Blue Star Inspections, LLC.

Website: http://www.wyominginspections.com/
Email: stuartharnden@gmail.com
Inspector's email: stuart@wyominginspections.com
Phone: (307) 277-6154
Inspector's phone: (307) 277-6154
1491 Lane 14 Powell, Wyoming 82435

 

Harnden Homestead
Client(s): Jim & Jane Plain
Property address: 0001 Big Horn Valley
Anywhere, Wyoming
Inspection date: 2/12/2013
This report published on Wednesday, February 13, 2013 1:04:17 PM MST

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This report is the exclusive property of this inspection company and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized persons is prohibited.

 
How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas.  Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type.  Items of concern follow descriptive information.
Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
SafetyPoses a risk of injury or death 
Major DefectCorrection likely involves a significant expense 
Repair/ReplaceRecommend repairing or replacing 
Repair/MaintainRecommend repair and/or maintenance 
Minor DefectCorrection likely involves only a minor expense 
MaintainRecommend ongoing maintenance 
EvaluateRecommend evaluation by a specialist 
MonitorRecommend monitoring in the future 
CommentFor your information 

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms. Contact your inspector if there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at http://www.reporthost.com/glossary.asp

Table of Contents
General information
Exterior
Roof
Attic
Electric service
Water heater
Heating and cooling
Plumbing and laundry
Fireplaces, woodstoves and chimneys
Basement
Well
Kitchen
Bathrooms
Interior rooms
 
General information Return to table of contents
Report number: 21413
Inspector: Stuartr Harnden
Structures inspected: Homestead
Type of building: Single family
Age of building: 100+ years
Property owner's name: Jim & Jane Plain
Time started: 8:00 AM
Time finished: 1:00 PM
Inspection Fee: 150.00
Payment method: Escrow
Present during inspection: Property owner(s)
Occupied: No
Weather conditions: Clear
Temperature: Cold
Ground condition: Frozen
Front of structure faces: South
Main entrance faces: South
Foundation type: Crawlspace
1) This property has one or more fuel burning appliances, and no carbon monoxide alarms are visible. This is a safety hazard. Recommend installing one or more carbon monoxide alarms as necessary and as per the manufacturer's instructions. For more information, visit http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PREREL/prhtml05/05017.html
2) Structures built prior to 1979 may contain lead-based paint and/or asbestos in various building materials such as insulation, siding, and/or floor and ceiling tiles. Both lead and asbestos are known health hazards. Evaluating for the presence of lead and/or asbestos is not included in this inspection. The client(s) should consult with specialists as necessary, such as industrial hygienists, professional labs and/or abatement contractors for this type of evaluation. For information on lead, asbestos and other hazardous materials in homes, visit these websites:
  • The Environmental Protection Association (http://www.epa.gov)
  • The Consumer Products Safety Commission (http://www.cpsc.gov)
  • The Center for Disease Control (http://www.cdc.gov)
    3) Many wall, floor and/or ceiling surfaces were obscured by large amounts of furniture and/or stored items. Many areas couldn't be evaluated.
    4) Some wall, floor and/or ceiling surfaces were obscured by furniture and/or stored items. Some areas couldn't be evaluated.
    5) Some or all sections of this property's plumbing system were"winterized" at the time of the inspection. The inspector was unable to fully evaluate the plumbing system and fixtures, such as toilets, faucets and sinks.
    6) Propane was not available during the inspection (tank empty, shut off valve turned off, no tank installed, etc.). As a result, some appliances such as water heater(s), forced air furnace(s), gas fireplace(s), stove(s), range(s) and/or gas supply lines weren't fully evaluated. The inspector was unable to test for gas leaks.
    7) The water service wasn't turned on during the inspection. As a result, plumbing supply, drain and waste lines, fixtures, and some appliances such as water heaters weren't fully evaluated.
    8) Electricity was not available during the inspection (service turned off or not fully installed, main disconnect tripped, etc.). As a result, branch circuit wiring, fixtures such as lights and fans, switches, ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) devices, arc fault circuit interrupter (AFCI) devices, and some appliances such as water heaters, forced air furnaces, heat pump or air conditioning units, and kitchen appliances weren't fully evaluated.
     
    Exterior Return to table of contents
    Footing material: Logs
    Foundation material: Post and pier
    Apparent wall structure: Wood frame
    Wall covering: Wood clapboard
    Driveway material: None
    Sidewalk material: None
    Exterior door material: Wood panel
    9) One or more trip hazards were found in sidewalk and/or patio sections due to cracks, settlement and/or heaving. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace sidewalk and/or patio sections as necessary to eliminate trip hazards.
    10) Siding is damaged, deteriorated and/or missing in some areas. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace siding as necessary.

    Based on the appearance of the siding and the age of this structure, some, most or all of the exterior siding material may contain asbestos. The client(s) should be aware of this when considering repairs to or replacement of this siding, and consult with qualified testing labs and/or abatement contractors as necessary. For more information on asbestos in the home, visit http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/453.html

    11) Guardrails are loose and/or wobbly in one or more areas. This is a safety hazard. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as installing new fasteners or hardware, installing additional fasteners and/or installing additional railing components as necessary so they are securely attached.
    12) One or more open ground, three-pronged electric receptacles were found. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, replacing receptacles or correcting wiring circuits.

    Grounding type receptacles began being required in residential structures during the 1960s. Based on the age of this structure and the presence of 2-pronged receptacles in some areas of this structure, an acceptable repair may be to simply replace the ungrounded 3-pronged receptacles with 2-pronged receptacles. However the following appliances require grounding type receptacles:
  • Computer hardware
  • Refrigerators
  • Freezers
  • Air conditioners
  • Clothes washers
  • Clothes dryers
  • Dishwashers
  • Kitchen food waste disposers
  • Information technology equipment
  • Sump pumps
  • Electrical aquarium equipment
  • Hand-held motor-operated tools
  • Stationary and fixed motor-operated tools
  • Light industrial motor-operated tools
  • Hedge clippers
  • Lawn mowers

