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RDL Home Inspections

Website: http://www.reporthost.com/rdlhomeinspections
Email: rdlhomeinspectors@gmail.com
Phone: (631) 773-3413
Inspector: Ron LoCascio

 

Property Inspection Report Cowley

Client(s):  Rebecca Cowley
Property address:  34 Fort Hill Rd
Halesite NY 11743-2204
Inspection date:  Thursday, January 26, 2017

This report published on Wednesday, February 01, 2017 2:56:10 PM EST

This report is the exclusive property of this inspection company and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized persons is prohibited.
How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas.  Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type.  Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
SafetyPoses a safety hazard
Major DefectCorrection likely involves a significant expense
Repair/ReplaceRecommend repairing or replacing
Repair/MaintainRecommend repair and/or maintenance
Minor DefectCorrection likely involves only a minor expense
MaintainRecommend ongoing maintenance
EvaluateRecommend evaluation by a specialist
MonitorRecommend monitoring in the future
ServiceableItem or component is in servicable condition
CommentFor your information
Conducive conditionsConditions conducive for wood destroying insects or organisms (Wood-soil contact, shrubs in contact with siding, roof or plumbing leaks, etc.)

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at http://www.reporthost.com/glossary.asp

Table of Contents
General Information
Grounds
Exterior and Foundation
Crawl Space
Basement
Roof
Attic and Roof Structure
Garage or Carport
Electric
Plumbing / Fuel Systems
Water Heater
Heating, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC)
Fireplaces, Stoves, Chimneys and Flues
Kitchen
Bathrooms, Laundry and Sinks
Interior, Doors and Windows
Wood Destroying Organism Findings


General Information
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Time started: 11 AM
Time finished: 2:30 PM
Present during inspection: Client
Client present for discussion at end of inspection: Yes, Rebecca
Weather conditions during inspection: Rain
Temperature during inspection: Cold
Inspection fee: 400
Payment method: Cash
Type of building: Single family
Buildings inspected: One house, One detached garage
Number of residential units inspected: 1
Age of main building: 1920
Source for main building age: Client
Front of building faces: West
Main entrance faces: West
Occupied: No
Report number: 1000
Time started: 11am
Time finished: 230 pm
Client present for discussion at end of inspection: No
Number of residential units inspected: 1, 2
Source for main building age: Realtor

1) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Microbial growths were found at one or more locations in the attic, the crawl space and/or the basement. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to identify what substance or organism this staining is. However such staining is normally caused by excessively moist conditions, which in turn can be caused by plumbing or building envelope leaks and/or substandard ventilation. These conducive conditions should be corrected before making any attempts to remove or correct the staining. Normally affected materials such as drywall are removed, enclosed affected spaces are allowed to dry thoroughly, a mildewcide may be applied, and only then is drywall reinstalled. For evaluation and possible mitigation, consult with a qualified industrial hygienist or mold/moisture mitigation specialist. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?MOLDCDC
http://www.reporthost.com/?MOLDEPA
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Photo 1-1
 

2) Safety, Serviceable, Comment - Structures built prior to the mid 1980s may contain lead and/or asbestos. Lead is commonly found in paint and in some plumbing components. The EPA does not recognize newer coats of paint as encapsulating older coats of lead-based paint. Asbestos is commonly found in various building materials such as insulation, siding, and/or floor and ceiling tiles. Laws were passed in 1978 to prohibit usage of lead and asbestos, but stocks of materials containing these substances remained in use for a number of years thereafter. Both lead and asbestos are known health hazards. Evaluating for the presence of lead and/or asbestos is beyond the scope of this inspection. Any mention of these materials in this report is made as a courtesy only, and meant to refer the client to a specialist. Consult with specialists as necessary, such as industrial hygienists, professional labs and/or abatement specialists for this type of evaluation. For information on lead, asbestos and other hazardous materials in homes, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?EPA
http://www.reporthost.com/?CPSC
http://www.reporthost.com/?CDC

3) Repair/Replace - Evidence of rodent infestation was found in the form of feces and/or urine stains in the attic and/or garage. Consult with the property owner about this. A qualified person should make repairs to seal openings in the structure, set traps, and clean rodent waste as necessary. Recommend following guidelines in these Center for Disease Control articles:
http://www.reporthost.com/?SEALUP
http://www.reporthost.com/?TRAPUP
http://www.reporthost.com/?CLEANUP
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Photo 3-1
 

4) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Microbial growths were found at one or more locations in interior rooms, the attic, the basement and/or the garage. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to identify what substance or organism this staining is. However such staining is normally caused by excessively moist conditions, which in turn can be caused by plumbing or building envelope leaks and/or substandard ventilation. These conducive conditions should be corrected before making any attempts to remove or correct the staining. Normally affected materials such as drywall are removed, enclosed affected spaces are allowed to dry thoroughly, a mildewcide may be applied, and only then is drywall reinstalled. For evaluation and possible mitigation, consult with a qualified industrial hygienist or mold/moisture mitigation specialist. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?MOLDCDC
http://www.reporthost.com/?MOLDEPA

5) Evaluate, Serviceable, Comment - The natural gas service was not turned on during the inspection. The inspector operates only "normal" controls such as thermostats, stove burner knobs, and on/off switches, and does not operate gas shut-off valves or activate pilot lights. As a result, items such as but not limited to the gas supply system, gas-fired water heater(s), gas-fired forced air furnace(s), gas fireplace(s), stove(s), and range(s) weren't fully evaluated. The inspector was unable to test for gas leaks. Recommend that a qualified person make a full evaluation of the gas supply system and gas-fired appliances after the gas supply is turned back on. Any problems that are found after this evaluation should be repaired by a qualified contractor.
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Photo 5-1
 

6) Evaluate, Comment - The water service was not turned on during the inspection. The inspector operates only "normal" controls such as faucets, and does not operate shut-off valves to the water meter or house. As a result, plumbing supply, drain waste and vent lines, traps, pumps, fixtures, and some appliances such as water heaters weren't fully evaluated. The water pressure was not determined. Recommend that a qualified person make a full evaluation of the plumbing system after the water supply is turned back on. Areas below the house should be evaluated after plumbing has been operated to check for leaks. Any problems that are found after this evaluation should be repaired by a qualified plumber.

7) Comment - The client should be aware that prior to 1976, factory-built homes in America were built only according to voluntary standards. Because this building was built prior to 1976, it may be significantly substandard in safety, efficiency, quality, durability, etc. Factory-built homes since 1976 have been required to comply with federal construction and safety standards (the HUD Code). This code is administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and standardizes design, construction, energy efficiency, fire resistance, transportability, strength, and durability. It also mandates performance standards for the electrical, plumbing, air conditioning, thermal, and heating systems.

Grounds
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Limitations: Unless specifically included in the inspection, the following items and any related equipment, controls, electric systems and/or plumbing systems are excluded from this inspection: detached buildings or structures; fences and gates; retaining walls; underground drainage systems, catch basins or concealed sump pumps; swimming pools and related safety equipment, spas, hot tubs or saunas; whether deck, balcony and/or stair membranes are watertight; trees, landscaping, properties of soil, soil stability, erosion and erosion control; ponds, water features, irrigation or yard sprinkler systems; sport courts, playground, recreation or leisure equipment; areas below the exterior structures with less than 3 feet of vertical clearance; invisible fencing; sea walls, docks and boathouses; retractable awnings. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only.
Site profile: Level
Condition of driveway: Appeared serviceable
Driveway material: Asphalt
Sidewalk material: Paving stones
Condition of deck, patio and/or porch covers: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of decks, porches and/or balconies: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Deck, porch and/or balcony material: Wood
Condition of sidewalks and/or patios: Appeared serviceable

8) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Fungal rot was found at one or more guardrail posts. Recommend that a qualified person evaluate and repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.
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Photo 8-1
 

9) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more decks or porches were unstable due to missing or substandard bracing, or lack of attachment to main structure. This is a safety hazard since severe movement may cause the decks or porches to collapse. A qualified contractor should repair as necessary.

10) Safety, Repair/Replace - Guardrails at one or more locations with drop-offs higher than 30 inches were too low. This poses a fall hazard. Guardrails should be at least 36 inches in height. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace or repair guardrails per standard building practices.
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Photo 10-1
 

11) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Cracks, holes, settlement, heaving and/or deterioration resulting in trip hazards were found in the driveway, For safety reasons, recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary.
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Photo 11-1
 

12) Safety, Repair/Maintain - Guardrails at one or more locations with drop-offs higher than 30 inches were , and pose a fall hazard. Recommend that a qualified person repair guardrails as necessary.

13) Safety, Maintain - Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines was in contact with or less than 10 feet from one or more chimney or flue outlets. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire. Vegetation should be pruned and/or removed as necessary to maintain a 10 foot clearance between it and all chimney or flue outlets.
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Photo 13-1
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Photo 13-2

14) Repair/Replace, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Soil was in contact with one or more wooden deck, porch or balcony support posts. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying organisms. Even if posts are made of treated wood, the cut ends below soil may not have been field treated. Recommend grading soil or repairing as necessary to prevent wood-soil contact.
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Photo 14-1
 

15) Repair/Replace, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Soil was in contact with or too close to wooden deck, porch or balcony substructure components. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Clearances to soil should be as follows:
  • 12 inches below beams
  • 18 inches below joists
  • 6 inches below support post bases and other wood components
Pressure treated wood is typically rated for 25 year contact with soil, but the cut ends hidden below grade may not have been treated and can rot quickly. Support posts should be elevated above grade on concrete piers or footings, and be separated from the concrete by metal brackets or an impermeable membrane such as shingle scraps. For other components, soil should be graded and/or removed to maintain these clearances if possible. Otherwise, replacing non-treated wood with treated wood, or installing borate-based products such as Impel rods may help to prevent infestation and damage. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?IMPEL

16) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The roof surface material on one or more deck, patio or porch covers was at or beyond its service life. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace roof surfaces as necessary.

17) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Fungal rot was found in support posts at one or more decks or porches. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.

18) Repair/Maintain, Maintain, Evaluate - Wooden deck or porch surfaces were overdue for normal maintenance. Recommend that a qualified person clean and preserve as necessary. Where decks have been coated with a finish such as opaque stains or paint, it may be too difficult to strip the finish and apply anything but paint or opaque stain. Where transparent stain or penetrating oil has been applied in the past, recommend that a penetrating oil be used. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?PENOIL
http://www.reporthost.com/?DKMAIN

19) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - The soil or grading sloped down towards building perimeters in one or more areas. This can result in water accumulating around building foundations or underneath buildings. It can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend grading soil so it slopes down and away from buildings with a slope of at least 1 inch per horizontal foot for at least 6 feet out from buildings.

20) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Pavement sloped down towards building perimeters in one or more areas. Based on observations made during the inspection, significant amounts of water appear to have accumulated around building foundations or under buildings as a result. This can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, by installing drain(s) or removing old pavement and installing new.

21) Repair/Maintain - Fungal rot was found in support posts at one or more structures covering decks, patios and/or porches. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.

22) Minor Defect, Evaluate - Minor deterioration (e.g. cracks, holes, settlement, heaving) was found in the driveway, but no trip hazards were found. The client may wish to have repairs made for cosmetic reasons.

23) Maintain - Decking boards were installed with little or no gap between them. Organic debris such as leaves or evergreen needles may accumulate in between the boards will likely cause rot or deterioration. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. At a minimum, keep decking boards clean in the future. Ideally boards should be reinstalled with a 3/8 inch gap between them.

