Safe and Sound Home Inspection Services, Inc.

Phone: (516) 798-0105
PO Box 1211 
North Massapequa, NY 11758
Inspector: William Ahrens

NYS License #16000004463
DEC Termite #T1871899


Property Inspection Report
Client(s): John Doe
Property address: Any Town, USA
Inspection date: Tuesday, September 09, 2008
This report published on 1/5/2009 6:31:22 PM EST

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This report is the exclusive property of this inspection company and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized persons is prohibited.

How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas.  Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type.  Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
SafetyPoses a risk of injury or death 
Major DefectCorrection likely involves a significant expense 
Repair/ReplaceRecommend repairing or replacing 
Repair/MaintainRecommend repair and/or maintenance 
Minor DefectCorrection likely involves only a minor expense 
MaintainRecommend ongoing maintenance 
EvaluateRecommend evaluation by a specialist 
MonitorRecommend monitoring in the future 
CommentFor your information 

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.  Contact your inspector if there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at

Table of Contents
General Information
Electric service
Water heater
Heating and cooling
Plumbing and laundry
Fireplaces, woodstoves and chimneys
Bathroom 1 - 2nd floor
Bathroom 2 - Main Floor
Interior rooms
General Information Return to table of contents
Report number: Sample2
Inspector: William A. Ahrens
Time started: 4:00 pm
Time finished: 6:30 pm
Inspection Fee: $500 including termite inspection
Payment method: Check
Present during inspection: Client(s), Realtor(s)
Client present for discussion at end of inspection: Yes
Weather conditions: Cloudy, Rain
Temperature: Warm
Ground condition: Wet
Type of building: Single family
Age of building(s): 80 years
Structures inspected: Single family residence and attached garage
Front of structure faces: Southeast
Occupied: No
Foundation type: Finished basement
The following items are excluded from this inspection: Security system, Irrigation system, Shed

1) Safety, Repair/Replace - This property has one or more fuel burning appliances, and no carbon monoxide alarms are visible. This is a safety hazard. Recommend installing one or more carbon monoxide alarms as necessary and as per the manufacturer's instructions. For more information, visit
2) Safety, Comment - Structures built prior to 1979 may contain lead-based paint and/or asbestos in various building materials such as insulation, siding, and/or floor and ceiling tiles. Both lead and asbestos are known health hazards. Evaluating for the presence of lead and/or asbestos is not included in this inspection. The client(s) should consult with specialists as necessary, such as industrial hygienists, professional labs and/or abatement contractors for this type of evaluation. For information on lead, asbestos and other hazardous materials in homes, visit these websites:
  • The Environmental Protection Association (
  • The Consumer Products Safety Commission (
  • The Center for Disease Control (
    Exterior Return to table of contents
    Footing material: Not visible
    Foundation material: Concrete block
    Apparent wall structure: Wood frame
    Wall covering: Aluminum siding
    Driveway material: Poured in place concrete
    Sidewalk material: Poured in place concrete
    Exterior door material:
    3) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more trip hazards were found in sidewalk sections due to cracks, settlement and/or heaving. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace sidewalk and/or patio sections as necessary to eliminate trip hazards.

    Photo 4  
    Sidewalk trip hazard

    Photo 6  
    Sidewalk trip hazard

    4) Safety, Minor Defect - One or more outside faucets are missing backflow prevention devices. These devices reduce the likelihood of polluted or contaminated water entering the potable water supply. This condition can occur when an outside faucet is left in the "on" position with a hose connected and the sprayer head turned off. When pressure in the system fluctuates, water can be drawn back into the water supply pipes from the house. If a chemical sprayer is being used with the hose, those chemicals can enter the water supply pipes.

    Recommend installing backflow prevention devices on all exterior hose bibs where missing. They are available at most home improvement stores and are easily installed. For more information, visit:

    Photo 8  
    Hose bibb

    5) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more outside faucets appeared to be inoperable. No water came out of the faucet(s) when turned on. This may be due to a (winterizing) shut-off valve being turned off. As per the NACHI and ASHI Standards of Practice, the inspector did not attempt to turn on or off any water supply shut-off valves. Recommend that the client(s) ask the seller about outside faucets with no water, and/or have a qualified plumber evaluate and repair faucet(s) as necessary.
    6) Repair/Replace - One gutter downspout is loose and detached from the structure. Repairs should be made as necessary so downspout is securely anchored.