    This list is not exhaustive. Grounded circuits and receptacles should be installed in locations where such appliances will be used.
    13) One or more electric receptacles have burn or scorch marks on them. Receptacle(s) and/or wiring to them may be damaged. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as replacing damaged receptacles and/or wiring.
    14) One or more electric receptacles have reverse-polarity wiring, where the hot and neutral wires are reversed. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    15) One or more electric receptacles and/or the boxes they are installed in are loose and/or not securely anchored. Wire conductors may be damaged due to repeated movement and/or tension on wires, or insulation may be damaged. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    16) One or more electric receptacles are worn, where a circuit analyzer test device indicates a disconnect or short. This condition is similar to having a loose wire inside a wall cavity, and is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and replace receptacles as necessary.
    17) One or more outdoor electric receptacles appear to have no ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate to determine if GFCI protection exists, and if not, repairs should be made so that all outdoor receptacles within six feet six inches of ground level have GFCI protection. For example, install GFCI receptacles or circuit breaker(s) as needed.
    18) Non-metallic sheathed wiring is routed in one or more areas so it is subject to damage, such as on wall or ceiling surfaces. The insulation can be damaged by objects coming in contact with it and/or it being repeatedly moved. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, rewire using conduit, or re-routing through wall cavities.
    19) Wire splices are exposed due to not being contained in a covered junction box. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, install securely mounted junction boxes with cover plates where needed to contain wiring splices.
    20) Extension cords are being used as permanent wiring in one or more areas. They should only be used for portable equipment on a temporary basis. Using extension cords as permanent wiring poses a fire and shock hazard, and is an indication that wiring is inadequate and should be updated. Extension cords may be undersized. Connections may not be secure, resulting in power fluctuations, damage to equipment, and sparks that could start a fire. Extension cords should be removed as necessary, or a qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, install additional circuits and/or electric receptacles.
    21) One or more plumbing vent pipes terminate less than three feet above a window or door that opens. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of sewer gases entering the structure. A qualified contractor should make repairs as necessary so vent pipes terminate at least three feet above openings to living spaces, but preferably above the roof surface.
    22) A "direct vent" type gas vent terminates improperly and may pose a safety hazard because it's too close to the structure's openings and/or sources of ignition, or located so it's subject to damage. Standard building practices require the following clearances for "direct vent" terminations:
  • At least 12 inches above the surrounding grade, decks, balconies, porches and verandas
  • At least 12 inches from windows and doors that open
  • At least 12 inches from permanently closed windows (to prevent condensation on windows)
  • At least 18 inches below and/or two feet from vented soffits
  • At least 12 inches below unvented soffits
  • At least 12 inches from outside or inside vertical surface corners
  • At least 36 inches from gas meters and regulators
  • At least 72 inches from gas service regulator vent outlets
  • At least 12 inches from air supply or combustion air inlets
  • At least 72 inches from mechanical air supply inlets

    A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs or modifications as necessary.
    23) 250 or 500 gallon propane tank(s) are less than 10 feet from the structure. This is a safety hazard. The client(s) should consult with the property owner(s) and/or propane supplier, and have tank(s) moved as necessary, at least 10 feet from the structure.
    24) One or more guardrails are constructed in such a way that children could climb them like a ladder. This is a potential safety hazard. Modifications should be made as necessary by a qualified contractor so guardrails cannot be climbed by children.
    25) One or more electric receptacles are broken or damaged. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire and shock. A qualified electrician should replace them as necessary.
    26) One or more exterior electric receptacles aren't waterproof or rated for use in wet areas. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. Repairs should be made as necessary, and by a qualified electrician if necessary, so all exterior receptacles are waterproof as per standard building practices.
    27) One or more propane tanks are permanently installed less than 10 feet from a source of ignition (dryer vent, hot water heater or furnace exhaust, heat pump or AC compressor unit, intake to direct vent appliance, electric receptacle, etc.). This is an explosion hazard. Modifications should be made by qualified contractor(s) to eliminate this hazard.
    28) Cover plate(s) are missing from one or more electric boxes, such as for receptacles, switches and/or junction boxes. They are intended to contain fire and prevent electric shock from exposed wires. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire and shock. Cover plates should be installed where missing.
    29) One or more wall-mounted exterior light fixtures have wiring that's subject to water intrusion due to caulk not being installed around the light fixture's back plate. Caulk should be applied around the perimeter of back plates where missing. A gap should be left at the bottom for condensation to drain out.
    30) One or more outside faucets are missing backflow prevention devices. These devices reduce the likelihood of polluted or contaminated water entering the potable water supply. This condition can occur when an outside faucet is left in the "on" position with a hose connected and the sprayer head turned off. When pressure in the system fluctuates, water can be drawn back into the water supply pipes from the house. If a chemical sprayer is being used with the hose, those chemicals can enter the water supply pipes.

    Recommend installing backflow prevention devices on all exterior hose bibs where missing. They are available at most home improvement stores and are easily installed. For more information, visit: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/BODY_AE079

    31) One or more hornet, bee and/or wasp nests were found. These can pose a safety hazard. Nest(s) should be removed as necessary.
    32) This property is clad with composition wood fiber siding. Many brands of this type of siding by different manufacturers are known to deteriorate and/or fail prematurely due to moisture penetration. Failure is typically visible in the form of swelling, cracking and delamination, especially at the bottom edges. Class action lawsuits have been filed or are being filed against most manufacturers of this material.

    Much or all of the siding on this structure has failed and should be replaced. A qualified contractor should evaluate and replace siding as necessary.