24) Evaluate - Flashing appeared to be missing from above one or more deck or porch ledger boards, or could not be verified. Missing flashing at this location can cause moisture to accumulate between the ledger boards and the building. Fungal rot may occur in this area and cause the ledger board fasteners to fail. The deck may separate from the building in this event. This is a potential safety hazard. Recommend that a qualified contractor install flashing above ledger boards per standard building practices. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?LB
http://www.reporthost.com/?SD

25) Monitor - The condition of the drain(s) at the base(s) of stairs is unknown. It's beyond the scope of a home inspection to determine if these drains flow adequately during prolonged periods of heavy rain. Recommend consulting with the property owners about this if possible, and monitoring drains in the future. If water is found to accumulate, then recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, by cleaning, repairing or installing drains.

26) - Ledger boards for one or more decks, balconies or porches appeared to be attached with nails only. This method of attachment is substandard and may result in such structures separating from the main building. This is a potential safety hazard. Modern standards call for ledger boards to be installed with 1/2 inch lag screws or bolts into solid backing, and brackets such as Simpson Strong Tie DTT2 brackets and threaded rod, connecting interior and exterior joists. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?LB
http://www.reporthost.com/?SD

Exterior and Foundation
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Limitations: The inspector performs a visual inspection of accessible components or systems at the exterior. Items excluded from this inspection include below-grade foundation walls and footings; foundations, exterior surfaces or components obscured by vegetation, stored items or debris; wall structures obscured by coverings such as siding or trim. Some items such as siding, trim, soffits, vents and windows are often high off the ground, and may be viewed using binoculars from the ground or from a ladder. This may limit a full evaluation. Regarding foundations, some amount of cracking is normal in concrete slabs and foundation walls due to shrinkage and drying. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of seismic reinforcement.
Wall inspection method: Viewed from ground
Condition of wall exterior covering: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Apparent wall structure: Concrete block
Wall covering: Stucco
Condition of foundation and footings: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Apparent foundation type: Crawl space, Unfinished basement, Concrete garage slab
Foundation/stem wall material: Poured in place concrete
Footing material (under foundation stem wall): Poured in place concrete
Apparent wall structure: Wood frame
Wall covering: Wood
Footing material (under foundation stem wall): Not determined (inaccessible or obscured)

27) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more exhaust duct end caps were missing. Their purpose is to prevent unconditioned air from entering the building, and keep out birds, rodents and bugs. Blocked ducts can cause fan motors and/or clothes dryers to overheat and can pose a fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified person repair or replace caps as necessary.
Photo
Photo 27-1
 

28) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more large trees were very close to the foundation. Tree roots can cause significant structural damage to foundations, or may have already caused damage (see other comments in this report). Recommend that a qualified tree service contractor or certified arborist remove trees as necessary to prevent damage to foundations.

29) Safety, Maintain, Evaluate - Trees were in contact with or were close to the building at one or more locations. Damage to the building can occur, especially during high winds, or may have already occurred (see other comments in this report). Recommend that a qualified tree service contractor or certified arborist remove trees as necessary to prevent damage to the building exterior.

30) Major Defect, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - most sections of siding and/or trim were deteriorated, warped and/or missing. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install siding or trim as necessary.
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Photo 30-1
Breech in siding
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Photo 30-2

31) Major Defect, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The masonry (brick or stone) veneer was deteriorated or damaged in some areas. Where cracks or openings are exposed, water can enter the wall structure causing mold, fungal growth and structural damage. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. For example, by repointing mortar or replacing broken or missing masonry.
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Photo 31-1
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Photo 31-2

32) Major Defect, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Major cracks (more than 3/4-inch wide) and/or leaning was found in the foundation. These appear to be a structural concern and may indicate that settlement is ongoing. Recommend hiring qualified contractors and/or engineers as necessary for further evaluation. Such contractors may include:
  • Foundation repair contractors who may prescribe repairs, and will give cost estimates for such repairs
  • Masonry contractors who repair and/or replace brick veneer
  • Geotechnical engineers who attempt to determine if settlement is ongoing, and the cause of the settlement
  • Structural engineers who determine if repairs are necessary, and prescribe those repairs
Repairs should be made by a qualified contractor.

33) Major Defect, Maintain, Monitor, Comment - The masonry (brick or stone) veneer extended below the soil at one or more exterior walls. Masonry veneers should be installed so the bottom edge is at least a few inches above the soil so that any water accumulated inside the wall structure can drain from weep holes, and so termites don't enter the structure through mortar joints or cracks in the veneer. If soil, decorative bark, etc. has been back-filled against the veneer, it should be graded or removed as necessary to expose weep holes (if they're installed) and to maintain a few inches of clearance between the veneer and the soil below. Otherwise, the client should at least be aware of this potential for water and insect intrusion, and monitor these walls inside and out for any signs of accumulated moisture in the future. If damage occurs, recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?MVBG

34) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Comment - Major cracks or areas with damage were found in the masonry (brick or stone) veneer. This may indicate that settlement has occurred and/or that the foundation has failed. At a minimum, a qualified contractor should repair the damaged masonry veneer to prevent water from entering wall cavities and causing mold, fungal rot or structural damage. Consult with a qualified engineer to determine if foundation repairs are needed, and/or if settlement is ongoing. Any such repairs should be made by a qualified contractor. Such contractors and engineers may include:
  • Foundation repair contractors who may prescribe repairs, and will give cost estimates for prescribed repairs
  • Masonry contractors who repair and/or replace brick veneer
  • Geotechnical engineers who attempt to determine if settlement is ongoing, and the cause of the settlement
  • Structural engineers who determine if repairs are necessary, and prescribe those repairs

35) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Fungal rot was found at one or more window sills, vent frames, soffits, gable ends and/or exposed beams. Conducive conditions for rot should be corrected (e.g. wood-soil contact, reverse perimeter slope). Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.
Photo
Photo 35-1
Photo
Photo 35-2

36) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Cracks, deterioration and/or damage were found in one or more areas of the exterior insulation and finishing system (EIFS) exterior finish. In damp climates, moisture can enter cracks or damaged areas and further deteriorate the finish. Also, the wall behind the finish can become damaged from moisture intrusion. Note that areas behind the finish are inaccessible and excluded from this inspection. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and make repairs and/or replace the EIFS siding as necessary.
Photo
Photo 36-1
 

37) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Flashing at one or more locations was substandard and/or loose. Leaks can occur as a result. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install flashing as necessary, and per standard building practices.
Photo
Photo 37-1
 

38) Repair/Replace, Comment - Flashing at one or more locations was deteriorated. Leaks can occur as a result. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install flashing as necessary, and per standard building practices.

39) Repair/Replace - One or more sections of horizontal trim boards had no "Z" flashing installed above them where they met siding. "Z" flashing should be installed above these boards to reduce the chance of leaks between the trim and siding. Without this flashing, caulk and paint must be diligently maintained, or water can enter wall cavities and cause rot and possible structural damage. Recommend that a qualified contractor install flashing above horizontal trim boards where missing and per standard building practices. Note that when trim or siding is removed to install flashing, damaged wood may be found and additional repairs may be needed.

40) Repair/Replace - Many sections of siding and/or trim were deteriorated. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install siding or trim as necessary.

41) Repair/Replace - Fungal rot was found at one or more sections of siding or trim, window sills, window frames and/or fascia. Conducive conditions for rot should be corrected (e.g. wood-soil contact, reverse perimeter slope). Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.

42) Repair/Maintain, Maintain, Evaluate - Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines was in contact with or close to the building exterior. Vegetation can serve as a pathway for wood-destroying insects and can retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend pruning, moving or removing vegetation as necessary to maintain at least 6 inches of space between it and the building exterior. A 1-foot clearance is better.

43) Repair/Maintain, Maintain, Evaluate - The paint or stain finish in some areas was failing (e.g. peeling, faded, worn, thinning). Siding and trim with a failing finish can be damaged by moisture. Recommend that a qualified contractor prep (e.g. clean, scrape, sand, prime, caulk) and repaint or restain the building exterior where necessary and per standard building practices. Any repairs needed to the siding or trim should be made prior to this.

44) Repair/Maintain, Maintain, Comment - Caulk was missing and/or deteriorated in some areas. For example, around windows, around doors, at siding butt joints, at siding-trim junctions and/or at wall penetrations. Recommend that a qualified person renew or install caulk as necessary. Where gaps are wider than 1/4 inch, an appropriate material other than caulk should be used. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?CAULK

45) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate, Monitor - One or more windows or doors were installed with no "drip cap" or "Z" flashings installed above them. Better building practices call for such flashings, which greatly reduce the chance of leaks above windows and doors. Without this flashing, caulk and paint must be maintained or water can enter the wall structure and cause rot and possible structural damage. Depending on the exposure (e.g. roof overhang, height of exterior wall, direction of prevailing rain) this may or may not be an issue. The client should monitor these areas in the future and maintain caulk and paint as necessary. Consult with a qualified contractor about installing flashings where needed, and per standard building practices. Note that when trim or siding is removed to install flashing, damaged wood may be found and additional repairs may be needed.

46) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate, Conducive conditions - Clearances between the cement fiber siding and surfaces below were too small. Moisture can penetrate and damage the siding as a result, and the manufacturer's warranty can be voided. Normally, minimum clearances below the bottom of cement fiber siding and trim include:
  • 6 inches to the finished grade below
  • 2 inches to paths, steps, driveways or deck surfaces below
  • 2 inches to roof surfaces below
  • 1/4 inch to horizontal flashing below, with no caulk applied
Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per the siding/trim manufacturer's specifications. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?HARDIPLANK

47) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Soil was in contact with or less than 6 inches from siding, trim or structural wood. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend grading or removing soil as necessary to maintain a 6-inch clearance. If not possible, then recommend replacing untreated wood with pressure-treated wood. Installation of borate-based products such as Impel rods can also reduce the likelihood of rot or infestation if soil cannot be removed. Note that damage from fungal rot and/or insects may be found when soil is removed, and repairs may be necessary.

48) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - This property was clad with composition wood-fiber siding. Various manufacturers (e.g. Louisiana Pacific, Weyerhaeuser and Masonite) have produced this type of siding, which is made from oriented strand board (OSB) or "hardboard." It is prone to deteriorate and/or fail prematurely due to moisture penetration, especially when the paint coating is substandard or has not been maintained. Failure is typically visible in the form of swelling, cracking, buckling, wafer pops, delamination and fungal growth.

Some areas of siding on this structure showed symptoms described above and need replacement and/or maintenance. Some manufacturers (e.g. Louisiana Pacific) recommend a repair process for this siding where affected areas are sealed with Permanizer Plus, a flexible primer made by Pittsburgh Paint, followed by two coats of 100% acrylic latex paint. This sealant must be applied to the bottom edges using a brush. The face of the siding can be sprayed. The Permanizer Plus sealer isn't required for edges that aren't swollen, cracked or deteriorated, but the acrylic latex should still be brushed on these edges.

Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and replace siding as necessary, and/or seal and repaint as necessary. Repairs should be made per the siding and/or sealant manufacturer's installation instructions, and per standard building practices.

For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?PERMPLUS
http://www.reporthost.com/?COMPSDNG

49) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Cracks, deterioration and/or damage were found in one or more areas of the exterior stucco finish. In damp climates, moisture can enter cracks or damaged areas and further deteriorate the stucco. Also the wall behind the stucco can become damaged from moisture. Note that areas behind the stucco are inaccessible and excluded from this inspection. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair or replace stucco as necessary.

50) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - Moderate cracks (1/8 inch - 3/4 inch) and/or leaning were found in the foundation. This may be a structural concern or an indication that settlement is ongoing. The client should consider hiring qualified contractors and/or engineers as necessary for further evaluation. Such contractors may include:
  • Foundation repair contractors who may prescribe repairs, and will give cost estimates for such repairs
  • Masonry contractors who repair and/or replace brick veneer
  • Geotechnical engineers who attempt to determine if settlement is ongoing, and the cause of the settlement
  • Structural engineers who determine if repairs are necessary, and prescribe those repairs
At a minimum, recommend sealing cracks to prevent water infiltration. Numerous products exist to seal such cracks including hydraulic cement, resilient caulks and epoxy sealants.

51) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - One or more footings were substandard or non-standard (e.g. stones, logs, masonry debris). Settlement can occur as a result. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair per standard building practices.

52) Repair/Maintain - One or more holes or gaps were found in siding or trim. Vermin, insects or water may enter the structure. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

53) Repair/Maintain - One or more areas where wood siding or trim was installed above stone or masonry had no flashing below the wood. Flashing should be installed between masonry or stone and wood trim or siding above to keep water from accumulating at that gap. Without the flashing, the wood trim or siding is prone to fungal rot and deterioration. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified contractor install flashing where missing and per standard building practices. Note that when trim or siding is removed to install flashing, damaged wood may be found and additional repairs may be needed.

54) Repair/Maintain - One or more holes or gaps were found in the foundation. Vermin may enter the building substructure as a result. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

55) Repair/Maintain - Soil was in contact with or less than 6 inches from siding or trim. Regardless of what material is used for siding, it should not be in contact with the soil. If made of wood, siding or trim will eventually rot. For other materials, ground or surface water can infiltrate siding or trim and cause damage to the wall structure. Wood-destroying insects are likely to infest and damage the wall structure. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend grading or removing soil as necessary to maintain a 6-inch clearance. Note that damage from fungal rot and/or insects may be found when soil is removed, and repairs may be necessary.

56) Maintain, Evaluate - The paint or stain finish over much of the entire structure was failing (e.g. peeling, faded, worn, thinning). Siding and trim with a failing finish can be damaged by moisture. Recommend that a qualified contractor prep (e.g. clean, scrape, sand, prime, caulk) and repaint or restain the entire building exterior per standard building practices. Any repairs needed to the siding or trim should be made prior to this.

57) Maintain, Evaluate - Some areas of the exterior paint or stain finish were incomplete and/or substandard (e.g. primed only, too few coats). Recommend that a qualified contractor prep (e.g. clean, scrape, sand, prime, caulk) and repaint or restain the exterior where necessary and per standard building practices. Any repairs needed to the siding or trim should be made prior to this.

58) Maintain - Caulk was missing and/or deteriorated in some areas. For example, around windows, around doors and/or at siding-trim junctions. Recommend that a qualified person renew or install caulk as necessary. Where gaps are wider than 1/4 inch, an appropriate material other than caulk should be used. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?CAULK

59) Evaluate - Some or all of the exterior finish appeared to be exterior insulation and finishing system (EIFS). This is a synthetic stucco that is prone to failure, especially in damp climates. Typically, cracks occur in the finish and allow moisture to penetrate the foam backing. This often produces fungal rot which causes structural damage to wooden wall structures behind the EIFS. It may also result in mold growth.

The client should understand that this is a visual inspection only. No destructive testing or probing is performed, and the inspector cannot determine the condition of materials inside or behind the EIFS finish. It is common practice for EIFS to be evaluated by a certified EIFS specialist, even when no obvious signs of deterioration or substandard installation are found. If concerned, have a certified specialist evaluate further to determine if repairs are needed. Any repairs needed should be made by a qualified contractor. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?EIFS

60) Evaluate - One or more isolated footings or sections of footings or foundations were undermined. Soil has either eroded out from underneath or has been excavated too close to these areas. Standard building practices typically require undisturbed soil to extend at least a foot horizontally out from the edge of footings and then slope down no more steeply than 45 degrees. Otherwise soil can collapse from beneath the footing(s). Recommend that a qualified contractor or engineer evaluate and determine what repairs if any should be made. If repairs are needed, a qualified contractor should make them.

61) Evaluate - Footings appeared to be missing from below the foundation. While this is not unusual in some older homes, Poured-in-place concrete footings should be installed below foundations. Without footings, foundations are prone to settlement and subsequent failure. Consult with a qualified structural and/or geotechnical engineer to determine if repairs are needed. Repairs should be made by a qualified contractor and per standard building practices.

Crawl Space
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Limitations: Structural components such as joists and beams, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by under-floor insulation are excluded from this inspection. The inspector does not determine if support posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing.

The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that water will not accumulate in the crawl spaces in the future. Complete access to all crawl space areas during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so.

The inspector attempts to locate all crawl space access points and areas. Access points may be obscured or otherwise hidden by furnishings or stored items. In such cases, the client should ask the property owner where all access points are that are not described in this inspection, and have those areas inspected. Note that crawl space areas should be checked at least annually for water intrusion, plumbing leaks and pest activity.
Crawl space inspection method: Viewed from hatch(es)
Condition of floor substructure above: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Pier or support post material: Wood
Beam material: Solid wood
Floor structure above: Solid wood joists
Condition of insulation underneath floor above: Not applicable, none installed
Insulation material underneath floor above: None visible
Condition of vapor barrier: Not determined (inaccessible or obscured)
Vapor barrier present: Not determined (inaccessible or obscured)
Condition of crawl space ventilation: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Ventilation type: without vents

62) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more support posts were constructed of multiple pieces of lumber instead of one continuous piece. Such posts lack strength and are subject to collapse during an earthquake. A single, solid piece of lumber that extends from the footing below to the beam above should be used for wooden support posts. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices. For example, by replacing such posts with a single piece of adequately-sized dimensional lumber.

63) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more joists were notched or had holes cut in them in such a way as to significantly weaken the joist(s). General guidelines for modifying joists made of dimensional lumber include these restrictions:
  • Notches at ends should not exceed 1/4 of the joist's depth.
  • Other notches should not exceed 1/6 of the joist's depth.
  • Notches should not be cut in the middle 1/3 of the joist's span.
  • Notches should not be longer than 1/3 of the joist's depth.
  • Holes must be 2 inches or more from the joist's edge.
  • The maximum hole diameter is 1/3 of the depth of the joist.
Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary, and per standard building practices.

64) Major Defect, Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Comment - Fungal rot was found at one or more joists and/or beams. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.

65) Major Defect, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - One or more support posts appear to have been added since the original construction based on the inspector's observations. Such posts may have been added to reduce bounce or sag in floors above. Consult with the property owner about this, or have a qualified contractor evaluate and make repairs if necessary.

66) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Monitor - Evidence of prior water intrusion or accumulation was found in one or more sections of the crawl space. For example, sediment stains on the vapor barrier or foundation, and/or efflorescence on the foundation. Accumulated water is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms and should not be present in the crawl space. Recommend that the client review any disclosure statements available and ask the property owner about past accumulation of water in the crawl space. The crawl space should be monitored in the future for accumulated water, especially after heavy and/or prolonged periods of rain. If water is found to accumulate, then recommend that a qualified contractor who specializes in drainage issues evaluate and repair as necessary. Typical repairs for preventing water from accumulating in crawl spaces include:
  • Repairing, installing or improving rain run-off systems (gutters, downspouts and extensions or drain lines)
  • Improving perimeter grading
  • Repairing, installing or improving underground footing and/or curtain drains
Ideally, water should not enter crawl spaces, but if water must be controlled after it enters the crawl space, then typical repairs include installing trenches, gravity drains and/or sump pump(s) in the crawl space.

67) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more indoor crawl space access hatches or doors were not insulated, or had substandard insulation. Recommend installing insulation as necessary and per current standards at hatches or doors for better energy efficiency.

68) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Fungal rot was found at one or more sill plates, joists and/or sections of floor sheathing. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.

69) Repair/Replace - Evidence of rodent infestation was found in the form of feces and/or urine stains in the attic, crawl space, basement and/or interior rooms. Consult with the property owner about this. A qualified person should make repairs to seal openings in the structure, set traps, and clean rodent waste as necessary. Recommend following guidelines in these Center for Disease Control articles:
http://www.reporthost.com/?SEALUP
http://www.reporthost.com/?TRAPUP
http://www.reporthost.com/?CLEANUP

70) Repair/Replace - No under-floor insulation was installed in the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation for better energy efficiency and per standard building practices. Typically this is R-19 rated fiberglass batt with the attached facing installed against the warm (floor) side.

71) Repair/Replace - No vapor barrier was installed in the crawl space. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms due to the likelihood of water evaporating from the soil below up into the structure. A 6 mil black plastic sheet should be placed over all exposed soil with seams overlapped to 24 inches, and not in contact with any wood structural components. The sheeting should be held in place with bricks or stones, not wood. Recommend that a qualified contractor install a vapor barrier per standard building practices.

72) Repair/Replace - Ventilation for the crawl space was substandard. There were no vents visible. This can result in high levels of moisture in the crawl space and is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. One square foot of vent area should be installed for 150 square feet of crawl space. Vents should be evenly distributed and within a few feet of corners to promote air circulation. Recommend that a qualified contractor install or improve venting per standard building practices.

73) Repair/Replace - One or more crawl space vents were below grade, and either no wells were installed, or wells were substandard. Vent wells should be installed when vents are at or near grade to prevent debris from blocking vents and/or water from entering vents. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person install, replace or repair vent wells per standard building practices.

74) Repair/Replace - Evidence of rodent infestation was found in the form of feces and/or urine stains in the . Consult with the property owner about this. A qualified person should make repairs to seal openings in the structure, set traps, and clean rodent waste as necessary. Recommend following guidelines in these Center for Disease Control articles:
http://www.reporthost.com/?SEALUP
http://www.reporthost.com/?TRAPUP
http://www.reporthost.com/?CLEANUP

75) Repair/Replace - No under-floor insulation was installed in the crawl space and/or unheated basement. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation for better energy efficiency and per standard building practices. Typically this is R-19 rated fiberglass batt with the attached facing installed against the warm (floor) side.

76) Repair/Replace - One or more exhaust ducts (e.g. bathroom fan, clothes dryer) in the unheated basement were not insulated. This can result in moisture forming inside the duct or "sweating" on the outside of the duct depending on the surrounding air temperature and the exhaust air temperature. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation on exhaust ducts per standard building practices (typically R-4 rating), or replace uninsulated ducts with insulated ducts.

77) Repair/Maintain - One or more wooden substructure components (e.g. posts, joists, beams) had tree bark on them. This is sometimes found on older buildings, but sawed, dimensional lumber should be used, or bark should be stripped off of timbers or logs. Tree bark often contains wood-destroying insects and is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. For example, by replacing bark-covered wood, or by removing bark.

78) Repair/Maintain - Under-floor insulation was falling down and/or damaged in some areas. This may result in reduced energy efficiency. Recommend that a qualified person repair or replace insulation as necessary.

