultant condensation. At attics in the PNW, this may be related to ventilation deficiencies. Or a phenomenon known as "night sky radiation" can contribute to the problem. Some individuals are not concerned about the microbial staining and, according to many air quality specialists, this condition is not considered to be a significant health or allergen risk -- any transfer of attic air into living space is slight. On the other hand, sometimes occupants arrange to have sheathing and/or fungal matter cleaned/treated by a firm that specializes in that type of work. I recommend further evaluation: At client's discretion, cleanup or have the area treated. And, if the humidity problem involves ventilation irregularities, rectify any such issues. All work to be completed by qualified professionals. To obtain additional information on the topic of microbial growths, contact the N.W. Clean Air Agency in Mount Vernon (360-428-1617).

A N.W. Clean Air Agency produced online video, on the topic of microbial growths, is available at this link:

Follow this link to an article, published by the N.W. Clean Air Agency, on the effects of moisture, condensation and microbial growths:
Photo 24-1 Ventilation deficiencies is a typical cause for the occurrence of microbial staining on sheathing at roof structures
Photo 24-2 At time of inspection, moisture levels were not elevated in structural components were observed near the access hatch
25) Conducive conditionsCompeting ventilation: This roof has gable vents, soffit vents and high vents. Best practices, based on current data, discourage mixing gable vents with other types of ventilation. Roof-attic ventilation is most effective when it is balanced, approximately 60% of airflow (intake) from low soffit vents and about 40% of airflow (exhaust) from high vents such as ridge or roof box vents. The gable openings might interfere with primary (high and low) venting. Inadequate airflow can contribute to overheating in an attic, lessen the life of roofing materials, or result in moisture condensing on the underside of roof sheathing. Discuss this venting configuration with a roofing contractor. In some cases, gable vents are blocked and overall roof-attic ventilation is actually improved upon. For a detailed description of issues that might develop as result of "competing ventilation," please visit:

A simple calculator, designed to estimate the sufficiency of ventilation, may be accessed at this link:
Photo 25-1 When high vents, such as ridge vents (blue arrow) are installed, gable vents (blue circle) should be blocked to eliminate competing ventilation
26) When it is practical and safe to do so, I will partially traverse the attic. This attic does not have flooring in place over structural members and insulation obstructs the view. An accidental misstep would damage the ceiling. Furthermore, tramping on insulation reduces R-values and vulnerable components (wiring, pipes, lights, ducts), are often concealed under insulation. Taking into consideration those factors, the interior of the attic was viewed from the hatch. Unavoidably, several locations are excluded such as low clearance soffit-eave areas. Space with less than 30" of headroom is considered to be inaccessible. Unseen problems may exist at difficult to reach or inaccessible locations.

Any building owner should, on a regular basis, check inside attic space. The sufficiency of ventilation involves air changes, relative humidity, and factors that are not easily assessed during the course of a single inspection. Clients are advised to look for indications of condensation-moisture on roof sheathing, overheating, bird or insect/bee entry, etc. If problems become apparent, when monitoring attic conditions over time, consult with a qualified service provider.
27) Attic/roof (general information and limitations): Manufactured trusses, present here, are designed by engineers. Since trusses are engineered, it is disallowed for anyone other than an engineer to modify or cut structural members (chords and webs). Observable attic areas are viewed to see if trusses appear to be compromised. I describe attic-roof ventilation, but do not guarantee adequacy of venting: Doing so would require consistent monitoring over time and years. Problems may go undiscovered at inaccessible locations, and any areas that were not traversed are excluded. Usually, inspector is unable to assess sufficiency of combustible clearances between vents/chimneys and flammable materials. If attic (or roof) issues are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates from licensed contractors. Further review, by specialists, could uncover irregularities that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. At wood roof structure such as trusses and, lesser so, rafters, seasonal differentials in humidity can cause "uplift," small wall or ceiling cracks in drywall at seams, joints, finished corners. Typically, uplift is a cosmetic matter, not considered to be a structural concern of significance.

Inspector attempts to view accessible attic space. Points of entry (knee wall or ceiling hatch covers, etc.) might not be discovered as a result of furniture, belongings or certain design elements. Any openings that were inaccessible, concealed, and not entered are excluded. At client's discretion, ask property owner(s) if he/she is aware of additional access hatches that were not described in this report. If so, have any such areas opened and inspected.
Electric SystemTable of contents
Location of electric meter: Exterior, easterly
Overload protection type (primary service): Circuit breakers
Service entrance type: Underground (service lateral)
Location of main service panel(s): Outside
Location of main service disconnect(s): Breaker in outside main service panel
Estimated service amperage: 100
Main disconnect rating (amps): 100
Service grounding conductor-electrode rod verified: Not seen/verified where checked. Electrician to review adequacy of onsite grounding
System bonding connections verified (protection against electrical shocking hazards): Noted at rigid gas piping, undetermined at water piping. In the future, confirm sufficiency of electrical bonding at metallic water piping and any flexible gas lines. To obtain a detailed evaluation, consult with licensed electrician
Main service panel(s) front cover(s) removed: No, outdoor panel was not opened due to lack of sufficient access or safety concerns. Have panel reviewed by an electrician
Arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) protection, safeguard against arcing and fires, present/functional: None present
Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protected receptacle(s), safeguard against shocks in damp areas, present/functional: Yes, devices were functional where checked. Testing and performance limitations apply
Nominal onsite voltage: 120/125-240
Estimated nominal onsite utilization voltage read at 120/125V circuit (240 volt power is calculated/approximate): 120v
Branch circuit wire type or types (where/as observed) onsite: Non-metallic sheathed, Solid-strand copper, Stranded copper and/or stranded aluminum (typically employed at circuits for larger appliances)
Sub (remote distribution) panel(s) noted on the premises: Yes
Location of sub (remote distribution) panel(s): Bedroom
Sub (remote distribution) panel(s) front cover(s) removed: Yes
Feeder conductors sub (remote distribution) panel(s): Stranded aluminum (normal and acceptable)
Sub (remote distribution) panel rating(s) in amps: 100
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: outdoor lighting and associated wiring/photo cells/motion sensors/mercury vapor lights, AFCI protection and hardwiring to smoke/consumer alarms, visual identification of copper-clad aluminum (CCA) circuits or any concealed branch circuit wiring, non-standard receptacles (240 volts at dryers/ranges, electric vehicle power sources, compressors, power generators/transfer switches and wiring, any circuits that are not 120/125 volts, all low voltage and 3-phase circuits and transformers, battery power or battery backup), difficult to access receptacles or switches (floor mounted, out in the yard, high on ceilings, walls, behind appliances or machinery, under eaves, in attics, in crawl spaces) or any devices that are obstructed from view or at excluded areas, placement of tamper-resistant receptacles, sub-panels and/or junction boxes (other than those referenced), condition or presence of wiring under or over insulation
28) It is common at apartment buildings and condos to feed electric sub-panels that are inside the individual dwelling units with 3 phase power (120-208 volts) from the building complex's primary service equipment. Determining the specific service voltage, be it 120/208 or 125/240 (standard at single family homes) is beyond the scope of a home inspection. Suffice to say that both voltage configurations are often seen and are considered to be adequate for operating electrical receptacles, lights and appliances.
29) At a multi-unit residence, condo building the "main" electric disconnect is often located outdoors. The main electrical panel in this building is located at the east side of the structure. In addition to the main disconnect, there will be a more accessible sub (remote distribution) panel located in the southeast main floor bedroom of the interior. In an emergency, to turn off all power, trip the "main" electric disconnect. Alternatively, turn off all sub-panel breakers or any breaker that is labeled as the "main." Alert: Simply turning off all breakers in the sub-panel, would not disable power to any branch circuits that are fed directly by the exterior "main" disconnect.