    For more information, visit:
    Failing LP Siding Help Page

    33) The exterior finish over the entire structure is failing. A qualified painting contractor should prep (pressure wash, scrape, sand, prime caulk, etc.) and repaint or restain the entire structure as per standard building practices.
    34) Sidewalk(s) and/or patios are undermined in one or more areas, where soil has eroded out from beneath. Significant damage has occurred, where one or more sidewalk and/or patio sections need replacing. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    35) Soil is in contact with or less than six inches from siding and/or trim. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. Wood siding and/or trim is rotten in some areas as a result. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary, replacing all rotten wood. Also, the soil should be graded and/or removed as necessary so there are at least six inches of space between the siding and trim and the soil below.
    36) One or more gutters are poorly sloped so that significant amounts of water accumulate in them rather than draining through the downspouts. This can cause gutters to overflow, especially when organic debris such as leaves or needles have accumulated in them. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as correcting the slope in gutters or installing additional downspouts and extensions if necessary.
    37) Gutters in one or more areas are significantly rusted or corroded. Leaks may result. A qualified contractor should evaluate and replace gutters where necessary.
    38) Siding is damaged and/or deteriorated in one or more areas. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs and/or replace siding as necessary to prevent water and vermin intrusion.
    39) One or more logs have bark on their exteriors. Bark harbors wood destroying insects and should be removed. Further evaluation should be made after bark is removed to determine if infestation of or damage from wood destroying insects has occurred.
    40) Soffit boards are damaged or deteriorated in one or more areas. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    41) Rot was found in one or more areas on soffit boards. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, replacing all rotten wood.
    42) Fascia boards are damaged or deteriorated in one or more areas. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    43) Rot was found in one or more areas on fascia boards. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, replacing all rotten wood.
    44) Rot was found at one or more rafter and/or barge board ends. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, replacing or removing rotten wood.
    45) One or more electric receptacles appear to have no power. Recommend asking the property owner(s) about this. Switches may need to be operated to make some receptacles energized. If necessary, a qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    46) One or more light fixtures are damaged and/or deteriorated. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair or replace light fixtures where necessary.
    47) One or more outside faucets appeared to be inoperable. No water came out of the faucet(s) when turned on. This may be due to a (winterizing) shut-off valve being turned off. As per the NACHI and ASHI Standards of Practice, the inspector did not attempt to turn on or off any water supply shut-off valves. Recommend that the client(s) ask the seller about outside faucets with no water, and/or have a qualified plumber evaluate and repair faucet(s) as necessary.
    48) One or more outside faucets leak. For example, from the valve stem when turned on or from the spigot when turned off. A qualified plumber should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    49) Water supply pipes are routed outside and are subject to freezing. The client(s) should ask the property owner(s) if inside shut-off valves exist for these supply pipes. If unable to determine if shut-off valve(s) exist, or if none do, then a qualified plumber should evaluate and install interior shut-off valves as necessary to prevent pipes from freezing and bursting.
    50) The gravel driveway is in poor condition. Repairs should be made as necessary, such as filling holes or grading, and new gravel should be spread.
    51) One or more landscaping timbers are rotten or damaged by wood destroying insects. Landscaping timbers should be replaced as necessary.
    52) The perimeter grading slopes towards the structure in one or more areas. This can result in water accumulating around the structure's foundation, or in basements and crawl spaces if they exist. Accumulated water is a conducive condition to wood destroying insects and organisms. Wet soil may also cause the foundation to settle and possibly fail over time. Recommend grading soil so it slopes down and away from the structure with a slope of at least 5% (10% or better is optimal) for at least 6 feet.
    53) One or more crawl space vent screens are blocked by soil, debris, insulation, stored items or removable panels. This restricts ventilation in the crawl space and may result in increased levels of moisture inside. Materials or items blocking vents should be removed.
    54) One or more crawlspace vents are below or near grade with no well to prevent rainwater from entering. This can lead to water entering and accumulating in the crawl space, and is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. A qualified contractor should install wells where necessary.
    55) Gaps exist at one or more openings around the exterior, such as those where outside faucets, refrigerant lines, and/or gas supply pipes penetrate the exterior. Gaps should be sealed as necessary to prevent moisture intrusion and entry by vermin.
    56) Siding is incomplete or missing in one or more areas. A qualified contractor should install siding where missing to prevent water and vermin intrusion.
    57) Cracks in "checked" logs are facing upwards, so rainwater will flow into them. Up-facing cracks should be sealed with an elastomeric sealant.
    58) One or more soffit vent screens are missing and/or deteriorated. Birds and vermin may enter the attic because of this. Screens should be replaced or repaired where necessary, or installed where missing.
    59) Soffits at one or more cantilever or overhang sections are unvented. This can result in moisture accumulation in floor cavities and rot. A qualified contractor should install screened vents in soffits where missing and as per standard building practices.
    60) Wood beams, joists and/or support posts are too close to the soil in some areas. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. Standard building practices require the following clearances to soil below:
  • 12 inches between beams and the soil below
  • 18 inches between joists and the soil below
  • 6 inches between support post bases and the soil below
    Efforts should be made, such as grading and/or removing soil, to maintain these clearances. If this is not practical, then installing borate based Impel rods may help to prevent infestation and damage.
    61) One or more exhaust duct end caps are damaged and/or deteriorated. Their purpose is to prevent unconditioned air from entering the house, and keep out birds, rodents and bugs. Blocked ducts can cause fan motors and/or clothes dryers to overheat and may pose a fire hazard. New vent cap(s) should be installed where necessary.
    62) Soil is in contact with or less than six inches from siding and/or trim. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. Soil should be graded and/or removed as necessary so there are at least six inches of space between the siding and trim and the soil below.
    63) Vegetation such as trees, shrubs and/or vines are in contact with or less than one foot from the structure's exterior. Vegetation can serve as a conduit for wood destroying insects and may retain moisture against the exterior after it rains. Vegetation should be pruned and/or removed as necessary to maintain a one foot clearance between it and the structure's exterior.
    64) This property is clad with composition wood fiber siding. Many brands of this type of siding by different manufacturers are known to deteriorate and/or fail prematurely due to moisture penetration. Failure is typically visible in the form of swelling, cracking and delamination, especially at the bottom edges. Class action lawsuits have been filed or are being filed against most manufacturers of this material.

    Some areas of siding on this structure show the symptoms described above, but it appears that the siding hasn't deteriorated to the point of needing replacement. Some manufacturers (Louisiana Pacific) recommend a repair process for this siding where affected areas are sealed with "Permanizer Plus", a flexible primer made by Pittsburgh Paint, followed by two coats of 100% acrylic latex paint. This sealant must be applied to the bottom edges using a brush. The face of the siding can be sprayed. The "Permanizer Plus" sealer isn't required for edges that aren't swollen, cracked or deteriorated, but the acrylic latex should still be brushed on these edges.

    At a minimum, recommend having a qualified contractor seal and repaint as described above, or by other methods specified by the siding's manufacturer. The client(s) may wish to have a qualified contractor evaluate further to determine if some or all of the siding should be replaced.