79) Repair/Maintain - The vapor barrier in many areas of the crawl space was deteriorated and/or missing. Soil was exposed as a result and will allow water from the soil to evaporate up into the structure. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. A 6 mil black plastic sheet should be placed over all exposed soil with seams overlapped to 24 inches, and not in contact with any wood structural components. The sheeting should be held in place with bricks or stones, not wood. Recommend that a qualified person replace or repair the vapor barrier where necessary and per standard building practices.

80) Repair/Maintain - One or more exhaust ducts (e.g. bathroom fan, clothes dryer) in the basement have come apart, were loose or have fallen down. This can result in increased moisture levels inside the structure and is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person make permanent repairs as necessary.

81) Repair/Maintain - One or more indoor crawl space access hatches were missing, damaged, deteriorated or substandard. Crawl space air laden with dust or insulation fibers can enter living spaces, and/or pets can enter the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person replace, install or repair hatches where necessary. Each hatch should be insulated and sealed with weatherstripping.

82) Evaluate - One or more indoor crawl space access hatches or doors were not insulated, or had substandard insulation. Weatherstripping was also missing or substandard. Recommend installing weatherstripping and insulation per current standards at hatches or doors for better energy efficiency and to prevent dust or odor-laden air from the crawl space entering living spaces.

83) - One or more crawl space access hatches or doors were too small to allow easy access. Such hatches through walls should be at least 16 x 24 inches in size, and hatches in the floor should be at least 18 x 24 inches in size. Recommend that a qualified person modify crawl space access points per standard building practices.

Basement
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Limitations: Structural components such as joists and beams, and other components such as piping, wiring and/or ducting that are obscured by under-floor insulation are also excluded from this inspection. Note that the inspector does not determine if support posts, columns, beams, joists, studs, trusses, etc. are of adequate size, spanning or spacing.

The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that water will not accumulate in the basement in the future. Access to the basement during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. heavy rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. The inspector does not determine the adequacy of basement floor or stairwell drains, or determine if such drains are clear or clogged.

Note that all basement areas should be checked periodically for water intrusion, plumbing leaks and pest activity.
Condition of exterior entry doors: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Exterior door material: Wood, Glass panel
Floor structure above: Solid wood joists
Condition of insulation underneath floor above: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Insulation material underneath floor above: Not determined (inaccessible or obscured)
Condition of floor substructure above: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Pier or support post material: Wood
Beam material: Solid wood

84) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The risers for stairs at one or more locations varied in height and pose a fall or trip hazard. Risers within the same flight of stairs should vary by no more than 3/8 inch. At a minimum, be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices.

85) Safety, Repair/Replace - Risers for stairs at one or more locations were higher than 7 3/4 inches and posed a fall or trip hazard. Risers should be 7 3/4 inches or shorter. At a minimum, be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices.

86) Safety, Repair/Replace - Handrails at one or more flights of stairs were too low or too high and pose a fall hazard. Handrails should be located at least 34 inches and at most 38 inches above the nose of each tread/riser. Recommend that a qualified person repair per standard building practices.

87) Major Defect, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Standing water was found in one or more sections of the basement. Accumulated water can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms and should not be present in the basement. Review any disclosure statements available and ask the property owner about past accumulation of water in the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified contractor who specializes in drainage issues evaluate and repair as necessary. Typical repairs for preventing water from accumulating in basements include:
  • Repairing, installing or improving rain run-off systems (gutters, downspouts and extensions or drain lines)
  • Improving perimeter grading
  • Repairing, installing or improving underground footing and/or curtain drains
Ideally, water should not enter basements, but if water must be controlled after it enters the basement, then typical repairs include installing a sump pump.

88) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Monitor - Evidence of prior water intrusion was found in one or more sections of the basement. For example, water stains or rust at support post bases, efflorescence on the foundation, etc. Accumulated water is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms and should not be present in the basement. Recommend reviewing any disclosure statements available and ask the property owner about past accumulation of water in the basement. The basement should be monitored in the future for accumulated water, especially after heavy and/or prolonged periods of rain. If water is found to accumulate, then recommend that a qualified contractor who specializes in drainage issues evaluate and repair as necessary. Typical repairs for preventing water from accumulating in basements include:
  • Repairing, installing or improving rain run-off systems (gutters, downspouts and extensions or drain lines)
  • Improving perimeter grading
  • Repairing, installing or improving underground footing and/or curtain drains
Ideally, water should not enter basements, but if water must be controlled after it enters the basement, then typical repairs include installing a sump pump.

89) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Fungal rot was found at one or more support posts, joists and/or sections of floor sheathing. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.

90) Repair/Replace - One or more exhaust ducts (e.g. bathroom fan, clothes dryer) in the were not insulated. This can result in moisture forming inside the duct or "sweating" on the outside of the duct depending on the surrounding air temperature and the exhaust air temperature. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation on exhaust ducts per standard building practices (typically R-4 rating), or replace uninsulated ducts with insulated ducts.

91) Repair/Replace - Fungal rot was found at one or more exterior door jambs. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.

92) Repair/Replace - One or more exterior doors were difficult to open or close, were difficult to latch and/or were sticking. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

93) Repair/Replace - One or more joists were notched or had holes cut in them in such a way as to significantly weaken the joist(s). General guidelines for modifying joists made of dimensional lumber include these restrictions:
  • Notches at ends should not exceed 1/4 of the joist's depth.
  • Other notches should not exceed 1/6 of the joist's depth.
  • Notches should not be cut in the middle 1/3 of the joist's span.
  • Notches should not be longer than 1/3 of the joist's depth.
  • Holes must be 2 inches or more from the joist's edge.
  • The maximum hole diameter is 1/3 of the depth of the joist.
Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary, and per standard building practices.

94) Repair/Replace - No under-floor insulation was installed in the crawl space. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation for better energy efficiency and per standard building practices. Typically this is R-19 rated fiberglass batt with the attached facing installed against the warm (floor) side.

95) Repair/Replace - One or more exhaust ducts (e.g. bathroom fan, clothes dryer) in the unheated basement were not insulated. This can result in moisture forming inside the duct or "sweating" on the outside of the duct depending on the surrounding air temperature and the exhaust air temperature. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation on exhaust ducts per standard building practices (typically R-4 rating), or replace uninsulated ducts with insulated ducts.

96) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - One or more support posts appear to have been added since the original construction based on the inspector's observations. Such posts may have been added to reduce bounce or sag in floors above. Consult with the property owner about this, or have a qualified contractor evaluate and make repairs if necessary.

97) Repair/Maintain - One or more joists were spliced with "sistered" lumber, and no support post was installed below. Sistering is a common repair practice where additional pieces of lumber are attached to spliced pieces. Such repairs result in a component that's weaker than the original joist and should be reinforced with a support post below. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices. For example, by installing support posts and footing below.

98) Evaluate, Monitor - The basement exterior entry door appeared to be leaking, or has leaked in the past based on visible stains. At a minimum, monitor this door in the future to determine if active leaks exist. If leaks are confirmed, a qualified person should repair as necessary to prevent water from infiltrating the basement. Note that leaks are a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms.

99) Comment - One or more exterior doors had minor damage and/or deterioration. Although serviceable, the client may wish to repair or replace such doors for appearances' sake.

Roof
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Limitations: The following items or areas are not included in this inspection: areas that could not be traversed or viewed clearly due to lack of access; solar roofing components. Any comments made regarding these items are made as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on the roof surface material, nor guarantee that leaks have not occurred in the roof surface, skylights or roof penetrations in the past. Regarding roof leaks, only active leaks, visible evidence of possible sources of leaks, and evidence of past leaks observed during the inspection are reported on as part of this inspection. The inspector does not guarantee or warrant that leaks will not occur in the future. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. Occupants should monitor the condition of roofing materials in the future. For older roofs, recommend that a professional inspect the roof surface, flashings, appurtenances, etc. annually and maintain/repair as might be required. If needed, the roofer should enter attic space(s). Regarding the roof drainage system, unless the inspection was conducted during and after prolonged periods of heavy rain, the inspector was unable to determine if gutters, downspouts and extensions perform adequately or are leak-free.
Roof inspection method: Viewed from ground with binoculars
Condition of roof surface material: Near, at or beyond service life
Roof surface material: Asphalt or fiberglass composition shingles
Roof type: Gable
Apparent number of layers of roof surface material: Multiple
Condition of exposed flashings: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Condition of gutters, downspouts and extensions: Appeared serviceable

100) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Lead flashing at one or more plumbing vent pipes was improperly installed. For example, shorter than the vent pipe or not bent over the edge of the vent pipe. Properly installed, the flashing should extend up and over the top edge of the pipe, and be bent down into the pipe. Otherwise, rain water can flow between the pipe and the flashing, resulting in leaks. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair per standard building practices.

101) Major Defect, Evaluate - The roof surface appeared to be near the end of its service life and will likely need replacing in the near future even if repairs are made now. Recommend discussing replacement options with a qualified contractor, and budgeting for a replacement roof surface in the near future. The client may also wish to consider having a qualified contractor attempt to issue a "5 year roof certificate."

102) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Substandard repairs were found at one or more locations on the roof surface. Leaks can occur as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair per standard building practices.

103) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Flashings at the base of one or more chimneys were deteriorated. Leaks can occur as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.

104) Repair/Replace, Monitor - This asphalt or fiberglass composition roof surface appeared to have two or more layers of shingles. Additional layers of composition shingles typically last only 80% of their rated life, and the shingle manufacturer's warranty may be voided. The client should be aware that all layers of roofing will need to be removed when this roof surface needs replacing.

105) Repair/Replace - Fungal rot or significant water damage was found at one or more roof areas at fascia boards. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. For example, by replacing all rotten wood, priming and painting new wood and installing flashing.

106) Repair/Replace - Fungal rot or significant water damage was found at one or more roof areas at fascia boards and/or soffits. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary. For example, by replacing all rotten wood, priming and painting new wood and installing flashing.

107) Repair/Maintain - One or more roof flashings were loose. Leaks can occur as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

108) Minor Defect, Evaluate - Extensions such as splash blocks or drain pipes for one or more downspouts were missing. Water can accumulate around the building foundation or inside crawl spaces or basements as a result. Recommend that a qualified person install, replace or repair extensions as necessary so rainwater drains away from the structure.

109) Monitor - Stains were found on one or more gutters that indicate past leaks have occurred. However, the inspector was unable to verify that the gutters do or don't leak because of lack of recent rainfall. Monitor the gutters in the future while it's raining to determine if gutters leak. If they do, then recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary to prevent water from coming in contact with the building or accumulating around the building foundation.

110) Serviceable - One or more gutters and/or downspouts were . Rainwater can come in contact with the building exterior or accumulate around the building foundation as a result. This is a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

111) Comment - The roof structure below the shingles or shakes was "skip sheathed," where boards (typically 1x4 inches or 1x6 inches) with wide gaps between them were installed below the shingles, instead of plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) sheathing. Skip sheathing is commonly done with wood shake or shingle surfaces. The client should be aware that if a new composition shingle roof is installed, all existing layers of roofing materials will need to be removed, and continuous sheeting such as plywood or OSB will need to be installed before installing the shingles. This is a significant additional expense.