In a related matter: at the exterior disconnect panel, there are two electric meters labeled with this address (1905 & 1905 H). I assume the meter and disconnect labeled "1905" is associated with this condo unit. And suspect that the meter labeled "1905 H" is associated to the common components at the structure such as exterior lighting, sewage ejector pump etc. but not verified while on site. I recommend consulting with the condo owners association and or utility company to verify meters associated with this condominium unit.
Photo 29-1 Main electrical disconnect, east side of the structure
Photo 29-2 Two electric meters labeled with the same address, I suspect the meter labeled "H" is related to common areas of the structure, not this condo unit, but not verified
30) Typical, for the age of the residence, AFCI breakers (arc fault circuit interrupters) and/or receptacles are not present. AFCI protection reduces the risk of house fires by safeguarding against overheating or arcing at specific circuits such as bedroom receptacles, lights and hardwired bedroom consumer alarms. Back in 2014, AFCI protection guidelines were expanded upon and now standards require the devices at most 120 volt household branch circuits. Rule changes are typically not retroactive but, depending on the scope of the project, if wiring is modified in the future, the permitting process could trigger compulsory upgrades. A diagram, illustrative of the recommended placement of AFCI and GFCI (ground fault) protection, is available at this link:
31) The sub (remote distribution) panel was inspected after first removing the front cover. At a sub-panel, the neutral wires/bus and system grounding should be separated from one another, not bonded together. It was my impression that the panel was wired in that configuration. Visual limitations may apply, depending on accessibility, space and overall observability.
Photo 31-1 The cover was removed from the interior subpanel and wiring was observed. No defects noted
Photo 31-2 Normal line voltage was observed while on site
32) Lighting: The inspection of lights and lighting is not inclusive, nor an analysis of all such devices, nor of 3-way and 4-way switches, switched receptacles, motion detectors and dimmers. At this home not all light switches were fully determined to functionality. For example, exterior lighting were on light sensors. Often, if a light or a switch does not function, a bulb will be burned-out or missing. It is not uncommon to find wall switches that are abandoned, or they remotely control switched/split receptacles or outdoor fixtures with built in motion detectors or photocells. An inspector does not troubleshoot circuits, replace or swap-out bulbs. I recommend testing switches and replacing any burned-out or missing light bulbs and/or defective fixtures, switches or wiring. Electrical work, when/if necessary, should be completed by licensed electrician. Note: At fixtures in general, and if recessed or "can" ceiling lights are present, always put in replacement bulbs of the recommended size. With recessed lights, typically those made prior to 1982 and depending on manufacturer specifications, the metal fixtures may have to be separated from attic insulation.
33) Electric system (general information and limitations): A representative number of receptacles (outlets), switches and light fixtures are inspected. Receptacles or switches situated at difficult to access locations such as behind appliances, under eaves or high on the building are excluded, as are 240 volt, low voltage or other non-standard outlets, and those with childproof covers. Inspector will comment on GFCI (ground fault) and AFCI (arc fault) protected receptacles, but seldom is it possible to locate and test all such receptacles. Inspector does not verify specific placement of tamper-resistant receptacles: protection against shocks and electrical burns. Whenever a receptacle is replaced, tamper-resistant receptacles are now a mandatory upgrade at most locations. I do not trip overcurrent protection devices to verify accuracy of legends or count receptacles/switches to determine if circuits are overloaded. A report may reference electric service sizing, but capacity could be diminished by under-rated components in a system. Breaker sizing guidelines have changed over the years, so, except at new construction, amperage might be lesser than what would be installed today. Even simple electrical projects can pose safety risks, so always consult with licensed professionals. While onsite, an electrician should evaluate the system, report deficiencies and provide recommendations as to potentially beneficial upgrades or repairs. If significant issues are reported, I advise obtaining detailed cost and repair estimates. Specialized review, by a licensed electrician, could reveal deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. All panels that were inspected, not excluded, are referenced in the report. If additional panels that were not readily apparent to inspector are later found to be present, they should be reviewed by a licensed electrician.
HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)Table of contents
Whole house ventilation/exhaust system with automatic timer present: Yes, located at laundry area
Heat source(s) at habitable/livable space: Yes
Heat system type(s): Furnace forced-air
Distribution system heating and/or cooling: Ducts with supply registers
Forced air heating system manufacturer: Consolidated Industries (Quatro)
Model number of heating appliance(s): MBA 060 NH3R
Serial number of heating appliance(s): 931209209
Estimated age of heating appliance(s) based on serial number(s) or other data: 20/27 years old, not fully determined (the appliance was manufactured between 1993 and 2000 but which specific year was not verified)
Energy source(s): Natural gas
Gas "on" to HVAC appliance(s): Yes
Occupant accessible fuel shutoff valve(s) observed at gas-fired appliance(s): Yes
Flexible gas connector(s) observed at heating appliance(s): Yes, present. In instances of seismic activity, flexible connectors protect against damage to gas lines
Electricity "on" to HVAC appliances: Yes
Electric disconnect or panel lockout at/for indoor heating appliance(s): Yes
Heating appliance(s) operational: Yes
Estimated BTU's heating appliance(s): 60,000 input
Location of furnace-heating appliance filter(s): Behind/above metal grill at interior
Location of gas meter: Exterior, easterly
Location of main fuel shutoff: Gas meter
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of appliances or systems, rust or wear, continuity of ducts or exhaust vents, heating appliance filters and electronic air cleaners, humidifiers-dehumidifiers, fresh air systems, in-home ventilation including sufficiency of passive systems, motors and exhaust-circulation fans/blowers, thermostats and flue/duct terminations, sufficiency of backdraft dampers and screens, in-wall manifolds at boilers/hydronic heating systems, portable or window mount air conditioners, electric fireplaces, gas meters, propane tanks, outdoor gas hookups, condition or presence of sediment traps, operation of (in some cases presence of) shutoff valves at gas-fired or oil burning appliances, underground storage tanks (oil, gasoline, propane)
34) Furnace service/heating contractor assessment: White condensate, a by-product of combustion, was apparent inside the furnace. The presence of condensate is indicative of a need for service and, in some instances, condensate buildup could be caused by venting issues or insufficient combustion air. Forced-air furnaces and associated components, according to manufacturers' estimates, have a life expectancy of 15-20 years. Actual lifespan may vary. Furnaces should be cleaned and serviced annually to extend appliance life and to assure ongoing safety. I recommend further evaluation and service by an HVAC contractor: Professional review to include air-handler airflow-balance, ducts, supply registers, connections, heat exchanger, combustible clearances and combustion air, vent for the length of its run, cleaning and, as applicable, gas piping, valves, carbon monoxide (CO) testing. A specialist could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a home inspection. When onsite, HVAC technician to explain routine maintenance procedures such as how to replace or clean filters. A heating contractor produced online video, descriptive of the procedures customarily included as part of HVAC service at a gas furnace, is available at this link:
Photo 34-1 Based on the amount of condensate and dust inside the furnace cabinet, it could benefit from a servicing. Service label indicated that this appliance is not been serviced within the last year. I recommend servicing now and annually.
35) I recommend replacing or washing HVAC filters upon taking occupancy depending on the type of filters installed. Regardless of the type, I recommend checking filters monthly in the future and replacing or washing them as necessary. How frequently they need replacing or washing depends on the type and quality of the filter, how the system is configured (e.g. always on vs. "Auto"), and on environmental factors (e.g. pets, smoking, frequency of house cleaning, number of occupants, the season).
Photo 35-1 Filter is located in the return air grill on the main floor
36) Over the past decade, and in prior years, many brands of heating appliances (furnaces, electric and gas heaters, gas fireplaces, wood burning appliances) and cooling equipment have been recalled. It is not practicable for an inspector to identify all recalled consumer products. An easy to use search feature intended to identify, upon inputting brands and/or model numbers, recalled heating-cooling systems, electric heaters and other defective household appliances may be accessed at:
37) Heat: A home should have a source of heat in every habitable room. Bathrooms, laundry rooms, closets, hallways, unfinished basements, etc. are not defined as habitable or livable space. While employing an infrared heat sensing instrument, I checked a representative number of accessible and readily apparent heat supply registers. When the heating appliance and air handler were running, those ducts and registers tested were blowing warm air.