    For more information, visit:
    Pittsburgh Paints, PRIMERS -THE FOUNDATION FOR A TOP QUALITY JOB
    Failing LP Siding Help Page

    65) Window glazing putty at one or more windows is missing and/or deteriorated. Putty should be replaced and/or installed where necessary. For more information on replacing window putty, visit: http://www.oldhouseweb.com/stories/Detailed/12216.shtml
    66) The sealant on the logs appears to have failed. For example, water isn't beading up on the surface. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and treat logs with a waterproof sealant as necessary.
    67) Caulk is missing or deteriorated in some areas and should be replaced and/or applied where necessary. For more information on caulking, visit The Ins and Outs of Caulking.
    68) One or more light fixtures appear to be inoperable. Recommend further evaluation by replacing bulb(s) and/or consulting with the property owner(s). Repairs or replacement of the light fixture(s) by a qualified electrician may be necessary.
    69) Stains were found in one or more areas on soffit boards, but no elevated moisture levels were found and the wood appears to be in good condition. Based on the appearance of the roof, these stains may be from past leaks. Recommend monitoring these areas in the future. If moisture is observed, a qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    70) One or more sections of foundation and/or exterior walls are excluded from this inspection due to lack of access from vegetation, debris and/or stored items.
    71) Firewood is stored so that it's either in contact with the structure or very close to it. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects. Recommend storing firewood outdoors in an open area, as far away from the house as practical, to keep away insects. For more information visit http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2065.html
     
    Roof Return to table of contents
    Roof inspection method: Traversed
    Roof type: Gable
    Roof covering: Wood shakes
    Estimated age of roof: 50 years
    Gutter & downspout material: None
    Roof ventilation: None visible
    72) The roof surface material is beyond or at the end of its service life and needs replacing now. The client(s) should consult with a qualified roofing contractor to determine replacement options and costs.
    73) Some wood shakes are damaged and/or deteriorated. Over time, wood shakes typically curl, split, rot at the ends, "burn through", and/or become loose. Such failures typically result in exposed felt and/or leaks. A qualified roofing contractor should evaluate and replace shakes as necessary. Also, a qualified roofing contractor should clean the wood shake roof as necessary, and apply a preservative. Such repairs and maintenance should be performed every three to five years in the future.
    74) The roof structure below the surface is "skip sheathed" where batten boards rather than sheets of plywood support the roof surface. Installing a composition fiberglass or asphalt roof in the future will require the additional expense of installing sheathing, such as plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) over the batten boards.
    75) One or more sections of roof flashing are deteriorated and/or rusted. Leaks may occur as a result. A qualified roofing contractor should evaluate and replace flashing where necessary.
    76) Roofing nails in one or more areas have loosened or backed out. Leaks may occur as a result. A qualified roofing contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as reseating nails and applying sealant.
    77) Some wood shakes are damaged and/or deteriorated. Over time, wood shakes typically curl, split, rot at the ends, "burn through", and/or become loose. Such failures typically result in exposed felt and/or leaks. A qualified roofing contractor should evaluate and replace shakes as necessary.
    78) Moss is growing on the roof. As a result, shingles may lift or be damaged. Leaks may result and/or the roof surface may fail prematurely. This is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. Efforts should be taken to kill the moss during its growing season (wet months). Typically zinc-based chemicals are used for this, and must be applied periodically. For information on various moss treatment products and their pros and cons, visit http://bryophytes.science.oregonstate.edu/page24.htm
    79) The roof was partially obscured by accumulated debris and couldn't be fully evaluated.
     
    Attic Return to table of contents
    Inspection method: Viewed from hatch
    Roof structure type: Rafters
    Ceiling structure: Ceiling beams
    Insulation material: None visible
    80) One or more sections of wiring that weren't terminated were found. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, cutting the wire to length and terminating the wire with wire nuts in a securely anchored, covered, properly sized junction box.
    81) Wire splices are exposed due to not being contained in a covered junction box. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, install securely mounted junction boxes with cover plates where needed to contain wiring splices.
    82) Some wiring is loose, unsupported, or inadequately supported. Standard building practices require non-metallic sheathed wiring to be trimmed to length, attached to runners or to solid backing with fasteners at intervals of 4-1/2 ft. or less. Fasteners should be installed within 12 inches of all enclosures. A qualified, licensed electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, trim wire to length and/or install staples as needed.
    83) Extension cords are being used as permanent wiring in one or more areas. They should only be used for portable equipment on a temporary basis. Using extension cords as permanent wiring poses a fire and shock hazard, and is an indication that wiring is inadequate and should be updated. Extension cords may be undersized. Connections may not be secure, resulting in power fluctuations, damage to equipment, and sparks that could start a fire. Extension cords should be removed as necessary, or a qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, install additional circuits and/or electric receptacles.
    84) Flexible lamp or appliance cord is being used for permanent wiring in one or more areas. This wiring is not intended to be used as permanent wiring, and poses a safety hazard of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    85) Evidence of "light to moderate" rodent infestation was found in one or more areas. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) defines this as less than 20 feces per square foot. Rodent infestation may be a safety hazard due to the risk of contracting Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). HPS is a rare (only 20-50 cases per year in the United states) but deadly (40% mortality rate) disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in aerosolized virus. For example, from sweeping up rodent droppings.

    Recommend following guidelines in the CDC's Clean Up, Trap Up, Seal Up article for eradicating rodents, cleaning up their waste and nesting materials, and preventing future infestations. While Hantavirus is believed to survive less than one week in droppings and urine, specific precautions should be taken during clean up. The client(s) may wish to consult with a qualified, licensed pest control operator for eliminating the infestation. A qualified licensed abatement contractor or industrial hygienist could be contacted for clean up. If the infestation was minimal, clean up of rodent waste and nesting materials in non-living spaces (crawl spaces and attics) may not be necessary, or may be performed for aesthetic reasons only (odor and appearance).