Attic and Roof Structure
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Limitations: The following items or areas are not included in this inspection: areas that could not be traversed or viewed clearly due to lack of access; areas and components obscured by insulation. Any comments made regarding these items are made as a courtesy only. The inspector does not determine the adequacy of the attic ventilation system. Complete access to all roof and attic spaces during all seasons and during prolonged periods of all types of weather conditions (e.g. high/low temperatures, high/low humidity, high wind and rain, melting snow) would be needed to do so. The inspector is not a licensed engineer and does not determine the adequacy of roof structure components such as trusses, rafters or ceiling beams, or their spacing or sizing.
Attic inspection method: Partially traversed
Condition of roof structure: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Roof structure type: Rafters
Ceiling structure: Ceiling joists
Condition of insulation in attic (ceiling, skylight chase, etc.): Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Ceiling insulation material: Fiberglass loose fill, Fiberglass roll or batt
Approximate attic insulation R value (may vary in areas): Not determined (inaccessible or obscured)
Vapor retarder: None visible
Condition of roof ventilation: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Roof ventilation type: Gable end vents
Approximate attic insulation R value (may vary in areas): R-11
Roof ventilation type: Gable end vents, Through skip sheathing

112) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Insulation was damaged or deteriorated, apparently by rodents. This may result in reduced energy efficiency. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace all under-floor insulation for sanitary reasons.

113) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more sections of the roof structure appeared to have substandard ventilation, soffit or lower vents were missing, ridge or upper vents were missing, vents were undersized and/or there were too few vents. This can result in high attic and roof surface temperatures, reduce the life of the roof covering materials, and/or increase cooling costs. High levels of moisture are also likely to accumulate in the roof structure or attic, and can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Standard building practices require one free square foot of ventilation for every 150 square feet of attic space, and that vents be evenly distributed between the lowest points of the roof structure and the highest points to promote air circulation. Often this means that both soffit vents and ridge or gable end vents are installed. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair per standard building practices.

114) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more sections of the roof structure appeared to have substandard ventilation, soffit or lower vents were missing, ridge or upper vents were missing and/or vents were undersized. This can result in high attic and roof surface temperatures, reduce the life of the roof covering materials, and/or increase cooling costs. High levels of moisture are also likely to accumulate in the roof structure or attic, and can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Standard building practices require one free square foot of ventilation for every 150 square feet of attic space, and that vents be evenly distributed between the lowest points of the roof structure and the highest points to promote air circulation. Often this means that both soffit vents and ridge or gable end vents are installed. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair per standard building practices.

115) Repair/Replace - One or more indoor attic access hatch covers or doors were missing, damaged and/or substandard. When located indoors, conditioned air can enter the attic. Energy efficiency can be reduced, moisture can form in the attic, attic air laden with insulation fibers can enter living spaces, and/or pets can enter the attic . This is also a fire hazard as attic access hatch covers and doors are meant to stop or slow the spread of fire into the attic. A qualified person should replace, install or repair hatches or doors as necessary and per standard building practices. Each access point should be insulated and sealed with weatherstripping. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?ATTACC

116) Repair/Replace - No vapor retarder was visible in the attic. Such vapor retarders reduce the flow of moisture from living spaces below, up into the attic, and prevent damage from moisture. For example, fungal rot, mold, and ice dams on the roof. Vapor retarders are not a standard recommendation except for very cold regions and in cases where there is high humidity in the house during the winter. Based on conditions found during this inspection, recommend that a qualified contractor install a vapor barrier.

117) Repair/Replace - One or more exhaust ducts (e.g. bathroom fan, clothes dryer) in the unheated basement were not insulated. This can result in moisture forming inside the duct or "sweating" on the outside of the duct depending on the surrounding air temperature and the exhaust air temperature. Recommend that a qualified person install insulation on exhaust ducts per standard building practices (typically R-4 rating), or replace uninsulated ducts with insulated ducts.

118) Repair/Maintain - One or more attic access hatches or doors were not insulated, or had substandard insulation. Recommend installing insulation as necessary and per current standards at hatches or doors for better energy efficiency. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?ATTACC

119) Repair/Maintain - The ceiling insulation in one or more areas of the attic was compacted or uneven. Heating and cooling costs may be higher due to reduced energy efficiency. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install insulation as necessary and per standard building practices (typically R-38).

120) Repair/Maintain - One or more attic access hatches or doors were not insulated, or had substandard insulation. Weatherstripping was also missing or substandard. Recommend installing weatherstripping and insulation per current standards at hatches or doors for better energy efficiency. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?ATTACC

121) Repair/Maintain - The ceiling insulation in one or more areas of the attic was missing. Heating and cooling costs may be higher due to reduced energy efficiency. Recommend that a qualified person repair, replace or install insulation as necessary and per standard building practices (typically R-38).

122) Serviceable - Fiberglass batt insulation with a vapor retarder was installed over existing insulation in one or more attic sections.The vapor retarder (typically a paper facing) should be installed to be directly in contact with the heated space below (paper side down). When installed over existing insulation, the vapor retarder can trap moisture from condensation in the cavity between the vapor retarder and the interior spaces. This can be a conducive condition for wood-destroying organisms. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary and per standard building practices. For example, by removing the insulation with the vapor retarder or replacing it with insulation with no vapor retarder.

Note that the inspector was unable to evaluate areas obscured by insulation to determine if any damage (rot, insect infestation) has already occurred due to moisture accumulation. When repairs are made, recommend that the exposed structure be evaluated for damage by wood-destroying organisms, and repairs made if necessary.

Garage or Carport
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Limitations: The inspector does not determine the adequacy of firewall ratings. Requirements for ventilation in garages vary between municipalities.
Type: Detached, Garage
Condition of garage vehicle door(s): Appeared serviceable
Type of garage vehicle door: Roll
Condition of automatic opener(s): Not determined (not plugged in, no power, etc.)
Mechanical auto-reverse operable (reverses when meeting reasonable resistance during closing): Not determined
Condition of garage interior: Required repair or evaluation (see comments below)
Garage ventilation: None
Condition of door between garage and house: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Type of door between garage and house: Wood
Number of vehicle doors: 1
Garage ventilation: None visible

123) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more springs were broken on garage vehicle door(s). This is a safety hazard since the door(s) can fall shut when opened. A qualified contractor should repair as necessary.

124) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more extension springs supporting garage vehicle door(s) were stretched. This is an indication that the spring(s) have been weakened. Stretched extension springs are a potential safety hazard in the event that they break. The vehicle door could fall shut or a spring could strike someone nearby when it breaks. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace stretched extension springs.

125) Safety, Repair/Maintain - One or more garage vehicle doors weren't balanced. The door(s) wouldn't stay in place when opened half-way, and fell to the ground instead. This is a potential safety hazard since the door(s) can fall when open and cause injury. A qualified contractor should repair as necessary. For more information on garage door safety issues, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?GDBAL

126) Comment - Minor cracks were found in the concrete slab floor. These are common and appeared to be only a cosmetic issue.

Electric
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: generator systems, transfer switches, surge suppressors, inaccessible or concealed wiring; underground utilities and systems; low-voltage lighting or lighting on timers or sensors. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of grounding or bonding, if this system has an adequate capacity for the client's specific or anticipated needs, or if this system has any reserve capacity for additions or expansion. The inspector does not operate circuit breakers as part of the inspection, and does not install or change light bulbs. The inspector does not evaluate every wall switch or receptacle, but instead tests a representative number of them per various standards of practice. When furnishings, stored items or child-protective caps are present some receptacles are usually inaccessible and are not tested; these are excluded from this inspection. Receptacles that are not of standard 110 volt configuration, including 240-volt dryer receptacles, are not tested and are excluded. The functionality of, power source for and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms is not determined as part of this inspection. Upon taking occupancy, proper operating and placement of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms should be verified and batteries should be changed. These devices have a limited lifespan and should be replaced every 10 years. The inspector attempts to locate and evaluate all main and sub-panels. However, panels are often concealed. If panels are found after the inspection, a qualified electrician should evaluate and repair if necessary. The inspector attempts to determine the overall electrical service size, but such estimates are not guaranteed because the overall capacity may be diminished by lesser-rated components in the system. Any repairs recommended should be made by a licensed electrician.
Electric service condition: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Primary service type: Overhead
Number of service conductors: Not determined (components inaccessible or obscured)
Service voltage (volts): 120
Estimated service amperage: 100
Primary service overload protection type: Circuit breakers
Service entrance conductor material: Not determined (components inaccessible or obscured)
Main disconnect rating (amps): 100
System ground: Ground rod(s) in soil
Condition of main service panel: Appeared serviceable
Location of main service panel #A: Basement
Location of main disconnect: Breaker at top of main service panel
Condition of branch circuit wiring: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection present: No
Smoke alarms installed: No, recommend install
Carbon monoxide alarms installed: No, recommend install

127) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Substandard wiring was found at the building exterior, garage, carport, basement and/or interior rooms. For example, exposed splices, missing or broken cover plates and/or missing bushings. This is a safety hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and repair as necessary and per standard building practices.

128) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) devices protecting receptacles at the bathroom(s) . This is a potential shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and repair as necessary.

129) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more electric receptacles at the bathroom(s), 1/2 bath, exterior and/or crawl space had no visible ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection, or the inspector was unable to determine if GFCI protection was present. If not GFCI-protected, receptacles in wet areas pose a shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician evaluate and install GFCI protection if necessary and per standard building practices. General guidelines for GFCI-protected receptacles include the following locations:
  • Outdoors (since 1973)
  • Bathrooms (since 1975)
  • Garages (since 1978)
  • Kitchens (since 1987)
  • Crawl spaces and unfinished basements (since 1990)
  • Wet bar sinks (since 1993)
  • Laundry and utility sinks (since 2005)
For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?GFCI

130) Safety, Repair/Replace - Non-metallic sheathed wiring in the attic was routed on surfaces within 6 feet of one or more access hatches or doors, and was subject to damage. Wiring can be damaged when hatches are lifted and set aside, when stored items are moved into or out of the attic, etc. This is a potential shock and/or fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.

131) Safety, Repair/Replace - Bare wire ends, or wires with a substandard termination, were found at one or more locations. This is a potential shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary. For example, by cutting wires to length and terminating with wire nuts in a permanently mounted, covered junction box.

132) Safety, Repair/Replace - Wire splices were exposed and were not contained in a covered junction box. This is a potential shock or fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices. For example, by installing permanently mounted junction boxes with cover plates where needed to contain wiring splices.

133) Safety, Repair/Replace - Extension cords were being used as permanent wiring at one or more locations. They should only be used for portable equipment on a temporary basis. Using extension cords as permanent wiring is a potential fire and shock hazard, and indicates that wiring is inadequate and needs updating. Extension cords may be undersized. Connections may not be secure resulting in power fluctuations, damage to equipment, overheating and sparks that could start a fire. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices and eliminate extension cords for permanently installed equipment.

134) Safety, Repair/Replace - Flexible lamp or appliance cord was being used for permanent wiring at one or more locations. Such wiring is not intended to be used as permanent wiring and poses a safety hazard of shock and fire. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.

135) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more receptacles were broken or damaged. This is a potential shock or fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician replace such receptacles as necessary.

136) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more electric receptacles and/or the boxes in which they were installed were loose and/or not securely anchored. Wire conductors can be damaged due to repeated movement and/or tension on wires, or insulation can be damaged. This is a shock and fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary.

137) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more receptacles were installed directly above electric baseboard heaters. This was a common practice in the past, but insulation on appliance cords in contact with the heater(s) can be damaged by heaters. This is a shock and fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician make repairs or modifications as necessary. For example, by converting receptacles to junction boxes, moving receptacles and/or moving baseboard heaters.