    Photo 15  
    2nd floor gutter leader not connected to house - right front of house

    7) Repair/Replace - Two downspouts have extensions that are ineffective. This can result in water accumulating around the structure's foundation, or in basements and crawl spaces if they exist. Accumulated water is a conducive condition to wood destroying insects and organisms, and may also cause the foundation to settle and possibly fail over time. Repairs should be made as necessary, such as installing or repositioning splash blocks, or installing and/or repairing tie-ins to underground drain lines, so rain water is carried at least several feet away from the structure to soil that slopes down and away from the structure.

    Photo 17  
    Gutter downspout - left front of house

    Photo 18  
    Gutter downspout - left rear of house

    8) Repair/Maintain - One or more minor cracks (1/8 inch or less) were found in the foundation. These don't appear to be a structural concern, but recommend sealing them to prevent water infiltration and monitoring them in the future. Numerous products exist to seal such cracks including:
  • Hydraulic cement. Requires chiseling a channel in the crack to apply. See for an example.
  • Resilient caulks (easy to apply). See for an example.
  • Epoxy sealants (both a waterproof and structural repair). See for examples of these products.

    Photo 11  
    Crack in exterior of foundation wall - right side of house

    9) Repair/Maintain - Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines are in contact with or less than one foot from the structure's exterior. Vegetation can serve as a conduit for wood destroying insects and may retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. Vegetation should be pruned and/or removed as necessary to maintain a one foot clearance between it and the structure's exterior.

    Photo 10  
    Vegetation right front of house

    Photo 14  
    Vegetation right side of house

    Photo 16  
    Vegetation front of house

    10) Comment - One or more sections of foundation and/or exterior walls are excluded from this inspection due to lack of access from vegetation.
    11) Comment - Minor cracks were found in one or more walkway and sidewalk sections. However they don't appear to be a structural concern and no trip hazards were found. No immediate action is recommended, but the client(s) may wish to have repairs made or have cracked sections replaced for aesthetic reasons.

    Photo 5  
    Minor cracks in sidewalk

    Photo 7  
    Cracks in walkway next to garage
    Roof Return to table of contents
    Roof inspection method: Viewed from ground with binoculars
    Roof type: Gable
    Roof covering: Asphalt or fiberglass composition shingles
    Gutter & downspout material: Aluminum
    12) Major Defect, Comment - This asphalt or fiberglass composition roof surface has two or more layers of roofing materials. When this roof is replaced, recommend a complete "tear off", where all existing layers of roofing are removed before installing new roofing materials. For 20-year rated composition shingles, additional layers of material reduce the new roof material's lifespan as follows:

  • 16-20 years - First roof
  • 12-16 years - Second layer on existing roof

    Removing existing roofing materials will significantly increase the cost of the next roof.
    13) Maintain - Debris has accumulated in one or more gutters. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects since gutters may overflow and cause water to come in contact with the structure's exterior or make water accumulate around the foundation. Gutters should be cleaned now and as necessary in the future.
    14) Maintain - Moss is growing on the roof. As a result, shingles may lift or be damaged. Leaks may result and/or the roof surface may fail prematurely. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. Efforts should be taken to kill the moss during its growing season (wet months). Typically zinc-based chemicals are used for this, and must be applied periodically. For information on various moss treatment products and their pros and cons, visit

    Photo 9  
    Moss on roof above front entrance

    15) Comment - Because of the configuration of the roof and heavy rainfall two hours prior to the inspection, the inspector was unable to traverse the roof and wasn't able to fully evaluate the entire roof.
    Garage Return to table of contents

    16) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The vehicle door isn't balanced. The door won't stay in place when it's partially opened and falls to the ground instead. This is a safety hazard since the door may fall when open. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For more information on garage door safety issues, visit: or
    17) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Safety containment cables are missing for one or more vehicle door springs. This is a safety hazard. Safety containment cables prevent springs from snapping free and causing damage or injury. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs or replace components as necessary. For more information on garage door safety issues, visit: or
    18) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more garage electric receptacles appear to have no ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate to determine if GFCI protection exists, and if not, repairs should be made so that all garage receptacles, except for one for use with a refrigerator or freezer, have GFCI protection. For example, install GFCI receptacles or circuit breaker(s) as needed.
    Attic Return to table of contents
    Inspection method: Traversed
    Roof structure type: Rafters
    Ceiling structure: Ceiling beams
    Insulation material: Vermiculite loose fill
    Insulation depth: 2-4"
    19) Safety, Minor Defect - Cover plate(s) are missing from one or more electric boxes, such as for receptacles, switches and/or junction boxes. They are intended to contain fire and prevent electric shock from exposed wires. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire and shock. Cover plates should be installed where missing.