    86) One or more hornet, bee and/or wasp nests were found. These can pose a safety hazard. Nest(s) should be removed as necessary.
    87) No ceiling insulation is installed in the attic. A qualified contractor should install insulation for better energy efficiency and as per standard building practices with an R rating recommended for this area.
    88) Ventilation is substandard in the attic. Inadequate attic ventilation may result in high attic and roof surface temperatures, reduce the life of the roof covering materials and increase cooling costs. High levels of moisture are also likely, and can be a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms. Standard building practices require one square foot of vent area for 150 to 200 square feet of attic space. Vents should be evenly distributed between soffits, ridges and at corners to promote air circulation. A qualified contractor should evaluate and install vents as per standard building practices.
    89) Screens are missing and/or deteriorated at one or more soffit, gable, and/or ridge vents. Birds and vermin may enter the attic because of this. Screens should be replaced or repaired where necessary, or installed where missing.
    90) Water supply pipes are uninsulated. Recommend insulating pipes as necessary for better energy efficiency and to prevent water pipes from freezing.
    91) Stains were visible on the roof structure in one or more areas. These areas were dry at the time of the inspection. The stains may be caused by a past leak. Recommend asking the property owner(s) about past leaks. The client(s) should monitor these areas in the future, especially after heavy rains, to determine if active leaks exist. If leaks are found, a qualified roofing contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
     
    Electric service Return to table of contents
    Primary service type: Underground
    Primary service overload protection type: Fuses
    Service amperage (amps): 60
    Service voltage (volts): 120
    Location of main service switch: Back of house
    Location of main disconnect: No single main disconnect, use all breakers in main service panel
    Service entrance conductor material: Copper
    System ground: Ground rod(s) in soil
    Main disconnect rating (amps): 60
    Branch circuit wiring type: Knob and tube
    Smoke detectors present: No
    92) This property has one or more Zinsco brand main service or sub panels. These panels and their circuit breakers have a variety of problems including:
  • Bus bars made from aluminum that tend to oxidize and corrode
  • Breakers that don't trip under normal overload conditions
  • Breakers that appear to be tripped when they're not

    These problems are a safety hazard due to the risk of fire. Recommend having a qualified electrician replace any and all Zinsco brand panels.

    If the Zinsco panel(s) are not replaced, then a qualified electrician should thoroughly evaluate the panel(s) and components within and make repairs as necessary. Recommend installing smoke detectors above Zinsco panels.
    93) This property has one or more main service or sub panels that use Zinsco brand circuit breakers. These panels and circuit breakers have a variety of problems including:
  • Bus bars possibly made from aluminum that tends to oxidize and corrode
  • Breakers that don't trip under normal overload conditions
  • Breakers that appear to be tripped when they're not

    These problems are a safety hazard due to the risk of fire. Recommend having a qualified electrician replace any and all panels that use Zinsco brand circuit breakers.

    If the panel(s) are not replaced, then a qualified electrician should thoroughly evaluate the panel(s) and components within and make repairs as necessary. Recommend installing smoke detectors above such panels.
    94) The main service panel uses older style, screw-in fuses. This type of fuse allows anyone to install incorrectly rated fuses, possibly resulting in damage to wiring. Based on the age and/or appearance of the panel(s) using fuses, and/or deterioration of the panels or components inside, recommend having a qualified electrician replace this panel with a modern panel and circuit breakers. If the panel isn't replaced, then a qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    95) One or more loose conductors in the main service panel have bare ends and are not connected to an overcurrent protection device (circuit breakers or fuses). This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire if the bare conductors come into contact with other components in the panel. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, removing wires that aren't terminated or installing wire nuts.
    96) One or more overcurrent protection devices (circuit breakers or fuses) are "double tapped", where 2 or more wires are clamped in a terminal designed for only one wire. This is a safety hazard since the bolt or screw may tighten securely against one wire, but leave others loose. Arcing, sparks and fires may result. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    97) One or more wires are burned or heat-damaged, or have melted insulation. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair or replace wiring as necessary.
    98) One or more clamps that secure the electric service's grounding electrode conductor(s) to the grounding rod(s) are rusted or corroded. Grounding may be inadequate as a result and may be a safety hazard for shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    99) One or more clamps that secure the electric service's grounding electrode and/or bonding conductor(s) to pipe(s) are rusted or corroded. Grounding and/or bonding may be inadequate as a result and may be a safety hazard for shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    100) This property has "knob and tube" wiring, which was commonly installed prior to 1950. It is ungrounded, and considered unsafe by today's standards. Over time, the wire's insulation may become brittle and fall apart or wear thin, resulting in exposed conductors and a risk of shock and/or fire. This wiring is also easily damaged by covering it with insulation (a common practice), and incorrectly tapping new wiring into it.

    Some energized knob and tube wiring was found during the inspection. It is not within the scope of this inspection to determine what percentage of this property's wiring is of the knob and tube type, or to determine what percentage of the knob and tube wiring is energized vs. abandoned. A qualified electrician should evaluate this wiring and make repairs or replace wiring as necessary.

    Note that some insurance companies may be unwilling to offer homeowner's insurance for properties with knob and tube wiring. Recommend that the client(s) consult with their insurance carrier regarding this.

    101) This property has "knob and tube" wiring, which was commonly installed prior to 1950. It is ungrounded, and considered unsafe by today's standards. Over time, the wire's insulation may become brittle and fall apart or wear thin, resulting in exposed conductors and a risk of shock and/or fire. This wiring is also easily damaged by covering it with insulation (a common practice), and incorrectly tapping new wiring into it.

    The inspector did not find any energized knob and tube wiring during the inspection. However this is no indication that all the knob and tube wiring has been abandoned. It is not within the scope of this inspection to determine what percentage of this property's wiring is of the knob and tube type, or to determine what percentage of the knob and tube wiring is energized vs. abandoned. A qualified electrician should evaluate this wiring and make repairs or replace wiring as necessary.

    Note that some insurance companies may be unwilling to offer homeowner's insurance for properties with knob and tube wiring. Recommend that the client(s) consult with their insurance carrier regarding this.