138) Safety, Repair/Replace - No electric receptacle was found in one or more bathrooms. This is an inconvenience and a potential safety hazard since extension cords from other locations may be used. Recommend that a qualified electrician install ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protected receptacle(s) in bathrooms as necessary and per standard building practices.

139) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more electric receptacles were incorrectly wired with "false grounds" where the receptacle's ground screw is connected to the neutral or white wire in the circuit. Such receptacles may appear to be grounded when they aren't. This is a shock hazard, and can damage equipment plugged into such receptacles. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?FLSGRND

140) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more modern, 3-slot electric receptacles were found with an open ground. Three-slot receptacles should have a hot, a neutral and a ground wire connected. Homeowners often install new 3-slot receptacles on older, 2-wire circuits that only have hot and neutral wires. This is a shock hazard when appliances that require a ground are used with these receptacles. Examples of such appliances include computers and related hardware, refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners, clothes washers, aquarium pumps, and electrically operated gardening tools. Where the electric system was installed prior to when grounded circuits were required (1960s), it is permissible to replace 3-slot receptacles with 2-slot receptacles to prevent appliances that require a ground from being plugged in to an ungrounded circuit. However, the client should be aware of this limitation when planning use for various rooms, such as an office. For newer electric systems, circuits should be repaired so grounded, 3-wire cables provide power to 3-slot receptacles. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices.

141) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more modern, 3-slot electric receptacles were found with an open ground. This is a shock hazard when appliances that require a ground are used with these receptacles. Examples of such appliances include computers and related hardware, refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners, clothes washers, aquarium pumps, and electrically operated gardening tools. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary so all receptacles are grounded per standard building practices.

142) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more electric receptacles had reverse-polarity wiring, where the hot and neutral wires were reversed. This is a shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?RPR

143) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more electric boxes installed outside were . This is a potential shock and/or fire hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair as necessary.

144) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more sections of outdoor wiring were exposed and . This is a potential shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified electrician repair per standard building practices. For example, by installing conduit, re-routing wires or replacing wiring.

145) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more standard exterior electric receptacles were being used for appliances or systems that were constantly in use. This is a safety hazard for shock since water can reach receptacle slots. Recommend that a qualified person install "while in use" receptacle covers as necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?INUSECVR

146) Safety, Repair/Replace - No permanently installed smoke alarms were found. This is a potential safety hazard. A qualified electrician should install smoke alarms per standard building practices (e.g. in hallways leading to bedrooms, in each bedroom, on each floor and in attached garages). For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?SMKALRM

147) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more smoke alarms were missing, damaged, or missing components. Smoke alarms should be replaced as necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?SMKALRM

148) Safety, Repair/Replace - Smoke alarms were missing from one or more bedrooms, from one or more hallways leading to bedrooms, on one or more levels and/or in the attached garage. Smoke alarms should be installed as necessary so a functioning alarm exists in each hallway leading to bedrooms, in each bedroom, on each level and in any attached garage. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?SMKALRM

149) Safety, Repair/Maintain - One or more cover plates for switches, receptacles or junction boxes were missing or broken. These plates are intended to contain fire and prevent electric shock from occurring due to exposed wires. Recommend that a qualified person install cover plates where necessary.

150) Safety, Repair/Maintain - No permanently installed carbon monoxide alarms were found. This is a potential safety hazard. Some states and/or municipalities require CO alarms to be installed for new construction and/or for homes being sold. Recommend installing approved CO alarms outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms on each level and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?COALRM

151) Safety, Repair/Maintain - Carbon monoxide alarms were missing from one or more sleeping areas and/or on one or more levels. This is a potential safety hazard. Some states and/or municipalities require CO alarms to be installed in the vicinity of each sleeping area, on each level and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Recommend installing additional carbon monoxide alarms per these standards. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?COALRM

152) Safety, Minor Defect - One or more exterior receptacle covers were broken. This is a potential shock hazard. Recommend that a qualified person replace covers where necessary.

153) Safety, Evaluate - Branch circuit wiring installed in buildings built prior to the mid 1980s is typically rated for a maximum temperature of only 60 degrees Celsius. This includes non-metallic sheathed (Romex) wiring, and both BX and AC metal-clad flexible wiring. Knob and tube wiring, typically installed in homes built prior to 1950, may be rated for even lower maximum temperatures. Newer electric fixtures including lighting and fans typically require wiring rated for 90 degrees Celsius. Connecting newer fixtures to older, 60-degree-rated wiring is a potential fire hazard. Repairs for such conditions may involve replacing the last few feet of wiring to newer fixtures with new 90-degree-rated wire, and installing a junction box to join the old and new wiring.

It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if such incompatible components are installed, or to determine the extent to which they're installed. Based on the age of this building, the client should be aware of this safety hazard, both for existing fixtures and when planning to upgrade with newer fixtures. Consult with a qualified electrician for repairs as necessary.

154) Safety, Evaluate - One or more electrical components including switches and/or receptacles appeared to be older than their intended service life. Such old components may pose a fire or shock hazard. Recommend consulting with a qualified electrician to determine which components should be replaced with newer, modern components.

155) Safety, Evaluate - Few receptacles were installed in one or more areas by modern standards. This can result in "octopus" wiring with extension cords, which is a fire hazard. Consult with a qualified electrician about upgrading circuits with additional receptacles per standard building practices.

156) Safety, Evaluate - 2-slot receptacles rather than 3-slot, grounded receptacles were installed in one or more areas. These do not have an equipment ground and are considered unsafe by today's standards. Appliances that require a ground should not be used with 2-slot receptacles. Examples of such appliances include computers and related hardware, refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners, clothes washers, aquarium pumps, and electrically operated gardening tools. The client should be aware of this limitation when planning use for various rooms, such as an office. Upgrading to grounded receptacles typically requires installing new wiring from the main service panel or sub-panel to the receptacle(s), in addition to replacing the receptacle(s). Consult with a qualified electrician about upgrading to 3-wire, grounded circuits.

157) Safety, Evaluate - Few receptacles were installed in one or more areas by modern standards. This can result in "octopus" wiring with extension cords, which is a fire hazard. Also, 2-slot receptacles rather than 3-slot, grounded receptacles were installed in one or more areas. These do not have an equipment ground and are considered to be unsafe by today's standards. Appliances that require a ground should not be used with 2-slot receptacles. Examples of such appliances include computers and related hardware, refrigerators, freezers, portable air conditioners, clothes washers, aquarium pumps, and electrically operated gardening tools. The client should be aware of this limitation when planning use for various rooms, such as an office. Upgrading to grounded receptacles typically requires installing new wiring from the main service panel or sub-panel to the receptacle(s), in addition to replacing the receptacle(s). Consult with a qualified electrician about upgrading circuits with additional receptacles and 3-wire, grounded receptacles per standard building practices.

158) Repair/Replace - The inspector was unable to open and evaluate panel(s) #A because . These panel(s) are excluded from this inspection. Recommend that repairs, modifications and/or cleanup should be made as necessary so panels can be opened and fully evaluated.

159) Repair/Replace - One or more receptacles have been painted, and slots were clogged with paint. Recommend that a qualified electrician replace such receptacles as necessary.

160) Evaluate - The electric service to this property appeared to be rated at substantially less than 200 amps and may be inadequate. Depending on the client's needs, recommend consulting with a qualified electrician about upgrading to a 200 amp service. Note that the electric service's rating is based on the lowest rating for the meter base, the service conductors, the main service panel and the main disconnect switch. One or more of these components may need replacing to upgrade.

Plumbing / Fuel Systems
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: private/shared wells and related equipment; private sewage disposal systems; hot tubs or spas; main, side and lateral sewer lines; gray water systems; pressure boosting systems; trap primers; incinerating or composting toilets; fire suppression systems; water softeners, conditioners or filtering systems; plumbing components concealed within the foundation or building structure, or in inaccessible areas such as below tubs; underground utilities and systems; overflow drains for tubs and sinks; backflow prevention devices. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not test for lead in the water supply, the water pipes or solder, does not determine if plumbing and fuel lines are adequately sized, and does not determine the existence or condition of underground or above-ground fuel tanks.
Condition of service and main line: Appeared serviceable
Water service: Public
Location of main water shut-off: Basement
Condition of supply lines: Appeared serviceable
Supply pipe material: Copper
Condition of drain pipes: Appeared serviceable
Drain pipe material: Not determined (inaccessible or obscured)
Condition of waste lines: Not determined (inaccessible, obscured, or water service off)
Waste pipe material: Cast iron, Copper
Vent pipe condition: Not determined (inaccessible, obscured, or water service off)

161) Safety, Repair/Replace - The natural gas service's pressure relief discharge vent opening was less than 10 feet from a window/wall-mounted fan or air conditioner or a mechanical air intake. This is a potential fire or explosion hazard. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices.

162) Safety, Evaluate - The water service pipe appeared to be made of lead, which is a known health hazard, especially to children. Lead service pipes should be replaced to eliminate this hazard. A qualified plumber should replace lead components as necessary. For more information visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?LEAD

163) Safety, Comment - Copper water supply pipes were installed. Copper pipes installed prior to the late 1980s may be joined with solder that contains lead, which is a known health hazard especially for children. Laws were passed in 1985 prohibiting the use of lead in solder, but prior to that solder normally contained approximately 50% lead. The client should be aware of this, especially if children will be using this water supply system. Note that the inspector does not test for toxic materials such as lead. The client should consider having a qualified lab test for lead, and if necessary take steps to reduce or remove lead from the water supply. Various solutions include:
  • Flush water taps or faucets. Do not drink water that has been sitting in the plumbing lines for more than 6 hours
  • Install appropriate filters at points of use
  • Use only cold water for cooking and drinking, as hot water dissolves lead more quickly than cold water
  • Use bottled or distilled water
  • Treat well water to make it less corrosive
  • Have a qualified plumber replace supply pipes and/or plumbing components as necessary
For more information visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?LEADDW
http://www.reporthost.com/?LEAD

164) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - This home was winterized. Typically this means the following:
  • The water supply has been turned off at the meter or main shut-off valve
  • The water supply to fixtures such as sinks, toilets, tubs and showers have been turned off at local shut-off valves
  • Sink drain traps and toilet bowls have been filled with anti-freeze
  • The water and power or fuel supplies to the water heater have been turned off
"De-winterizing" a home is not part of a home inspection. The inspector does not operate shut-off valves, meter valves, circuit breakers, or light pilot lights. This significantly limits the ability of the inspector to evaluate various systems and components such as plumbing fixtures, supply/drain/waste/vent lines and the water heater. They are excluded from this inspection. Recommend when the home has been completely de-winterized that a qualified person fully evaluate them.

165) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Significant corrosion was found in some water supply pipes or fittings. Leaks can occur as a result. Recommend that a qualified plumber evaluate and replace components as necessary.

166) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more sinks or fixtures used mechanical or auto vents. These are commonly installed in manufactured homes where it's difficult to install vents to the outside. However, most municipalities don't allow them for "stick-built" homes. The spring mechanisms in them can fail, resulting in sewer gases entering living spaces, and they have no screen to keep out vermin (mice). "Air admittance valves" (AAV) are recommended instead of these vents. AAVs have no spring to fail and have built-in screens. Recommend that a qualified plumber upgrade mechanical vents to AAVs. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?AUTOVENT

167) Repair/Replace - Insulation for one or more water supply pipes in the basement was missing. Recommend replacing or installing insulation on pipes per standard building practices to prevent them from freezing during cold weather, and for better energy efficiency with hot water supply pipes.