    Photo 19  
    Electrical junction box in attic with cover missing

    20) Safety, Evaluate, Comment - What appears to be vermiculite insulation was found in the attic. This material may contain asbestos, which is a known carcinogen, and may pose a health hazard. However even if this material does contain asbestos, it may not pose a health hazard since it's not in a living space. The client(s) may wish to have this material tested for asbestos by a qualified lab and/or consult with a qualified industrial hygienist or remediation specialist, and should definitely do so if they plan to remove it or disturb it through remodeling. For more information on asbestos use in homes, visit:

    Photo 20  
    Attic insulation

    21) Repair/Replace - Pull-down stairs are installed for the attic access. No insulation is installed above the stairs and no weatherstripping is installed around the hatch perimeter. To reduce air leakage, recommend installing weatherstripping and an insulated hatch cover. An example of one can be seen at

    Interior air leaking into the attic results in heating and cooling losses, increased energy costs, and a possible increase in moisture levels in the attic due condensation forming on the underside of the roof sheathing during cold weather.
    Electric service Return to table of contents
    Primary service type: Overhead
    Primary service overload protection type: Circuit breakers
    Service amperage (amps): 100
    Service voltage (volts): 120/240
    Location of main disconnect: Breaker at top of main service panel
    Service entrance conductor material: Copper
    Main disconnect rating (amps): 100
    Branch circuit wiring type: Non-metallic sheathed, (BX) Armor clad
    Solid strand aluminum branch circuit wiring present: Can't verify
    Smoke detectors present: No
    22) Safety, Repair/Replace - Exposed wiring and/or bus bars exist in the main service panel due to closure covers missing (slots where circuit breakers fit through the panel cover). This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. Closure covers should be installed where missing to eliminate exposed wiring, and by a qualified electrician if necessary.

    Photo 30  
    Closure covers missing in main electrical panel cover

    Photo 36  
    Closure covers missing in main electrical panel cover

    23) Major Defect, Repair/Replace - The conduit between the service head and the electric meter is broken off and a large section is missing. A qualified electrician should be consulted to evaluate and make repairs as necessary.

    Photo 12  
    Conduit missing between electric service entrance head and electric meter

    Photo 13  
    Conduit rusted and broken off between electric service entrance head and electric meter

    Photo 39  

    24) Comment - The electric service to this property appears to be rated at substantially less than 200 amps, and may be inadequate for the client(s) needs. Recommend consulting with a qualified electrician about upgrading to a 200 amp service.

    Photo 31  
    General Electric main service panel

    Photo 35  
    100 amp main service panel
    Water heater Return to table of contents
    Estimated age: 10 years
    Type: Tank
    Energy source: Natural gas
    Capacity (in gallons): 72
    Manufacturer: Kenmore
    Model: 153.337263
    25) Safety, Repair/Replace - No drain line is installed for the temperature-pressure relief valve. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of scalding if someone is standing next to the water heater when the valve opens. A qualified plumber should install a drain line as per standard building practices. For example, extending to 6 inches from the floor, or routed so as to drain outside.

    Photo 26  
    No drain line is installed for the water heater temperature-pressure relief valve

    Photo 29  
    No drain line is installed for the water heater temperature-pressure relief valve

    26) Evaluate, Monitor, Comment - The estimated useful life for most water heaters is 8 to 12 years. This water heater is 10 years old and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future.
    Heating and cooling Return to table of contents
    Primary heating system energy source: Natural gas
    Primary heat system type: Baseboard
    Last service date: Unable to determine
    27) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - The inspector was unable to determine the last service date of the heating equipment. The client(s) should ask the property owner(s) when it was last serviced. If unable to determine the last service date, or if this system was serviced more than one year ago, a qualified heating and cooling contractor should inspect, clean, and service this system, and make repairs if necessary. For safety reasons, and because this system is fueled by gas or oil, this servicing should be performed annually in the future. For more information visit:
    28) Comment - The electric supply to the boiler was shut off at the time of the inspection. As a result, the inspector was unable to fully evaluate this unit.
    Plumbing and laundry Return to table of contents
    Location of main water shut-off valve: Basement
    Location of main fuel shut-off: Basement
    Water service: Public
    Service pipe material: Not visible
    Supply pipe material: Copper
    Vent pipe material: Not visible
    Drain pipe material: Plastic, Galvanized steel, Cast iron
    Waste pipe material: Plastic, Galvanized steel, Cast iron
    29) Safety, Repair/Replace - The clothes dryer is equipped with a vinyl or foil, accordion-type, flexible exhaust duct. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission considers these types of ducts to be unsafe, and a fire hazard. These types of ducts can trap lint and are susceptible to kinks or crushing, which can greatly reduce the air flow. This duct should be replaced with a rigid or corrugated semi-rigid metal duct, and by a qualified contractor if necessary. Most clothes dryer manufacturers specify the use of a rigid or corrugated semi-rigid metal duct. For more information on dryer safety issues, see
    30) Safety, Evaluate, Comment - Insulation on a water pipe in the basement is deteriorating and peeling off. This material may contain asbestos, which is a known carcinogen, and may pose a health hazard. The client(s) may wish to have this material tested for asbestos by a qualified lab and/or consult with a qualified industrial hygienist or remediation specialist, and should definitely do so if they plan to remove it or disturb it through remodeling. For more information on asbestos use in homes, visit:

    Photo 33  
    Pipe insulation deteriorating

    Photo 34  
    Pipe insulation deteriorating

    31) Safety, Comment - Copper water supply pipes in homes built prior to 1986 may be joined with solder that contains lead. Lead is a known health hazard, especially for children. Laws were passed in 1985 prohibiting the use of lead in solder, but prior to that solder normally contained about 50 percent lead. The client(s) should be aware of this, especially if children will be living in this structure. Evaluating for the presence of lead in this structure is not included in this inspection. The client(s) should consider having a qualified lab test for lead, and if necessary take steps to reduce or remove lead from the water supply. Various solutions such as these may be advised:

  • Flush water taps or faucets. Do not drink water that has been sitting in the plumbing lines for more than six hours.
  • Install appropriate filters at points of use.
  • Use only cold water for cooking and drinking. Hot water dissolves lead more quickly than cold water.
  • Use bottled or distilled water.
  • Treat well water to make it less corrosive.
  • Have a qualified plumbing contractor replace supply pipes and/or plumbing components as necessary.

    For more information visit:
    32) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Comment - The waste pipe clean out plug is located in a shallow pit in the basement. There is a diamond plate cover over the pit, and a plywood cover over the diamond plate cover. The plywood cover does not provide an insect/rodent proof seal to the concrete slab, allowing for possible infestation. The cover should be replaced and/or modified to provide a positive seal to the concrete slab, effectively eliminating an entry point for pests.

    Photo 32  
    Waste pipe cleanout plug

    Photo 37  
    Metal cover concealing waste clean out plug

    Photo 38  
    Plywood cover concealing metal cover and waste clean out plug
    Fireplaces, woodstoves and chimneys Return to table of contents
    Fireplace type: Masonry
    Chimney type: Masonry
    33) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The damper in the fireplace is stuck and cannot be closed. A qualified chimney service contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    Basement Return to table of contents
    Insulation material underneath floor above: None visible
    Pier or support post material: Steel
    Beam material: Not visible-unable to determine
    Floor structure above: Solid wood joists
    34) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One electrical outlet box is not securely anchored. Wire conductors may be damaged due to repeated movement and/or tension on wires, or insulation may be damaged. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.

    Photo 27  
    Electrical box not secured to wall in basement utility room

    35) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One knock out is missing in an electrical junction box.

    Photo 28  
    Knock out missing in electrical junction box in basement utility room

    36) Safety, Evaluate, Comment - There is a circular depression in the basement floor, outside the laundry room entrance. The basement has wall to wall carpeting which could not be pulled back for further investigation. At an absolute minimum this depression is considered a trip hazard, and should be investigated.

    Photo 25  
    Depression in basement floor outside laundry room entrance

    37) Comment - The main room in the basement is finished with drywall on the walls and ceiling. The laundry room is partially finished in drywall, and has a suspended ceiling. The majority of foundation walls are concealed and could not be evaluated, as well as the floor structure above the drywall and suspended ceilings including beams and support columns. Some plumbing and all wiring running through the basement could not be evaluated either, as it is concealed as well. As a result, these items are being excluded from the scope of this inspection.
    Bathroom 1 - 2nd floor Return to table of contents

    38) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) electric receptacle did not trip when tested. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    39) Repair/Replace - The bathroom has a shower and does not have an exhaust fan installed. Moisture accumulation will occur and may damage the structure. Even if the bathroom has a window that opens, it likely does not provide adequate ventilation, especially during cold weather when the window is closed. A qualified contractor should install exhaust fans as per standard building practices where missing in bathrooms with showers.
    Bathroom 2 - Main Floor Return to table of contents

    40) Repair/Maintain - Caulk is missing and/or deteriorated where the countertop meets the back splash in wet areas, such as around sinks. Caulk should be replaced where deteriorated and/or applied where missing to prevent water damage.