    102) Based on the shape of the electric meter socket enclosure, the size of the service entrance conductors, and/or the rating of the main disconnect device, it appears that the electric meter socket enclosure is undersized for this electric service. This is a potential fire hazard. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair if necessary.
    103) Based on the size of the service conductor wires and the rating of the main disconnect device, it appears that the service conductor wires are undersized for the main disconnect device. This is a potential fire hazard. The utility company and/or a qualified electrician should evaluate and repair if necessary.
    104) The inspector didn't remove the main service panel cover due to water leaking into the panel. This is a shock hazard. This panel wasn't fully evaluated. Repairs should be made as necessary to prevent water from leaking into the panel.
    105) One or more bushings are missing from where wires enter holes in the main service panel. This is a safety hazard since the wiring insulation can be cut or abraded on the metal edge of the hole(s). A qualified electrician should install bushings where missing.
    106) One or more knockouts have been removed inside the main service panel where no wires and bushings are installed, and no cover(s) have been installed to seal the hole(s). This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire. A qualified electrician should install knockout covers where missing.
    107) all of the up stairs open ground old two wire system
    108) interior & exterior electrical should be inspected by a licenced electrition
    109) The electric service to this property appears to be rated at substantially less than 200 amps, and may be inadequate for the client(s) needs. Recommend consulting with a qualified electrician about upgrading to a 200 amp service.
    110) The seal for the metal ring securing the electric meter to its base is missing or broken. The utility company installs these seals. Recommend consulting with the property owner(s) about this and/or contacting the utility company to have one reinstalled.
     
    Water heater Return to table of contents
    Estimated age: 30 years
    Type: Tank
    Energy source: Propane
    Capacity (in gallons): 30
    Manufacturer: American Standard
    111) Based on the location of the water heater and the visible venting, the water heater may have an inadequate source of combustion and/or dilution air. All gas appliances require adequate air (approximately 50 cubic feet per 1000 BTU) for combustion, dilution and ventilation. This is a potential safety hazard, and may result in combustion fumes entering living spaces. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as installing exterior vents, or grills in walls or doors.
    112) The water heater flame floats above the burner. This may be caused by improper gas pressure, the wrong orifice being installed, and/or a clogged flue. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    113) The water heater does not have seismic straps or struts installed. This is a potential safety hazard since movement can cause leaks in the gas supply lines or damage wiring. Leaks may also occur in water supply pipes. A qualified contractor should install seismic straps or struts as necessary and as per standard building practices.
    114) No temperature-pressure relief valve is installed on the water heater tank. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of explosion. A qualified plumber should install a temperature-pressure relief valve and drain line as per standard building practices.
    115) The inner flame shield for the water heater combustion chamber is missing, loose, or improperly fitted. This is a potential fire hazard. Repairs should be made as necessary, and by a qualified contractor if necessary, to replace, reinstall or repair the flame shield as necessary.
    116) Water stains were found below the water heater. This may be a sign that the water heater is failing. A qualified plumbing contractor should evaluate and replace or repair the water heater if necessary.
    117) No water supply shut-off valve is visible for the water heater. A shut-off valve allows the supply to the water heater to be turned off when the water heater needs repair or replacement, while allowing the remainder of the plumbing system to be operable (toilets, sinks, etc.). Recommend having a qualified, licensed plumbing contractor determine if a water supply shut-off valve exists, and install one if it is missing.
    118) A water heater is installed over finished living spaces and has no catch pan and drain installed. Recommend having a qualified contractor install a catch pan and drain to prevent water damage to finished interior spaces below if/when the water heater develops a leak or is drained.
    119) The estimated useful life for most water heaters is 8 to 12 years. The inspector was unable to determine the age of the water heater due to the manufacturer's label being obscured, no serial number being visible, or the serial number not clearly indicating the age. The clients should be aware that this water heater may be near, at, or beyond its useful life and may need replacing at any time. Recommend attempting to determine the water heater's age, and budgeting for a replacement if necessary.
    120) The water heater was turned off at the time of the inspection. For example, circuit breaker turned off, gas supply turned off or pilot light turned off. The inspector was unable to fully evaluate the water heater.
     
    Heating and cooling Return to table of contents
    Primary heating system energy source: Wood, Propane gas
    Primary heat system type: Forced air, Down draft, Standard efficiency
    Primary A/C energy source: N/A
    Primary Air conditioning type: N/A
    Distribution system: Metal pipe, N/A
    Manufacturer: YorkWood Stove
    Filter location: In return air duct below furnace
    Last service date: July 6 1956
    121) Because of the age and/or condition of this furnace, recommend that a qualified heating and cooling technician inspect the heat exchanger and perform a Carbon Monoxide test when it's serviced.
    122) Significant amounts of what appears to be mold is visible in one or more sections of supply and/or return air ducts. If it is mold, it can be a health hazard, especially for those with allergies or respiratory problems. The Environmental Protection Association (EPA) recommends considering having ducts professionally cleaned when "there is substantial visible mold growth inside hard surface (e.g., sheet metal) ducts or on other components of your heating and cooling system". The client may wish to have a qualified industrial hygienist or indoor air quality specialist evaluate the ducts and/or have a qualified contractor clean the ducts. For more information on duct cleaning in relation to indoor air quality, visit: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/airduct.html
    123) The furnace or boiler may not have an adequate supply of combustion and/or dilution air. This may cause Carbon Monoxide to accumulate and is a safety hazard. A qualified heating and cooling contractor should evaluate and determine if combustion and dilution air supply sources are adequate, and make repairs and/or modifications if necessary.
    124) Significant amounts of rust or corrosion were found on one or more gas supply pipes. Based on this deterioration, the wrong materials may have been used. For example, black iron pipe may have been used where galvanized iron pipe should have been used instead. Leaks may occur as a result. This is a safety hazard. A qualified heating and cooling contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    125) The furnace or boiler flame(s) are yellow or orange rather than blue. This may be caused by inadequate combustion air and/or dirty or clogged burners. A qualified heating and cooling contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    126) Significant amounts of debris, dirt and/or dust are visible in one or more sections of supply and/or return air ducts. This can be a health hazard, especially for those with allergies or respiratory problems. The Environmental Protection Association (EPA) recommends considering having ducts professionally cleaned when "ducts are clogged with excessive amounts of dust and debris and/or particles are actually released into the home from your supply registers". At a minimum, the visible debris should be thoroughly cleaned. Recommend having a qualified contractor clean the ducts. For more information on duct cleaning in relation to indoor air quality, visit: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/airduct.html
    127) Rodent evidence is visible in one or more sections of supply and/or return air ducts. This can be a health hazard, especially for those with allergies or respiratory problems. The Environmental Protection Association (EPA) recommends considering having ducts professionally cleaned when "ducts are infested with vermin, e.g. (rodents or insects)". Rodent infestation may also be a safety hazard due to the risk of contracting Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). HPS is a rare (only 20-50 cases per year in the United states) but deadly (40% mortality rate) disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in aerosolized virus. Recommend having a qualified contractor clean the ducts. For more information on duct cleaning in relation to indoor air quality, visit: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/airduct.html

    For more information on rodent clean up and prevention, see the CDC's Clean Up, Trap Up, Seal Up article for eradicating rodents, cleaning up their waste and nesting materials, and preventing future infestations. While Hantavirus is believed to survive less than one week in droppings and urine, specific precautions should be taken during clean up. The clients may wish to consult with a qualified, licensed pest control operator for eliminating the infestation. A qualified licensed abatement contractor or industrial hygienist could be contacted for clean up.