168) Repair/Maintain - One or more sections of gas supply piping were located less than 6 inches from the soil below. Piping is likely to rust. Recommend that soil be graded or removed as necessary, or that a qualified contractor make repairs or modifications if necessary.

169) Maintain, Evaluate - Based on visible components or information provided to the inspector, this property appeared to have a private sewage disposal (septic) system. These are specialty systems and are excluded from this inspection. Comments in this report related to this system are made as a courtesy only and are not meant to be a substitute for a full evaluation by a qualified specialist. Generally, septic tanks should be pumped and inspected every 3 years. Depending on the type of system and municipal regulations, inspection and maintenance may be required more frequently, often annually. Recommend the following:
  • Consult with the property owner about this system's maintenance and repair history
  • Review any documentation available for this system
  • Review inspection and maintenance requirements for this system
  • That a qualified specialist evaluate, perform maintenance and make repairs if necessary
For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?SEPTIC

170) Evaluate - Based on visible equipment or information provided to the inspector, this property appeared to have a yard irrigation (sprinkler) system. These are specialty systems and are excluded from this inspection. Comments in this report related to this system are made as a courtesy only and are not meant to be a substitute for a full evaluation by a qualified specialist. When this system is operated, recommend verifying that water is not directed at building exteriors, or directed so water accumulates around building foundations. Sprinkler heads may need to be adjusted, replaced or disabled. Consider having a qualified plumber verify that a backflow prevention device is installed per standard building practices to prevent cross-contamination of potable water. Recommend that a qualified specialist evaluate the irrigation system for other defects (e.g. leaks, damaged or malfunctioning sprinkler heads) and repair if necessary.

171) Evaluate - One or more water shut-off valves were not labeled, and their function is unknown. Recommend consulting with the property owner to determine valves' functions, that you verify this yourself, or if necessary that a qualified plumber evaluate. Recommend labeling valves as necessary.

172) Comment - The water supply to some plumbing system appeared to be shut off during the inspection and these were not fully evaluated. They are excluded from the inspection.

Water Heater
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Limitations: Evaluation of and determining the adequacy or completeness of the following items are not included in this inspection: water recirculation pumps; solar water heating systems; Energy Smart or energy saver controls; catch pan drains. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on water heaters, does not determine if water heaters are appropriately sized, or perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit or a shut-off valve to be operated.
Condition of water heater: Appeared serviceable
Type: Integral with heating system, with storage tank
Energy source: Natural gas
Capacity (in gallons): 40
Temperature-pressure relief valve installed: Yes
Location of water heater: Basement

173) Safety, Repair/Replace - The temperature-pressure relief valve drain line was too short. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of scalding if someone is standing next to the water heater when the valve opens. Recommend that a qualified plumber repair per standard building practices. For example, by extending the drain line to within 6 inches of the floor, or routing it to drain outside. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?TPRVALVE


174) Evaluate, Comment - The water heater's gas supply was off. The water heater and hot water supply system (e.g. faucets, controls) were not fully evaluated because of this. Recommend that a full evaluation be made by a qualified person when conditions have been corrected so the water heater is operable. Note that per the standards of practice for various professional home inspection organizations, the inspector does not operate shut-off valves, pilot lights or over-current protection devices, or any controls other than "normal controls."

175) Comment - The estimated useful life for most water heaters is 8-12 years. This water heater appeared to be this age and/or its useful lifespan and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future, or considering replacement now before any leaks occur. The client should be aware that significant flooding can occur if the water heater fails. If not replaced now, consider having a qualified person install a catch pan and drain or a water alarm to help prevent damage if water does leak.

Heating, Ventilation and Air Condition (HVAC)
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters; solar, coal or wood-fired heat systems; thermostat or temperature control accuracy and timed functions; heating components concealed within the building structure or in inaccessible areas; underground utilities and systems; safety devices and controls (due to automatic operation). Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of remaining life on heating or cooling system components, does not determine if heating or cooling systems are appropriately sized, does not test coolant pressure, or perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit, a shut-off valve to be operated, a circuit breaker to be turned "on" or a serviceman's or oil emergency switch to be operated. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to determine if furnace heat exchangers are intact and free of leaks. Condensation pans and drain lines may clog or leak at any time and should be monitored while in operation in the future. Where buildings contain furnishings or stored items, the inspector may not be able to verify that a heat source is present in all "liveable" rooms (e.g. bedrooms, kitchens and living/dining rooms).
General heating system type(s): Radiant
General heating distribution type(s): Pipes and convectors
Condition of hydronic or steam heat system: Not determined (inaccessible, obscured, or power, gas or oil off)
Type of hydronic or steam heat: Hydronic (hot water), Circulating pump
Hydronic or steam heat fuel type: Natural gas

176) Safety, Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - The last service date of the gas or oil-fired forced air furnace appeared to be more than 1 year ago, or the inspector was unable to determine the last service date. Ask the property owner when it was last serviced. If unable to determine the last service date, or if this system was serviced more than 1 year ago, recommend that a qualified HVAC contractor inspect, clean, and service this system, and make repairs if necessary. For safety reasons, and because this system is fueled by gas or oil, this servicing should be performed annually in the future. Any needed repairs noted in this report should be brought to the attention of the HVAC contractor when it's serviced. For more information visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?ANFURINSP

177) Evaluate, Comment - The boiler heating system was not fully evaluated because the gas supply was off. Recommend that a full evaluation be made by a qualified person when conditions have been corrected so the system is operable. Note that the inspector does not operate shut-off valves, pilot lights or circuit breakers, or any controls other than normal controls (thermostat).

Fireplaces, Stoves, Chimneys and Flues
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: coal stoves, gas logs, chimney flues (except where visible). Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of drafting or sizing in fireplace and stove flues, and also does not determine if prefabricated or zero-clearance fireplaces are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. The inspector does not perform any evaluations that require a pilot light to be lit, and does not light fires. The inspector provides a basic visual examination of a chimney and any associated wood burning device. The National Fire Protection Association has stated that an in-depth Level 2 chimney inspection should be part of every sale or transfer of property with a wood-burning device. Such an inspection may reveal defects that are not apparent to the home inspector who is a generalist.

Kitchen
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: household appliances such as stoves, ovens, cook tops, ranges, warming ovens, griddles, broilers, dishwashers, trash compactors, refrigerators, freezers, ice makers, hot water dispensers and water filters; appliance timers, clocks, cook functions, self and/or continuous cleaning operations, thermostat or temperature control accuracy, and lights. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not provide an estimate of the remaining life of appliances, and does not determine the adequacy of operation of appliances. The inspector does not note appliance manufacturers, models or serial numbers and does not determine if appliances are subject to recalls. Areas and components behind and obscured by appliances are inaccessible and excluded from this inspection.
Condition of counters: Appeared serviceable
Condition of range, cooktop or oven: Appeared serviceable
Range, cooktop or oven type: Natural gas, Electric
Type of ventilation:

178) Safety, Repair/Replace - The range could tip forward. An anti-tip bracket may not be installed. This is a potential safety hazard since the range can tip forward when weight is applied to the open door, such as when a small child climbs on it or if heavy objects are dropped on it. Anti-tip brackets have been sold with all free-standing ranges since 1985. Recommend installing an anti-tip bracket to eliminate this safety hazard. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?ATB

179) Safety, Repair/Replace - No accessible gas shut-off valve was visible within 6 feet of the gas-fired . This is a potential safety hazard when the appliance needs to be shut down quickly. A qualified contractor should install a shut-off valve per standard building practices.

180) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The dishwasher was inoperable. Recommend that a qualified specialist evaluate and repair or replace as necessary.

181) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The inspector was unable to determine if the dishwasher's drain line had a high loop or air gap (e.g. drain line not visible). A high loop is created by routing the drain line up to the bottom surface of the counter top above and securely fastening it to that surface. An air gap is a device that makes the drain line non-continuous. Both of these prevent waste-water backflow from entering the dishwasher, and possibly flooding out of the dishwasher if/when a siphon occurs. Some newer dishwashers have these devices built in. Recommend reviewing the dishwasher's installation instructions, consulting with the property owner and/or having a qualified contractor evaluate further to determine if a high loop and air gap are installed or needed. If not installed, and none is built into the dishwasher, then recommend that a qualified contractor install a high loop and air gap per standard building practices.

182) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - No air gap was visible for the dishwasher drain. An air gap is a device that makes the drain line non-continuous, and prevents waste-water backflow from entering the dishwasher, and possibly flooding out of the dishwasher if/when a siphon occurs. Some newer dishwashers have this device built in. Recommend determining if an air gap device is built in to this brand and model of dishwasher (e.g. review installation instructions). If not, or if this cannot be determined, then recommend that a qualified contractor install an air gap per standard building practices.

183) Repair/Replace - The kitchen sink drain pipe used an S-trap rather than a P-trap, or no P-trap was visible. Siphons and sudden flows of water in S-Traps can drain all the water out of the trap, leaving it dry. Sewer gases can then enter living areas. Recommend that a qualified plumber repair per standard building practices.

184) Repair/Replace - The oven bake function appeared to be inoperable. Consult with the property owner. If necessary, a qualified person should repair.

185) Repair/Replace - 5 cooktop burner(s) were inoperable. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

186) Repair/Replace - No exhaust hood, ceiling or wall-mounted exhaust fan or downdraft exhaust system was found for the cook top or range. This can be a nuisance for odor and grease accumulation. Where a gas-fired range or cook top is installed, carbon monoxide and excessive levels of moisture can accumulate in living spaces. Recommend that a qualified contractor install a venting system per standard building practices.

187) Repair/Maintain, Evaluate - The sink drained slowly. Recommend clearing drain and/or having a qualified plumber repair if necessary.

188) Serviceable - The refrigerator was . Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. The refrigerator may need replacing.

189) Comment - The sink had minor wear, blemishes or deterioration.

190) Comment - Refrigerator shelving was .

Bathrooms, Laundry and Sinks
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: overflow drains for tubs and sinks; heated towel racks, saunas, steam generators, clothes washers, clothes dryers. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not determine the adequacy of washing machine drain lines, washing machine catch pan drain lines, or clothes dryer exhaust ducts. The inspector does not operate water supply or shut-off valves for sinks, toilets, bidets, clothes washers, etc. due to the possibility of valves leaking or breaking when operated. The inspector does not determine if shower pans or tub and shower enclosures are water tight, or determine the completeness or operability of any gas piping to laundry appliances.
Location #A: Half bath, first floor
Location #B: Full bath, second floor
Condition of counters: Appeared serviceable
Gas supply for laundry equipment present: Yes
240 volt receptacle for laundry equipment present: No

191) Safety, Repair/Replace - The clothes dryer was equipped with a vinyl or mylar, accordion-type, flexible exhaust duct. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission considers these types of ducts to be unsafe, and a fire hazard. They can trap lint and are susceptible to kinks or crushing, which can greatly reduce the air flow and cause overheating. Recommend that such ducts be replaced with a rigid or corrugated semi-rigid metal duct, and by a qualified contractor if necessary. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?DRYER

192) Safety, Repair/Replace - No accessible gas shut-off valve was visible within 6 feet of the gas-fired clothes dryer. This is a potential safety hazard when the appliance needs to be shut down quickly. Recommend that a qualified contractor install a shut-off valve per standard building practices.