Inspector provides a simple overview of the system. The process is not exhaustive. I do not attest to the adequacy of all ducts, system balance or the sufficiency of airflow to all rooms. Such assurances would have to come from an HVAC professional. On a periodic basis, remove supply registers and vacuum inside the exposed ducts.
Photo 37-1 An infrared imaging thermometer was utilized to determine heat at duct register when furnace was running
Photo 37-2 An infrared image example of a heat duct register when the furnace was running
38) HVAC/heating system (general information and limitations): The heating and/or cooling system inspection is basic, visual and limited in scope. Inspector does not disassemble HVAC appliances nor assess heat exchangers, thermostat calibration, system sufficiency, all venting, ducts, supply registers and airflow to rooms. A heating professional has access to specialized equipment that will locate defective heat exchangers, identify vent deficiencies, and fully evaluate balance, sufficiency and continuity of ducting. If inspector reports any problems, or recommends service, all work and full system evaluation should be performed by licensed HVAC professional or, in some instances, a licensed electrician or plumber. Further assessment by specialists could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. Gas meters, fuel storage tanks (propane, heating oil), or associated piping, valves and connectors are excluded.
39) Basic exhaust-ventilation systems such as bathroom fans, laundry fans or range hoods will be described in the "Interior Areas" report section. Exterior vent hoods should be equipped with backdraft dampers (flappers) and screens (1/4"-1/2" wire mesh). Due to the complexities involved in doing so, inspector does not verify sufficiency of dampers or screens.
Fireplace(s), Insert(s), Freestanding Stove(s)Table of contents
Energy/fuel type: Natural gas
Occupant accessible fuel shutoff valve(s) observed at gas-fired appliance(s): Yes
Flexible gas connector(s) observed at fireplace(s), etc.: Yes, present. In instances of seismic activity, flexible connectors protect against damage to gas lines
Gas "on" to fireplace/insert/freestanding stove(s): No, this is a limitation to the inspection. Inspector employs only normal controls and does not ignite pilot lights, turn on gas valves or troubleshoot appliances. Qualified party to further evaluate
Gas fireplace/insert/freestanding stove(s) operational: No, out-of-service at the time of inspection. This is a limitation to the process. Qualified professional to further evaluate
Combustible clearances, from metal gas-fired appliance vent(s), to insulation or flammables: Not verified, insufficient access-view. HVAC technician to review in the future
Heat-circulating fan-blower(s) present: No
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of systems or components, rust or wear, continuity of exhaust vents or ducts, sufficiency of chimney flues-vents, combustible clearances, motors and exhaust-circulation fans/blowers and terminations, dampers, placement of gas shutoff valves, glass at fireplaces or stoves, gas logs, electric fireplaces, compliance with EPA or any governmental agency emission-safety certification requirements
40) The pilot light in the gas fireplace/insert/stove was off. An inspector operates only normal controls and, per standards and guidelines incorporated into state law, does not ignite pilot lights or troubleshoot problems. I recommend testing the appliance with further evaluation and service by a heating contractor: Professional review to include burner, combustion chamber, air openings, gas valve, igniter and pilot, venting and combustible clearances for the length of the run, remove and clean glass and inside unit, inspect gasket, and, as applicable, carbon monoxide (CO) testing, operation of fan-blower, thermostat, etc. A gas fireplace/stove that serves as a primary heat source should be professionally serviced annually. If it is used only on an occasional basis, the appliance requires service, at a minimum, every three years. Any heat circulating fans or blowers (usually thermostatically controlled devices) are excluded. I do not disassemble/lift off fronts of fireplaces, if putting parts back together again could be difficult to do. A contractor produced online video, descriptive of general maintenance, cleaning procedures and glass removal, is available at this link:

Here's a link to a consumer bulletin, issued by the nearby B.C. Safety Authority, that emphasizes the importance of regularly scheduling safety checkups at all gas heating appliances and fireplaces:

Ceramic glass, at the front of gas fireplaces, inserts and stoves, should be cleaned twice per year or as specified by manufacturer. Employ specialized cleansers formulated for the purpose, do not use ammonia-based products that could permanently etch glass. If periodic maintenance has been neglected in the past, the glass front may have become perpetually cloudy.
Photo 40-1 Gas valve was off at fireplace at time of inspection. Based on the amount of dust/debris inside, below the fireplace, I recommend servicing prior to operation
41) Gas fireplaces and freestanding stoves (general information and limitations): Inspector is not an HVAC technician. Only normal controls are operated and I offer a visual inspection of fossil fuel fired heating devices. As prescribed by state law, an inspector will not ignite pilot lights that are “off”. Service and safety evaluations of natural gas and propane systems are customarily provided by HVAC technicians or similar professionals, who are trained to install or service gas fireplaces. If issues involving appliances or components are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates. Further review by specialists could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection. Inspector assumes no responsibility for any fees associated with repairing defects or conditions that could have been discovered by a licensed and qualified HVAC professional. Any blowers-heat circulating fans and their controls are excluded.
Water HeaterTable of contents
Manufacturer: A.O. Smith
Model number of water heater: GCV 40 300
Serial number of water heater: 1413J001821
Estimated age of water heater(s) based on serial number(s) or other data: 6 years old (manufactured in 2014 as per data plate)
Capacity in gallons: 40
Type: Conventional tank(s)
Energy source(s): Natural gas
Gas "on" to water heater(s): Yes
Occupant accessible fuel shutoff valve(s) observed at gas-fired appliance(s): Yes
Flexible gas connector(s) noted at water heater(s): Yes, present. In instances of seismic activity, flexible connectors protect against damage to gas lines
Water heater(s) operational: Yes
Water shutoff valve(s): Yes, but valve is not shutoff to test it, nor is there a detailed analysis of function
Water temperature at fixtures as verified by inspector (hot water at fixtures should not exceed 120 degrees F): 129°F
Hot water taps properly positioned at sink(s): Yes, hot at left side or as marked-identified on lever handle
Burner compartment door opened at gas/propane-fired water heater(s): No, with a few exceptions, water heaters manufactured since 2003 are of FVIR design (sealed inner combustion chamber) so the view is restricted
Seismic restraints in place at tank water heater: Yes, straps/bands
Temperature pressure relief valve(s) installed: Yes
Drain line(s) at relief valve(s): Yes
Relief valve(s) drain line material: Copper
Relief valve(s) drain line discharge point(s) noted: Yes, terminates outside
Catch pan(s) under water heater(s): No, typical of a garage installation
Water pressure reducing valve observed in system: Inspector did not see/identify a pressure reducer. Pressure reducing valves might be installed at various locations so they are not always readily observable. Pressure reducers should be accessible, not concealed, enclosed in walls, or otherwise obstructed from view. When a pressure reducer is present, a thermal expansion tank is usually placed in supply piping by the water heater, Undetermined, not verified. Pressure reducing valves might be installed at various locations so they are not always readily observable. Pressure reducers should be accessible, not concealed, enclosed in walls, or otherwise obstructed from view. When a pressure reducer is present, a thermal expansion tank is usually placed in supply piping by the water heater
Thermal expansion tank(s) installed: Yes, observed at/near water heater. If a pressure reducing valve is present, a thermal expansion tank is usually placed in supply piping by the water heater
The following components, systems or services (as applicable) are excluded: life expectancy of appliances or systems, rust or wear, continuity of exhaust vents or heating elements, recirculation-circulation pumps, calibration or function of thermostats, concealed components at temperature pressure relief valves or drain lines, presence/function of mixing or anti-scald valves, point of use instant hot water dispensers/tanks/taps
42) The hot water temperature at fixtures reads as a minimum of 129 degrees Fahrenheit. The risk of scalding increases when temperature is set higher than 120°F I recommend adjusting/limiting the water temperature at fixtures to 120°F. Water temperature is regulated by thermostatic controls at/inside water heaters. Temperature may vary throughout the day, depending on when the appliance last heated water. Even though temperature at fixtures should be limited to 120°F, maintaining a higher tank temperature reduces the probability of bacterial growth inside the water heater. Therefore, a preferred means of lowering temperature involves installing a thermal mixing valve: Water at fixtures is restricted to 120°F, yet water in the tank will maintain a temperature of 130-140°F At client’s discretion, qualified party to adjust thermostat(s) or have a plumber install thermal mixing valve. To obtain more information on hot water safety, please visit:

An article, descriptive of thermal mixing valves, is available at this link:
43) Water heaters (general information and limitations): Inspector does not evaluate pipes-tubing or vents that run inside walls, or valves, thermostats or burners-heating elements and other components that are not readily accessible. Undiscovered corrosion of a tank could be present, yet go unreported, as a result of lack of visibility or access. When issues with a system are reported, clients should obtain detailed cost and repair estimates. Due to the complexities of such devices, and a number of potential safety issues, any work and evaluation of water heater/plumbing system should be performed by a licensed plumber and/or an HVAC professional. Timely service, and specialized review, could uncover deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
Plumbing System & LaundryTable of contents
Water pressure (40-80 PSI "pounds per square inch" is normal range): 50 PSI
Water pressure reducer observed in system: No
Location of "occupant accessible" main water shutoff valve: Lower floor bathroom closet
Location of municipal/community connections/shutoffs and/or water meter (customarily located below grade): Undetermined
Location(s) of assumed plumbing (waste/drain line) cleanout(s): Crawl space drain/waste piping
Plumbing vent stack or vent stacks present: Limited view/access, not verified
Water service: Municipal/city
Service pipe/tubing material (where observed): Not verified. Typically underground, limited access and view
Supply pipe/tubing material (where observed): Copper
Water supply pipes/tubing wrapped or insulated in substructure areas: Yes
Waste/drain pipe material (where observed): PVC plastic
Vent stack pipe material (where observed): PVC plastic
Transition dryer duct type (observable) at/behind dryer: Semi-rigid aluminum flex duct, typically considered to be acceptable at/behind a dryer but may not penetrate into/through a floor, a wall or ceiling
Main dryer duct type (if/where observed) to exterior dryer hood: Undetermined, difficult access or not observable. Verify suitability of ducting, which should be approved smooth metal duct
The following components, systems, structures or services (as applicable) are excluded: Water filters-filtration systems, aerators, softeners, under sink instant hot water dispensers/connections, recirculation-circulation or pressure booster and sump pumps, sewage ejector-grinder pumps or private sewage disposal systems and related electronics/alarms (may be present onsite unbeknownst to inspector), PEX by brand or fittings, presence/function of anti-scald or mixing valves and tub-shower pans and traps (usually obstructed from view) in substructure areas, life expectancy of appliances or components, washing machines and dryers, municipal or community shutoffs and water meters, water quality or potability, yard sprinklers/irrigation systems and associated wiring/controls/backflow prevention, floor and outdoor drains and drain lines
44) Rubber water supply hoses, as is often the case, are installed at the washing machine. Rubber hoses are prone to eventual deterioration and leaks. I recommend replacing rubber supply hoses with long-lasting stainless steel braided washing machine hoses. Alternatively, consider an upgrade to "FloodSafe" auto-shutoff connectors: designed to stop the flow of water if leakage occurs. A wide assortment of hoses are available at hardware and home stores. A manufacturer produced online video that explains the operation of FloodSafe specialty hoses is available at this link:
Photo 44-1 
45) From the ground in the year two, the exterior dryer hood appears to contain an accumulation of lint. As the problem worsens, a blockage could lead to fire, or damage the thermal devices inside the dryer. I recommend cleaning the dryer hood, and associated ducting, now and as necessary in the future. Work to be completed by qualified party. To obtain additional information on dryers and ducting, please visit:
46) Inaccessible water pressure reducer. A water pressure reducing valve and associated piping and unions should be visible and accessible so, as applicable, the device can be inspected, repaired, etc. I suggest making the pressure reducer and/or fittings accessible. All work and review to be performed by qualified plumber.
47) Washing machines and/or dryers are not routinely operated and they are not included in the inspection: Briefly running appliances does not establish reliability. Furthermore, associated supply lines, drain lines, plumbing and electric connections are excluded. Often laundry appliances are not part of a real estate transaction. In situations where they are included, prior to purchase, clients are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Due to potential pitfalls involved in doing so (detaching ducts, loosening fittings or hoses), inspector does not move appliances. Upon taking occupancy, clients are encouraged to move appliances to obtain improved access and view. If any issues are noted, consult with qualified repair professional. On a regular basis, clean ducting, outside vent hood and the dryer lint filter.
48) Plumbing system (general information and limitations): When it is possible to do so, I check a plumbing system by running a limited quantity of water. Service, supply, drain, waste piping, components or valves that are inside walls, ceilings, buried (or otherwise unobservable) are excluded. As a result of these limitations, concealed problems may become apparent when occupants run water and use facilities on a consistent basis. Inspector does not assess underground service-supply, drain-waste piping, publicly owned components, private water systems and/or filtration, determine the presence, or functionality, of any sewage ejector-grinder pumps or private sewage systems. Even simple plumbing repairs can, unexpectedly, turn into complicated projects. Whenever work is required, consult with licensed professionals. While onsite, plumber should evaluate the system including fixtures, supply, drain and waste lines, venting, etc., and provide recommendations as to potentially beneficial upgrades or repairs. If significant issues with system/components are reported, I advise obtaining detailed cost and repair estimates. Specialized evaluation, by a plumbing contractor, could reveal deficiencies that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.
49) Shutoff valve(s) exclusion: Water supply shutoff valves, including any occupant accessible "main," municipal or street "mains," and dedicated shutoffs under/behind fixtures or appliances are not routinely operated. Only normal controls are tested such as sink and tub faucets. Prior to moving in belongings, client(s) should verify that shutoff valves are functional, readily accessible and situated at standard locations. Often, infrequently used shutoff valves are difficult to turn or they leak at valve stems. If problems become apparent, consult with plumber.
Photo 49-1 An apparent occupant accessible main water supply shut off valve in the closet of the lower floor bathroom
Photo 49-2 Close-up of the previous photo of shut-off in bathroom closet
50) Plumbing fixtures inspected, including tubs, showers, toilets and sinks (possible exception being laundry sinks, which might be in this report section), are described in the "Interior Areas" report section. Outside hose bibbs/faucets that were inspected are usually referenced in the "Exterior & Site" report section.
Crawl Space(s)-FoundationTable of contents
Foundation wall/stem wall material (where observed): Poured concrete
Footing material (where observed): Poured concrete (most footings are at/below grade and minimally or not visible)
Inspection method: Traversed
Location(s) of crawl space hatch(es) that were observed and/or inspected: North side
Bolts/anchors (observable locations) to secure structure to foundation: Yes, some bolts seen. Not verified as to spacing and number. Bolts anchor structural members to the foundation
Crawl space design: Unconditioned (ventilated) space
Foundation vents at crawl space: Yes
Number of walls with crawl space vents: Two sides
Foundation vents in crawl space open: No, presently blocked. Vents should be open except during extremely cold weather
Insulation installed underside of floor(s) situated above unheated crawl space: Insulation was not installed. Properly insulate under the floor in an unheated (unconditioned) crawl space
Insulation material (type) underneath floor: Insulation is missing, not installed
Sill plate lumber pressure-treated: Yes, pressure-treated lumber is more resistant to rot than untreated lumber
Floor structure above: I-joists (manufactured joists)
Underfloor/subflooring material (where observed): Plywood/laminated wood
Plastic vapor barrier ground cover present over earth: Yes, but requires repair
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: inaccessible areas such as sill plates, ceiling-floor joists, beams, wiring, pipes, ducts, etc., areas obscured from view by insulation or other components, under slabs/footings/substructure locations that are not readily accessible, behind covers at walls or ceilings if hatches are obscured from view or of undetermined purpose or if removal could cause cosmetic damage, sufficiency of size, span or spacing of structural members such as posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, calculating loads, placement of bolts and anchors, squash blocks, web stiffeners, insulation R-values, identifying microbial bodies-mold, sump pumps (except as reported), absolute adequacy of overall substructure ventilation
51) Underfloor insulation: Insulation was missing in the crawl space. I recommend installing batt insulation. As a guideline, based on today's standards, underfloor insulation at floors above unheated space is rated at R-30 or better. I recommend further review and appropriate repairs: Install/fit, or custom fit, insulation. Insulation should be tight to the underside of the floor above and the vapor barrier backing paper, on most modern batt insulation, is designed to face the warm side. Upside down insulation can result in moisture retention. All work to be completed by qualified professional.
Photo 51-1 
52) Conducive conditionsCrawl space vents are intentionally blocked. This condition restricts crawl space ventilation and is conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. Remove plugs/covers. When/if water pipes are wrapped, vents can be left open most of the year, except during extremely cold weather. If vents are closed in frigid weather, they should be reopened immediately after cold weather subsides. When uncovering vents, confirm that screens are intact (1/8"-1/4" corrosion-resistant wire mesh) to protect against pest entry.
Photo 52-1 Blocked events in conjunction with the following concern of exposed soil due to substandard vapor barrier contribute to elevated moisture and substructure.
53) Conducive conditionsEarth is uncovered/exposed at some areas of the crawl space: inadequate vapor barrier ground cover. Evaporation from the ground can result in a damp/humid crawl space and high humidity at interior space -- conditions that are conducive to attracting wood destroying organisms. The NW Clean Air Agency estimates that as much as 40% of the air inside a residence has evaporated up from substructure areas. I recommend further review: Repair/replace vapor barrier, as might be necessary, so all earth is covered. If additional material is required, employ 6 mil non-translucent polyethylene (black is preferred) with plastic installed to lay as flat as is possible and seams should overlap by a minimum of 24". Fold or cut ground cover, so it is not in contact with posts/structural lumber -- moisture that collects between plastic and the wood can lead to decay. All work to be completed by qualified party. Unconditioned substructure areas are presumed to be the responsibility of condo owners association.

The exposed soil at this crawlspace was not extensive, but some was visible and conditions could be improved by repairing the vapor barrier.
Photo 53-1 Moisture readings were elevated in structural lumber in the crawlspace at time of inspection. Improving/repairing the vapor barrier to assure there is no exposed soil and opening the vents for better ventilation could reduce the moisture level in structural lumber. Substructures (crawlspaces) are presumed to be the responsibility of condo owners association. Any work done should be performed by qualified parties
54) Seasonal conditions: In the PNW, typically in fall and winter, we experience more rainfall and runoff water than at other times of the year. Since conditions change, on a regular basis, crawl spaces should be entered and checked for standing water, plumbing leaks, fallen or damaged insulation, rodent activity and indications of insects such as wood shavings on the foundation wall, the sill or the crawl space floor. If any problems are seen, consult with appropriate contractors/service providers.
55) This building, based on the view at an observable location, appears to have some anchors that attach a sill plate or structural lumber to the foundation. Bolts are, in most instances, partially or fully concealed by intrinsic design elements and/or insulation. Inspector does not search out or count bolts, washers or nuts, measure spacing between bolts or determine if anchors comply with past, or present, construction guidelines. Up until about thirty years ago, bolts were not commonly installed. Therefore, depending on the build date, homes both with and without bolts are often seen. If a client wishes to add bolts-anchors, discuss options with a general contractor.
56) Unconditioned crawl space (general information and limitations): When present, underfloor insulation, ducting, piping or wiring can limit access and view. I report standing water and sump pumps that I see, or otherwise become aware of, during the course of the inspection. Since sump pumps are usually partially buried, they might go undiscovered. I do not guarantee that a crawl space has been dry in the past or assume that it will remain dry in the future. Any such assurances could only be provided after long-term monitoring, e.g., during varying seasonal conditions including heavy rainfall and melting snow. If a report references crawl space deficiencies, clients are encouraged to obtain cost and repair estimates. Professional contractors, after full assessment, should offer suggestions as to potentially beneficial repairs or upgrades. Further evaluation, by a licensed general contractor, could uncover problems that were not identified at the time of a non-invasive home inspection.