    Photo 24  
    Main floor bathroom backsplash
    Interior rooms Return to table of contents

    41) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more open ground, three-pronged grounding type receptacles were found. One is in the 2nd floor bedroom, and 2 are in the the living room by the built in bookcase. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.

    Grounding type receptacles were first required in residential structures during the 1960s. Based on the age of this structure and/or the absence of 2-pronged receptacles, repairs should be made by correcting wiring circuits as necessary so all receptacles are grounded as per standard building practices. Replacement of three-pronged receptacles with 2-pronged receptacles is not an acceptable solution.

    42) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One electric receptacle in the room with the fireplace on the wall shared with the hall has reverse-polarity wiring, where the hot and neutral wires are reversed. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    43) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - A Two-pronged electric receptacle rather than a three-pronged, grounded receptacle is installed in the master bedroom closet. They are considered to be unsafe by today's standards and limit the ability to use appliances that require a ground in these rooms. Examples of appliances that require grounded receptacles include:

  • Computer hardware
  • Refrigerators
  • Freezers
  • Air conditioners
  • Clothes washers
  • Clothes dryers
  • Dishwashers
  • Kitchen food waste disposers
  • Information technology equipment
  • Sump pumps
  • Electrical aquarium equipment
  • Hand-held motor-operated tools
  • Stationary and fixed motor-operated tools
  • Light industrial motor-operated tools
  • Hedge clippers
  • Lawn mowers

    This list is not exhaustive. A qualified electrician should evaluate and install grounded receptacles as per the client(s)' needs and standard building practices.

    Photo 21  
    2 prong outlet in master bedroom closet

    44) Safety, Repair/Replace - An insufficient number of smoke alarms are installed. Additional smoke alarms should be installed as necessary so a functioning one exists in each hallway leading to bedrooms, and in each bedroom. For more information, visit
    45) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Wood flooring in one or more areas is damaged and cracked. Recommend having a qualified contractor evaluate and repair wood flooring as necessary.

    Photo 22  
    Damage to hardwood floor - 2nd floor bedroom

    Photo 23  
    Damage to hardwood floor - 2nd floor bedroom

    46) Comment - Minor cracks were found in walls in one or more areas. They do not appear to be a structural concern, but the client(s) may wish to repair these for aesthetic reasons.
    "A Home Inspection is a Non-Invasive Visual Examination of a Residential Dwelling. Components may include any combination of mechanical, structural, electrical, plumbing, or other essential systems or portions of the home, as identified and agreed to by the Client and Inspector, such as: Roof ~ Exterior ~ Basement / Foundation ~ Heating Cooling ~ Plumbing ~ Electrical ~ Fireplace ~ Attic & Insulation ~ Doors, Windows & Interior."
    From NACHI Standards of Practice

    "There are conditions that require the removal of some part of the building to observe, measure, or test otherwise concealed construction. Such intrusive inspections require some demolition and should be performed only with the permission of the owner and by experienced, qualified mechanics."
    -From the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's
    Residential Rehabilitation Inspection Guide, 2000

    A home inspector merely discloses his or her findings and reports those findings to the client. Everyone involved graduates to a state of higher learning, and the client can now make better informed decisions about the purchase of a home and its future needs of upkeep and repair.

    Four key areas of most home/building inspections cover the exterior, the basement or crawlspace areas, the attic or crawlspace areas and the living areas. Inspectors typically will spend sufficient time in all of these areas to visually look for a host of red flags, tell-tale clues and signs or defects and deficiencies.

    The inspected areas of a home/building will consist of all of the major visible and accessible electro-mechanical systems as well as the major visible and accessible structural systems and components of a building as they appeared and functioned at the time and date of the inspection.

    Inspectors typically do not provide warranties or guaranties with their inspections and reports. Buyers should therefore not rely on the inspection as any form of insurance policy against any latent, hidden, concealed or future defects and deficiencies.