193) Repair/Replace, Comment - Countertops and/or backsplashes at location(s) # were damaged or deteriorated. Recommend repairing or replacing as necessary.

194) Repair/Replace - Water damage was found in shelving or cabinet components below one or more sinks at location(s) #B. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair as necessary after any plumbing leaks have been repaired. If moisture is present then concealed areas should be dried thoroughly.

195) Repair/Replace - No air gap was visible where the clothes washer drain connected to the standpipe. An air gap prevents siphoning from occurring when the washer drains. Recommend that a qualified person repair per standard building practices.

196) Repair/Maintain - The sink at location(s) #A and B drained slowly. Recommend clearing drain and/or having a qualified plumber repair if necessary.

197) Repair/Maintain - The shower at location(s) # drained slowly. Recommend clearing drain and/or that a qualified plumber repair if necessary.

198) Maintain - Recommend cleaning and sealing the grout in flooring at location(s) # now and in the future as necessary to prevent staining and to improve waterproofing.

Interior, Doors and Windows
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Limitations: The following items are not included in this inspection: security, intercom and sound systems; communications wiring; central vacuum systems; elevators and stair lifts; cosmetic deficiencies such as nail-pops, scuff marks, dents, dings, blemishes or issues due to normal wear and tear in wall, floor and ceiling surfaces and coverings, or in equipment; deficiencies relating to interior decorating; low voltage and gas lighting systems. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that the inspector does not evaluate any areas or items which require moving stored items, furnishings, debris, equipment, floor coverings, insulation or similar materials. The inspector does not test for asbestos, lead, radon, mold, hazardous waste, urea formaldehyde urethane, or any other toxic substance. Some items such as window, drawer, cabinet door or closet door operability are tested on a sampled basis. The client should be aware that paint may obscure wall and ceiling defects, floor coverings may obscure floor defects, and furnishings may obscure wall, floor and floor covering defects. If furnishings were present during the inspection, recommend a full evaluation of walls, floors and ceilings that were previously obscured when possible. Determining the cause and/or source of odors is not within the scope of this inspection.
Condition of exterior entry doors: Required repair, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Exterior door material: Wood, Glass panel
Type(s) of windows: Wood, Single-pane
Wall type or covering: Drywall, Plaster
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall, Plaster
Condition of flooring: Required repairs, replacement and/or evaluation (see comments below)
Flooring type or covering: Wood or wood products

199) Safety, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The inspector was unable to verify that the glass used in one or more exterior doors and/or storm doors was approved safety glass. Glazing that is not approved safety glass, located in areas subject to human impact, is a safety hazard. Standard building practices generally require that approved safety glass be used in swinging and sliding doors except where "art glass," jalousie windows or glazing smaller than a 3-inch opening is used. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate further to determine if glazing is approved safety glass, and replace glass if necessary, and per standard building practices.

200) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more exterior doors had double-cylinder deadbolts installed, where a key is required to open them from both sides. This can be a safety hazard in the event of an emergency because egress can be obstructed or delayed. Recommend replacing double-cylinder deadbolts with single-cylinder deadbolts where a handle is installed on the interior side.

201) Safety, Repair/Replace - One or more bedrooms had windows that were too small. Unless a bedroom has an exterior entry door, at least one window requires adequate egress in the event of a fire or emergency to allow escape or to allow access by emergency personnel. Such windows should have a minimum open width of 20 inches and a minimum open height of 24 inches. Grade floor egress windows should have a net clear opening of 5 square feet and other egress windows should have a net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair or make modifications per standard building practices. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?EGRESS

202) Safety, Repair/Replace - The risers for stairs at one or more locations varied in height and pose a fall or trip hazard. Risers within the same flight of stairs should vary by no more than 3/8 inch. At a minimum, be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices.

203) Safety, Repair/Replace - Risers for stairs at one or more locations were higher than 7 3/4 inches and posed a fall or trip hazard. Risers should be 7 3/4 inches or shorter. At a minimum, be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Recommend that a qualified contractor repair per standard building practices.

204) Major Defect, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Floors in one or more areas were not level. This can be caused by foundation settlement or movement of the foundation, posts and/or beams. Significant repairs may be needed to make floors level. Recommend that a qualified contractor and/or engineer evaluate further. Repairs should be performed by a qualified contractor.

205) Major Defect, Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Floors in one or more areas were sagging or springy. This can be caused by over-spanned, undersized or too few joists or beams, or too few support posts. Recommend that a qualified contractor and/or engineer evaluate further. Repairs should be performed by a qualified contractor.

206) Major Defect, Repair/Replace - One or more windows that were designed to open and close were difficult to open and close. Recommend that a qualified person repair windows as necessary so they open and close easily.

207) Repair/Replace, Evaluate, Monitor - Stains were found in one or more ceiling areas. The inspector was unable to determine if an active leak exists (e.g. recent dry weather, inaccessible height). Recommend asking the property owner about this, monitoring the stains in the future, and/or having a qualified contractor evaluate and repair if necessary.

208) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Condensation or staining was visible between multi-pane glass in all windows. This usually indicates that the seal between the panes of glass has failed or that the desiccant material that absorbs moisture is saturated. As a result, the view through the window may be obscured, the window's R-value will be reduced, and accumulated condensation may leak into the wall structure below. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair windows as necessary. Usually, this means replacing the glass in window frames.

Be aware that evidence of failed seals or desiccant may be more or less visible depending on the temperature, humidity, sunlight, etc. Windows or glass-paneled doors other than those that the inspector identified may also have failed seals and need glass replaced. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to identify every window with failed seals or desiccant.

209) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - This structure appears to have settled, or was leaning significantly based on the presence of cracks in walls, ceilings or junctions between them, or numerous door frames not being square, or numerous doors binding in jambs. Recommend that a qualified contractor and/or engineer evaluate further. Significant repairs may be needed. If so, a qualified contractor should make repairs.

210) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - One or more sections of ceilings were sagging. This can be caused by different things (e.g. loose drywall or plaster, floor or ceiling joists sagging, floor or ceiling joists installed with the crown down). Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.

211) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Stains and elevated levels of moisture were found in one or more ceiling areas. The stains appear to be due to an active leak. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.

212) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Wood flooring in one or more areas was cupping and/or buckling. This may indicate that the floor has been exposed to water or that the flooring was not allowed to equalize in moisture content before being installed. Consult with the property owner and/or have a qualified specialist evaluate. It's likely that affected areas of the wood flooring will need to be refinished to obtain a flat surface. For more information, visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?WDFLRPRB

213) Repair/Replace, Comment - One or more exterior doors had minor damage and/or deterioration. Although serviceable, the client may wish to repair or replace such doors for appearances' sake.

214) Repair/Replace - One or more exterior doors were significantly damaged or deteriorated. Recommend that a qualified person replace door(s) as necessary.

215) Repair/Replace - Fungal rot was found at one or more exterior . Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary. All rotten wood should be replaced.

216) Repair/Replace - One or more exterior doors were difficult to open or close and/or were difficult to latch. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

217) Repair/Replace - One or more entry doors wouldn't latch when closed. This is a security concern if no deadbolt is installed. A qualified person should repair as necessary.

218) Repair/Replace - Crank handles at windows were missing. Recommend that a qualified person replace handles or make repairs as necessary.

219) Repair/Replace - Glass in one or more windows was cracked, broken and/or missing. Recommend that a qualified contractor replace glass where necessary.

220) Repair/Replace - Cracks were found at interior-wall and ceiling junctions. Based on the cracks not appearing at exterior walls, these cracks are likely due to "truss uplift." Trusses are engineered, prefabricated assemblies (normally shaped like triangles) that replace rafters and ceiling beams in the roof structure. Truss uplift can occur when moisture content in the trusses' top chords differs significantly than in the bottom chords. This commonly happens during the winter when the bottom chords are kept warm and dry since they're normally buried in insulation and located next to the heated ceiling. The top chords are exposed to cold, moist air in the attic. In this condition, the bottom chords can shrink while the top chords can swell. This results in the bottom chord distorting, or being pulled upwards. If this happens, the drywall ceiling attached to the trusses' bottom chords can pull up and away from the drywall attached to the walls. If the walls are securely nailed to the trusses, walls can even lift off the floors, resulting in gaps in baseboard trim.

Various methods exist to prevent truss uplift including installing L-shaped truss clips and removing fasteners from ceiling drywall near interior partitions. These solutions may be a significant effort. Another option is to apply elastic crack coatings and then repair the drywall. In most cases, truss uplift is a cosmetic concern rather than a structural concern. For more information visit:
http://www.reporthost.com/?TRUSSUP
http://www.reporthost.com/?ECC

221) Repair/Replace - One or more walls and/or ceilings were cracked. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

222) Repair/Maintain - Lock mechanisms on one or more windows were missing. This can pose a security risk. Recommend that a qualified person repair as necessary.

223) Repair/Maintain - Wood flooring in one or more areas was significantly worn, deteriorated or damaged. Recommend that a qualified contractor refinish wood flooring as necessary.

224) Minor Defect - Minor cracks, nail pops and/or blemishes were found in walls and/or ceilings in one or more areas. Cracks and nail pops are common, are often caused by lumber shrinkage or minor settlement, and can be more or less noticeable depending on changes in humidity. They did not appear to be a structural concern, but the client may wish to repair these for aesthetic reasons. For recurring cracks, consider using an elastic crack covering product:
http://www.reporthost.com/?ECC

225) Monitor - Stains were found in one or more ceiling areas. However, no elevated levels of moisture were found. The stain(s) may be due to past roof and/or plumbing leaks.Consult with the property owner and monitor the stained area(s) in the future, especially after heavy or prolonged rain. If elevated moisture is found in the future, then recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.

226) Comment - One or more hinged exterior doors had no deadbolt lock installed and relied solely on the entry lockset for security. Recommend installing locksets on exterior doors where missing for added security.

227) Comment - No window screens were installed. Windows may not provide ventilation during months when insects are active.

228) Comment - Screens were missing from all windows. These windows may not provide ventilation during months when insects are active.

Wood Destroying Organism Findings
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Limitations: This report only includes findings from accessible and visible areas on the day of the inspection. In addition to the inaccessible areas documented in this report, examples of other inaccessible areas include: sub areas less than 18 inches in height; attic areas less than 5 feet in height, areas blocked by ducts, pipes or insulation; areas where locks or permanently attached covers prevent access; areas where insulation would be damaged if traversed; areas obscured by vegetation. All inaccessible areas are subject to infestation or damage from wood-destroying organisms. The inspector does not move furnishings, stored items, debris, floor or wall coverings, insulation, or other materials as part of the inspection, nor perform destructive testing. Wood-destroying organisms may infest, re-infest or become active at any time. No warranty is provided as part of this inspection.
Visible evidence of active wood-destroying insects: No
Visible evidence of active wood decay fungi: Yes
Visible evidence of past wood decay fungi: Yes
Visible evidence of damage by wood-destroying insects: No
Visible evidence of damage by wood decay fungi: Yes
Visible evidence of conditions conducive to wood-destroying organisms: Yes
Location #A: Cellar
Location #B: attic

229) Maintain, Evaluate - Evidence of infestation of unspecified wood-destroying insects was found at location(s) # in the form of fecal pellets with . Recommend the following:
  • Correct any conducive conditions for wood-destroying organisms mentioned in this report.
  • Consult with the property owner about any history of infestation.
  • Have a state-licensed pest control operator evaluate further and treat as necessary.

on washer/dryer


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