Inspector attempts to view accessible crawl space areas, excluding low clearance space under decks and porches. Points of entry (floor, wall and outdoor hatch covers) might be blocked or obscured from view due to storage or certain design elements. Any substructure locations that were inaccessible, concealed, undiscovered and not entered are excluded. At client's discretion, ask property owners if they know of other substructure space was not identified in this report. If so, have those areas opened and inspected.
Interior AreasTable of contents
Status of secondary egress-ingress at bedroom(s): Window sizing, and height over floor and/or door placement, is in general accordance with current safety guidelines
Permanently installed kitchen appliances present during inspection: Range, Dishwasher, Refrigerator, Under-sink food disposal
Properly designed/installed traps at sinks: Yes, P-traps
Water shutoff valves seen at sink(s): Yes
Water shutoff valves for all toilet(s): Yes
Shutoff valve for dishwasher(s): Yes
Dishwasher(s) opened, inside viewed: Yes
Range(s) opened, inside viewed: Yes
Range(s) prone to tipping forward: Yes, range is "tippy," a deficiency that can result in injury. Install anti-tip bracket(s)
Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm(s) present: See body of the report
Electricity "on" to kitchen appliance(s): Yes
Gas "on" to kitchen appliance(s): Not applicable
Mechanical ventilation (range hood or exhaust fan in kitchen): Yes, range hood
Main entry doorbell operable: Yes
Floor surfaces/finishes: Common and typical such as:, vinyl/linoleum, carpet
Wall surfaces/finishes: Common and typical such as:, drywall
Ceiling surfaces/finishes: Common and typical such as:, drywall
The following components, systems, structures, services or substances (as applicable) are excluded: telephone, satellite, cable, antennas, sound systems, intercoms, low voltage wiring, media centers, trash compactors, life expectancy of products, behind appliances, identifying Chinese drywall, small cracks in tiles/adequacy of support under tile floors, suitability of floor covering for specific purpose, moisture and odors at inaccessible floor coverings and walls, surfaces behind wallpaper, inside covers at walls/floors or ceilings if hatches are obstructed or of undetermined purpose, shower pans, steam showers-baths, bidets, window coverings, blinds and power blinds, thermal seals at windows, safety glass placement, adequacy of emergency egress, determining insulation R-values, gas shutoff valves at stationary appliances, cosmetic issues, minor visual disruptions at walls and ceilings caused by truss uplift or a similar condition, oven doors and temperature/timer function, convection and warming drawers-ovens and burners, grills, griddles, appliance lights, refrigerator-freezer temperature, ice makers, fresh water or water filtration systems, ceiling fans, sufficiency of exhaust fans or vent hoods, central vacuum systems, overflows at fixtures, appliances except as referenced in the report, microbial bodies-mildew and mold, identifying bearing walls and calculating loads
Whole house ventilation/exhaust system with automatic timer present: Yes, located at laundry area
57) Conducive conditionsTub(s)/shower(s) inspection: The gap, behind the tub spouts, could allow moisture entry into the wall. If a spout gap is small enough, caulking can be applied. A more permanent solution is to put in place an escutcheon trim plate that can be installed at the back of the spout. I recommend further assessment, and appropriate repairs, with work to be completed by a qualified plumber.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A slow, intermittent or concealed leak might not be readily apparent at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at fixtures can result in interior damage. Caulk and/or grout around fixtures requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
Photo 57-1 
Photo 57-2 I recommend installing caulking or escutcheon plates at the back of bathtub spouts to prevent water intrusion behind bathtub surrounds. Work to be performed by qualified party
58) Some interior doors don't latch and or binds in the jamb. Adjust/repair doors, as might be necessary onsite, so they smoothly open and close, adjusting the latching mechanism (bolt/plate) so the doors reliably latches. All work to be completed by qualified general contractor or door installation/repair contractor.
Photo 58-1 Main floor Southwest bedroom door binds and rubs at the jamb, difficult to operate
Photo 58-2 Southwest bedroom door appeared to be less than professionally installed
Photo 58-3 Main floor bathroom door was difficult to latch. Hardware was sticky
59) The range/cooktop is electric. Main burners heated, as did the oven and broiler elements. However, the range tipped forward when pressure was applied. This is a safety concern, especially so for children, who might pull on or climb on the range. I recommend further review and appropriate repair: Install a standard anti-tip bracket to better secure the range. All work to be completed by qualified appliance installation-repair professional.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspector does not verify internal temperatures, the operation of timers, clocks, convection ovens, warmer burners or drawers, appliance lights, or seal/fit of gaskets. Due to potential pitfalls, I do not move appliances, remove drawers to view connections, gas valves, brackets, mounting hardware, etc. Upon taking occupancy, clients are encouraged to move appliances to obtain better access and view. If any issues are discovered, consult with knowledgeable repair persons.
60) The dishwasher: The appliance is lacking an "air-gap" device at the drain line. An air-gap reduces the probability of a cross-connection between potable water and gray water. Separate air-gaps are now standard at most installations, even if the dishwasher might have a built in air-gap. If concerned, have a plumber further assess and install an air-gap device. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations. For additional information on air-gaps, please follow this link:

The inspector is otherwise occupied onsite. Therefore, any assessment of the performance of the dishwasher is limited in scope. I may be unable to determine if it is operating properly. If the device is turned on, at inspector's option, a slow or intermittent leak could go undetected. While on-site, the dishwasher was ran on a rinse cycle only, no leaks or defects noted while utilizing normal operation.
Photo 60-1 A high loop can be effective, this drain has a minimal high loop. However, local municipality guidelines don't allow a high loop at dishwasher drains and requires air gaps for dishwasher drains
61) Toilet(s) inspection: Preferably, an installer will seal the front and sides of a toilet but leave a gap of a few inches at the back. There did not appear to be a gap at the back of these two toilets. The seal protects against moisture entry and is, also, hygienic in nature. The back of a fixture is left open so, if the wax ring-seal (under a toilet) leaks, a resident will be more likely to detect seepage and seek professional assistance. I recommend further evaluation, and appropriate repairs, with work to be completed by a qualified plumber.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A non-invasive moisture meter may be employed to check flooring at bases of toilets. Regardless, a slow, intermittent or concealed leak could be undetectable at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at toilets can result in interior damage. Caulking or grout, around bases of toilets, requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
Photo 61-1 Moisture readings around toilets were normal, not elevated at time of inspection
Photo 61-2 Toilets appeared to be caulked with no gap at the back. Ideally, a gap would be left at the back of the toilet for early warning of wax ring failure.
62) Interior (recommendations, general information and limitations): The inspector views walls, ceilings, floors and assesses the condition of a representative number of windows, doors, cabinets, and electrical components. When belongings are present, access to or the view of numerous areas might be obstructed by appliances, furniture, window coverings and breakables. Inspector does not move appliances or furniture. After personal items have been removed, problems that were not identified at the time of the inspection might become apparent. I am focusing on significant concerns and do not dwell on cosmetic matters that the discerning purchaser is probably already aware of such as nail-pops, scuff marks, blemishes indications of past wear and use, countertops, cupboards and drawers, housekeeping, or subtle household odors. With the exception of new construction, most residences will display signs of previous occupancy. Regardless of the age and condition of a property, often individuals plan to renovate. Design and general appearance of interior decor are matters of personal taste. Therefore, it is client's responsibility to ascertain that interior features -- floor coverings, wall or ceiling surfaces, paint, cabinetry, appliances, etc. -- meet with personal expectations.

Photos below are examples of interior aesthetics or components to consider:
Photo 62-1 Missing cabinet door at kitchen
Photo 62-2 Missing knob at dimmer switch at Southwest bedroom
Photo 62-3 Incomplete repair to wall and missing base trim
Photo 62-4 Bifold door at main floor bathroom not installed, door appears to be stored in the garage
Photo 62-5 Missing and poor craftsmanship at trim components around fireplace
63) Consumer alarms: Carbon monoxide (CO) alarm(s) and smoke alarm(s) were present. By law in Washington, at the time of a real estate sale, an approved CO alarm is required outside or, if necessary to provide sufficient coverage, inside each separate sleeping area and (as applicable) on each floor level. Working smoke alarms, per general safety guidelines, should be put in each bedroom, any adjoining hallways, at every floor level and at enclosed interior staircases that lead to other occupied levels. Today's consumer alarms are inexpensive and, in the case of battery powered devices and those that plug-in, they can be installed by almost anyone. An inspector does not routinely test, count, or determine that an operable alarm is situated in every required location. Prior to assuming occupancy, clients should further assess alarms. If necessary, add/reposition/upgrade alarms so as to comply with state law and all prevailing safety protocols. All consumer alarms must be installed per manufacturers' specifications. Residents are advised to regularly test alarms, change batteries as needed, and replace any old or nonoperational alarms (10 years is the maximum estimated design life). Some fire safety professionals suggest that all smoke alarms should be of the photoelectric type vs. commonly seen ionization alarms that can be slow to react to smoke and fire.
64) The nonprofit organization "Consumer Reports," estimates that more than 15 million household products, including kitchen appliances, water heaters, furnaces, electric and gas heaters and fireplaces, wood burning appliances, etc., have been recalled in the past decade. It is not possible for an inspector to identify all potentially recalled consumer items. A user friendly search engine that was created to track, upon entering manufacturer specific data, recalled products is available at:

Another online tool, helpful when attempting to identify the age of most of the commonly seen kitchen and household appliances, may be accessed at this link:

Kitchen appliances are excluded per the state standards of practice. Any comments that reference the age/condition of appliances are offered as a courtesy. The status of appliances can change with little or no warning. Areas beside and/or behind appliances are usually not accessible and any such locations, or associated wiring, plumbing or connections, are excluded. Inspector does not determine compliance with manufacturers' specifications or predict remaining life of any appliance.
65) The refrigerator/freezer: the appliance appeared functional at time of inspection. Lights came on when the doors were opened, the freezer was frozen refrigerator was cold and the gaskets around the doors appeared to be in good condition.

Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life.
Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances and any associated systems meet with personal expectations.

Inspector did not assess the operation or cleanliness of coils, drip pans, appliance lights or the appropriateness of internal temperatures. Appliances will not be unplugged or moved to view connections, water lines or hookups. Periodically, coils, drip pans and interior surfaces require cleaning.
66) The range hood and/or exhaust fan was turned on. Periodically, small fans require cleaning, lubrication or, eventual, motor replacement. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Fans might be run to determine functionality. Seldom is it feasible for inspector to verify that every fan is "blowing air" to the outdoors. Conditions change, fans and connections should be monitored to make sure that ducts remain attached in attic or substructure areas. Any work to be completed by qualified party.
67) Sinks inspection: kitchen and bathroom sinks appeared functional at time of inspection. P-traps were noted at the drains, shut-off valves were noted at the water supply and no leaks were noted at time of inspection.

Inspection procedure: Inspector looks for signs of past, or possibly present, leaks or seepage. A slow, intermittent or concealed leak may be undetectable at the time of inspection. Minor deficiencies at sinks and piping can result in interior damage. Caulk and/or grout around fixtures requires periodic maintenance and eventual replacement.
68) The food disposal: The average design life of a disposal is 10 to 12 years, actual lifespan may vary. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection, the appliance did appear functional at time of inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Prior to purchase, client(s) are advised to ascertain that the condition (age, cleanliness and functionality) of appliances meets with personal expectations.

Inspection procedure: Inspector might run a disposal to determine if it operates and to check for leaks. I do not put food in a disposal to test grinding capabilities. On occasion, a jammed or bound disposal can be cleared by first turning off the circuit breaker to the device and then inserting a wrench into the underside of the disposal and spinning the mechanism. Any work or repairs to be performed by qualified plumber.
69) This home has a 24-hour ventilation system that can be set to operate automatically. The timer, located in the laundry room, will control a simple whole house exhaust fan ventilation system. The purpose is to expel old air and in so doing, as the pressure is equalized, fresh air is drawn into the home. With today's well-insulated homes, this type of ventilation system is installed to reduce condensation and moisture. Typically, the system is set to operate the fan for 8 hours at a time and may be set to go on when it is not disruptive -- during the day or in the middle of the night while one is sleeping. Such devices are noted by the inspector, but they are not assessed as to sufficiency/function, nor is the timer tested. The timers should be set to automatically turn on the exhaust-circulation fan. When the fan runs, and expels old air, interior pressure equalizes and fresh air is drawn into the home. With today's tighter built houses, to reduce interior moisture and humidity, the ventilation exhaust fan should run for at least 8 hours at a time. At new house it suggests running fan 24/7. Placement of fans and controls varies from house to house, but this contractor online video describes the operation of a basic ventilation system:

An online video, produced by the NW Clean Air Agency, that describes the operation of a basic ventilation system is available at this link:

A NW Clean Air Agency produced video, descriptive of an integrated whole house ventilation system that is built into an air handler, is available here:

For general information on how automatic ventilation systems work, please visit:

To read more about ventilation systems, follow this link:
Photo 69-1 24 hour timer in the laundry room
Photo 69-2 Timer at furnace, designed to operate furnace fan for interior ventilation
70) Interior exhaust fans that were tested, at bathrooms and laundry, ran when they were turned on. To better control moisture-humidity in baths with tubs and/or showers, where 60 minute timer switches are not present, consider installing timer switches in place of ordinary wall switches -- so bath exhaust fans will move air, expel steam, even after occupants have vacated bathrooms. Findings are limited to conditions observed at the time of the inspection. I do not estimate remaining life. Periodically, small fans require cleaning, lubrication or, eventual, motor replacement. Any work to be completed by qualified parties.