    The following are also some key items that buyers should remember and consider when reviewing their inspection reports:
    * Inspections are not code compliance evaluations.
    * Inspection reports are not structural engineering reports.
    * Systems and components that are off during the inspection are not tested or reactivated.
    * Buyers should consult with and ask questions of owners and their representatives.
    * Roof inspections and their components are typically done from eaves or street level with binoculars.
    * Reports are confidential and are meant exclusively for buyers, and not brokers or owners.
    * Inspectors typically will not find each and every defect in a building, hence buyers should anticipate future typical defects and deficiencies.
    * Further evaluation by specialists is recommended for any areas showing defects/deficiencies.
    * A final walk-through inspection should be carried out the day before closing by the new owners to double check the condition of the building.

    I. An inspection is not technically exhaustive.
    II. An inspection will not identify concealed or latent defects.
    III. An inspection will not deal with aesthetic concerns or what could be deemed matters of taste, cosmetic, etc.
    IV. An inspection will not determine the suitability of the property for any use.
    V. An inspection does not determine the market value of the property or its marketability.
    VI. An inspection does not determine the advisability or inadvisability of the purchase of the inspected property.
    VII. An inspection does not determine the life expectancy of the property or any components or systems therein.
    VIII. An inspection does not include items not permanently installed.
    IX. These Standards of Practice apply only to homes with four or fewer dwelling units.

    I. The inspectors are not required to determine:
    A. Property boundary lines or encroachments.
    B. The condition of any component or system that is not readily accessible.
    C. The service life expectancy of any component or system.
    D. The size, capacity, BTU, performance, or efficiency of any component or system.
    E. The cause or reason of any condition.
    F. The cause for the need of repair or replacement of any system or component.
    G. Future conditions.
    H. The compliance with codes or regulations.
    I. The presence of evidence of rodents, animals or insects.
    J. The presence of mold, mildew or fungus.
    K. The presence of air-borne hazards.
    L. The presence of birds.
    M. The presence of other flora or fauna.
    N. The air quality.
    O. The existence of asbestos.
    P. The existence of environmental hazards.
    Q. The existence of electro-magnetic fields.
    R. The presence of hazardous materials including, but not limited to, the presence of lead in paint.
    S. Any hazardous waste conditions.
    T. Any manufacturer recalls or conformance with manufacturer installation or any information included in the consumer protection bulletin.
    U. Operating costs of systems.
    V. Replacement or repair cost estimates.
    W. The acoustical properties of any systems.
    X. Estimates of how much it will cost to run any given system.

    II. The inspectors are not required to operate:
    A. Any system that is shut down.
    B. Any system that does not function properly.
    C. Or evaluate low voltage electrical systems such as, but not limited to:
    1. Phone lines.
    2. Cable lines.
    3. Antennae.
    4. Lights.
    5. Remote controls.
    D. Any system that does not turn on with the use of normal operating controls.
    E. Any shut off valve.
    F. Any electrical disconnect or over current protection devices.
    G. Any alarm systems.
    H. Moisture meters, gas detectors or similar equipment.

    III. The inspectors are not required to:

    A. Move any personal items or other obstructions,
    such as, but not limited to:

    1. Throw rugs.
    2. Furniture.
    3. Floor or wall coverings.
    4. Ceiling tiles
    5. Window coverings.
    6. Equipment.
    7. Plants.
    8. Ice.
    9. Debris.
    10. Snow.
    11. Water.
    12. Dirt.
    13. Foliage.
    14. Pets

    B. Dismantle, open, or uncover any system or component.
    C. Enter or access any area which may, in the opinion of the inspector, to be unsafe or risk personal safety.
    D. Enter crawlspaces or other areas that are unsafe or not readily accessible.
    E. Inspect underground items such as, but not limited to, underground storage tanks or other indications of their presence, whether abandoned or actively used.
    F. Do anything which, in the inspector's opinion, is likely to be unsafe or dangerous to the inspector or others or damage property, such as, but not limited to, walking on roof surfaces, climbing ladders, entering attic spaces or negotiating with dogs.
    G. Inspect decorative items.
    H. Inspect common elements or areas in multi-unit housing.
    I. Inspect intercoms, speaker systems, radio-controlled, security devices or lawn irrigation systems.
    J. Offer guarantees or warranties.
    K. Offer or perform any engineering services.
    L. Offer or perform any trade or professional service other than home inspection.
    M. Research the history of the property, report on its potential for alteration, modification, extendibility, or its suitability for a specific or proposed use for occupancy.
    N. Determine the age of construction or installation of any system structure, or component of a building, or differentiate between original construction or subsequent additions, improvements, renovations or replacements thereto.
    O. Determine the insurability of a property.