    128) What appears to be asbestos is visible on some ductwork. However, it appears to be intact and not significantly deteriorated. The client may wish to have this material tested at a qualified lab. For information on asbestos hazards in the home, visit http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PUBS/453.html
    129) The estimated useful life for most forced air furnaces is 15 to 20 years. This furnace appears to be at this age or older and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future.
    130) The furnace did not respond when its controls were operated. This system was not fully evaluated. The client(s) should consult with the property owner(s) as to how it operates and have a qualified heating and cooling contractor evaluate and make repairs if necessary.
    131) One or more heating/cooling ducts are lying on the ground. Ducts should be supported (typically with straps or hangers) so that they are not in contact with the ground and subject to damage from moisture. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary so ducts are suspended as per standard building practices, and not in contact with the ground.
    132) Insulation is missing on one or more heating/cooling ducts in unconditioned spaces. A qualified contractor should evaluate and install insulation as necessary and as per standard building practices.
    133) One or more rooms' interior doors have no gap below, or have a gap less than 3/4". As a result, return air flow out of the room is restricted with closed door(s) and the heating/cooling system on. This may result in the heating and/or cooling system having a reduced efficiency and higher energy costs. To allow adequate return air flow, recommend either trimming the bases of doors as necessary to maintain a 3/4" gap below, or leaving doors open while the heating or cooling system is in operation.
    134) No filter is visible for the heating/cooling system. As a result, unfiltered air will flow through the system, and the heating/cooling equipment life and the indoor air quality may be reduced. Correctly sized filter(s) should be installed. If necessary, guides or retaining devices should be installed or repaired so filter(s) are securely anchored and gaps around edges are minimized.
    135) The last service date of this system appears to be more than two years ago, or the inspector was unable to determine the last service date. The client(s) should ask the property owner(s) when it was last serviced. If unable to determine the last service date, or if this system was serviced more than two years ago, a qualified heating and cooling contractor should inspect, clean, and service this system, and make repairs if necessary. This servicing should be performed every few years in the future, or as per the contractor's recommendations.
    136) The air handler's filter(s) are damaged and/or deteriorated and should be replaced.
    137) Air handler filter(s) are dirty and should be replaced now. They should be checked monthly in the future and replaced as necessary.
    138) Air handler filter(s) should be checked monthly in the future and replaced or washed as necessary.
    139) The estimated useful life for most forced air furnaces is 15 to 20 years. The inspector was unable to determine the age of the furnace. The clients should be aware that this furnace may be near, at, or beyond its useful life and may need replacing at any time. Recommend attempting to determine the furnace's age (ask property owner or service technician), and budgeting for a replacement if necessary.
    140) Because of furnishings and/or stored items, the inspector was unable to determine if a source of heat is installed in each room where one should be installed.
     
    Plumbing and laundry Return to table of contents
    Water pressure (psi): 60
    Water service: Private
    Service pipe material: Galvanized steel
    Supply pipe material: Galvanized steel
    Vent pipe material: Galvanized steel
    Drain pipe material: Galvanized steel
    Waste pipe material: Cast iron
    141) One or more waste pipe cleanouts are poorly sealed where the cap is installed. This is a safety hazard because sewer gases may vent into the structure. A qualified plumber should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    142) Some, most, or all of the water supply pipes in this structure are made of galvanized steel. Based on the age of this structure, these pipes may be nearing or may have exceeded their estimated useful life of 40 to 60 years. Internal corrosion and rust can reduce the inside diameter of these pipes over time, resulting in reduced flow and eventually, leaks. The inspector performed a "functional flow test" during the inspection where multiple fixtures were run simultaneously, and found the flow to be adequate. For example, the shower flow didn't decrease substantially when the toilet was flushed. Despite this, and because of their apparent age, these pipes may need replacing at any time.
    143) Recommend having the septic tank inspected. Recommend having the tank pumped if it was last pumped more than 3 years ago.
    144) One or more active leaks were found in drain and/or waste pipes or fittings. A qualified plumber should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    145) Stains were found in one or more sections of drain and/or waste pipes. A qualified plumber should evaluate and repair if necessary.
    146) The clothes dryer exhaust duct is broken or disconnected in one or more places. Clothes dryers produce large amounts of moisture which should not enter structure interiors. Damage to building components may result. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make permanent repairs as necessary. For more information, visit http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PUBS/5022.html
    147) The washing machine is installed over a finished living space and has no catch pan or drain installed. These are not commonly installed, but they are recommended to prevent water damage to finished interior spaces below if or when the washing machine leaks, overflows or is drained. Recommend having a qualified contractor install both a catch pan and drain.
    148) The concrete laundry sink is cracked and likely to leak. Recommend having a qualified plumber replace the sink.
    149) The inspector was not able to find the main water shut-off valve. The client(s) should consult with the property owner(s) to determine if a shut-off valve exists, find it themselves, or hire a qualified plumber if necessary to find it. If no shut-off valve is found for the structure, then recommend having a qualified plumber install one to more easily allow the water supply to be turned off in the event of an emergency, such as when a supply pipe bursts.
    150) One or more main waste pipe cleanouts show signs of wear from having been opened, possibly multiple times. Clogging and/or damage to the waste system may have occurred in the past. The client(s) should consult with the property owner(s) regarding past repairs, and/or have a qualified plumbing contractor evaluate and repair as necessary. A video scope device may be used to inspect these lines and to determine if they have been damaged. Repairs are often expensive due to the need for excavation.
    151) This property has both a septic system and a water softener system, and the water softener's discharge line appears to be routed into the septic waste line. There is some debate as to whether this configuration is advisable because of the following:
  • Salt in the discharge water may kill the needed bacteria, causing sludge to build up, and possibly plugging the lines.
  • Salt may interact with clay in the leach field soil and cause the water to not disperse.
  • The discharge cycle may disturb the septic tank when it cycles (usually at night), and prevent sludge from settling, resulting in sludge escaping from the tank.
  • Marginally sized septic tanks can be overwhelmed by the volume of water during the discharge cycle and may cause sludge to escape.