A representative number of fans are performance tested. Seldom is it feasible for inspector to verify that every fan is "blowing air" to the outdoors. Ducts might be configured in wyes (restrictive and a less than optimal situation) with more than one fan sharing a single hood. Conditions change, fans and connections should be monitored to make sure that ducts remain attached in attic or substructure areas.

Helpful Home Maintenance Check List for a Healthier Home
The following is a general maintenance guide for homeowners, some tips may not be relevant to your home. Recommend a common sense approach to this list and overall home maintenance.


1. Vacuum and clean all return air ducts/grills.
2. Purge garbage disposal by first filling kitchen sink with clean water, then turn on food disposer until water is drained through.
3. Change/clean air conditioning return filters monthly. This will help keep your air cleaner and system running more efficiently. Clogged air filters will make your system operate longer than required, thereby increasing your monthly bills.
4. Wash refrigerator/freezer interior walls and door liner with solution of 1-quart warm water: 2 tablespoons of baking soda and wipe dry.
5. Clean dishwasher filter (if provided), usually at lower spray arm, and wipe door gasket clean with a damp cloth.
6. Inspect lighting fixtures and replace blown light bulbs.
7. Clean clothes drier lint traps and or ducts to reduce fire risk.
8. Clean toaster oven crumb tray.


1.Inspect exterior doors to ensure they are weather tight. Adjust or replace weather stripping as needed.
2. Service doors (incl. garage doors) and drawers, clean and lubricate latches, hinges and guides.
3. Inspect and repair exterior caulking around windows, doors, and siding.
4. Replace/clean central heating system (furnace) filters.
5. Re-tighten knobs on kitchen cabinets, don't overtighten.


1. Have heating and air-conditioning systems inspected and serviced by licensed contractor.
2. Inspect and test smoke alarms and carbon monoxide detectors and replace back up batteries.
3. Check (GFCI) ground fault interrupted circuits.
4. Inspect and maintain proper drainage around home. Clean gutters and down-pipes and ensure water is flowing away from your home.
5. Inspect home for rodent droppings or other pests. Have home treated as needed.
6. Test sump pump for reliable operation, especially before any rainy season.
7. Wash fan housing and metal filter connected to range hood exhaust fans. These can be safely washed by placing them inside the dishwasher.
8. Vacuum coils behind refrigerator/freezer to remove dust; this will improve efficiency of unit.
9. Tap off a bucket of water from the hot water heater until it runs clean.


1. Inspect and repair settling cracks (if necessary).
2. Inspect and lubricate garage door tracks.
3. Inspect exterior paint for cracking and wear. Repaint or seal as needed.
4. Drain and refill water heater.
5. Trip main breaker on electric panel.
6. Inspect all electric cords and replace if necessary.
7. Inspect attic for water damage, birds, and rodents.
8. Inspect basement for moisture/mold and wood rot.
9. Inspect attic for signs of roof leaks or water damage, bird nests, rodent or squirrel nests, and clean if necessary.
10. Change water filters and have water softeners serviced.
11. Inspect roof flashings, chimney caps, shingles(for mold and damage) and caulking for possible damage.
12. Pressure wash deck, walkways and driveway.
13. Reseal wood decks with preservative and inspect and secure nails that may be protruding out. Nails have a tendency to pop out after very cold weather conditions.
14. Clean or replace oil filter(oil fired burner only).
15. Inspect outside electrical service feeder for exposed bare wires and tree interference.
16. Inspect basement/crawl space area for signs of termites and/or other wood-boring insects.
17. Use hose to wash off dirt from coil and fan in heat pump/condenser locate outside of house.
18. Inspect all hoses(and replace if necessary) connected to laundry washer unit.
19. Clean and seal ceramic tile grout lines in bathrooms/toilets/kitchen.
20. Check caulking at tub and shower, and replace if necessary.
21. Wash and blow clean bathroom exhaust fan grill and fan blades.
22. Wash windows(exterior and interior), screens, seals and ledges. Repair if necessary.
23. Clean and lubricate sliding glass door tracks and window tracks.
24. Check stucco joints around doors and windows.
25. Inspect the dishwasher's motor spin seal, and replace if necessary.
26. Inspect laundry washer, water fill hoses for cracks, blisters, corroded fittings and leaks.
27. Place beeswax or paraffin on built-in kitchen cabinets that have wooden guides.
28. Inspect for creosote deposits in the fireplace flue liner, these are black or brown residue of combustion that collects on the inner surfaces. If the buildup is more than 1/8 inch, remove it.
29. Vacuum around the gas hot water heater (especially near furnace) to remove dirt and grime.

Tips for clogged drains:

Keeping the Drains Clear:
1. By pouring a pot of hot water down the drain once a week will melt away any fat or grease that may have built up in the drain line or P-trap.
2. If you have a clogged drain, just pour a 1/2 cup of baking soda and 1/2 cup of white vinegar down the drain. Cover the drain and let the mixture sit for a few minutes, then pour a pot of hot water down the drain. This will break down fats and keep the drains smelling fresh.
3. Every six months, keep your drains clean by using a copper sulfide or sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaner, or other recommended drain cleaner available from your local store.

Other safety tips:

Ensure that you know where the following items are located:
1. Emergency contact telephone numbers.
2. Fire extinguishers and water hose pipes.
3. Heating gas/fuel main shutoff valve.
4. Main electrical disconnect circuit breaker (breaker box/service panel).
5. Main drain line clean out.
6. Main water shut off valve.
7. All window and door exits.

In addition to the above, carry out the following monthly safety checks:
Some of these items may have already be included in the home maintenance list, but these monthly safety checks are advisable for safety reasons:
1. Test ground fault circuit interrupter receptacles(GFCI's).
2. Test smoke and carbon monoxide alarms and replace batteries if necessary.
3. Inspect and lubricate (if necessary) all emergency exits, including windows and doors.
4. Inspection of heating unit and water heater for visual integrity.

Estimated life spans of most Home appliance:

1.Dishwasher water valves: 3-7 years
2.Range and oven: 18-20 years
3.Garbage disposal: 10 years
4.Microwave: 10 years
5.Refrigerator: 18-20 years
6.Laundry washer: 14 years
7.Laundry drier: 14 years
8.Refrigerator/Freezer: 18-20 years
9.Central air conditioner system: 15 years
10.Window mounted air conditioning system: 8 years
11.Bathtub/Sink: 50 years
12.Garage door opener: 10 years
13.Laundry water fill hoses: 3-5 years
14.Trash compactor: 10 years

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