    Recommend that the client(s) consult with one or more contractors who specialize in septic systems and water softeners for more information.
    152) Stains were found in one or more sections of drain and/or waste pipes. Recommend monitoring these areas in the future, and if leaks are found, have a qualified plumber evaluate and repair as necessary. Alternatively, the client(s) may wish to have a qualified plumber evaluate now and repair if necessary.
    153) Neither the clothes washer nor dryer were operated or evaluated. They are excluded from this inspection.
     
    Fireplaces, woodstoves and chimneys Return to table of contents
    Fireplace type: Masonry
    Woodstove type: Metal
    Chimney type: Masonry, Metal
    154) A significant amount of creosote (1/8 inch or more) is visible in the woodstove flue. A qualified chimney service contractor should inspect, clean, and repair if necessary now and annually in the future.
    155) The inspector was unable to determine if the woodstove and flue are installed safely, and in accordance with the manufacturers' specifications. The manufacturer's information label(s) were illegible and/or missing. Recommend having a qualified stove and/or chimney service contractor evaluate to determine if the woodstove and flue are in installed in accordance with the manufacturers' specifications, and make repairs and/or modifications if necessary.
    156) There appears to be inadequate clearance between the woodstove flue pipe and adjacent combustible surfaces. A qualified stove and/or chimney service contractor should evaluate to determine if clearances are adequate, and make repairs and/or modifications if necessary.
    157) One or more wood burning appliances such as fireplaces or woodstoves use an unlined masonry chimney for a flue. Standard building practices require that liners, such as terracotta flue tiles, be installed in masonry chimneys used for venting wood burning appliances. Exhaust gases may seep through gaps in masonry without a liner. This is a safety hazard. A qualified chimney service contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    158) One or more fireplace or woodstove hearths are less than 18 inches deep. This is a fire hazard. At a minimum, non-combustible hearth pad(s) should be installed. Ideally the hearth(s) should be modified as necessary or installed by a qualified contractor so they are at least 18" deep.
    159) Firebricks lining woodstove are cracked and/or broken. Firebricks should be replaced as necessary, and by a qualified stove or chimney service contractor if necessary.
    160) One or more chimney flue openings do not have a screen installed. Screens prevent the following:
  • Fire hazard from wood fire sparks and embers exiting flues
  • Wildlife (birds, rodents, raccoons, etc.) entering flues

    A qualified chimney service contractor should install screening where missing. Screens should have holes 1/4 inch or larger.
    161) One or more chimney flues do not have a screened cover installed. Screened covers prevent the following:
  • Fire hazard from wood fire sparks and embers exiting flues
  • Wildlife (birds, rodents, raccoons, etc.) entering flues
  • Rainwater entering flues and mixing with combustion deposits, creating caustic chemicals which can corrode flues
  • Rainwater entering flues and causing damage to terracotta flue tiles from freeze-thaw cycles

    A qualified chimney service contractor should install screened cover(s) where missing. Screens should have holes 1/4 inch or larger.
    162) One or more metal "pie plates" are installed to seal hole(s) in a masonry chimney. This is a substandard method for sealing holes since leaks likely exist around the pie plate. The chimney's draft may be affected and/or combustion gases may leak through around the pie plate. A qualified chimney service contractor should make repairs as necessary, such as replacing metal pie plates with masonry materials like brick, mortar and/or concrete.
    163) One or more fireplace and/or woodstove hearths are damaged and/or deteriorated. For example, loose or broken tiles and/or bricks. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    164) The masonry chimney's mortar is deteriorated and should be repaired to prevent further, significant deterioration. Recommend having a qualified chimney service contractor or mason evaluate chimney and repair as necessary. This will likely require repointing the mortar.
    165) Soot deposits were found on the glass in one or more gas fireplaces and/or woodstoves. This may be an indication of incomplete combustion. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as adjusting or repairing the burners and/or nozzles. Also the glass should be cleaned with a gas appliance ceramic glass cleaner. Ammonia-based products, such as common glass cleaners should not be used since they may cause damage or etching to the glass.
    166) All solid fuel burning appliances (woodstoves and fireplaces, etc.) should be inspected annually by a qualified chimney service contractor, cleaned and repaired as necessary.
     
    Basement Return to table of contents
    Pier or support post material: Wood
    Beam material: Solid wood
    Floor structure above: Solid wood joists
    167) One or more notches are cut into the middle third of joist(s). This is substandard construction and has damaged the joist(s). A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    168) One or more sets of stairs are wobbly. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary, such as installing additional supports and/or diagonal bracing.
    169) One or more open ground, three-pronged grounding type receptacles were found. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.

    Grounding type receptacles were first required in residential structures during the 1960s. Based on the age of this structure and/or the absence of 2-pronged receptacles, repairs should be made by correcting wiring circuits as necessary so all receptacles are grounded as per standard building practices. Replacement of three-pronged receptacles with 2-pronged receptacles is not an acceptable solution.

    170) One or more electric receptacles have burn or scorch marks on them. Receptacle(s) and/or wiring to them may be damaged. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as replacing damaged receptacles and/or wiring.
    171) One or more electric receptacles are worn, where a circuit analyzer test device indicates a disconnect or short. This condition is similar to having a loose wire inside a wall cavity, and is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and replace receptacles as necessary.
    172) Extension cords are being used as permanent wiring in one or more areas. They should only be used for portable equipment on a temporary basis. Using extension cords as permanent wiring poses a fire and shock hazard, and is an indication that wiring is inadequate and should be updated. Extension cords may be undersized. Connections may not be secure, resulting in power fluctuations, damage to equipment, and sparks that could start a fire. Extension cords should be removed as necessary, or a qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, install additional circuits and/or electric receptacles.
    173) Flexible lamp or appliance cord is being used for permanent wiring in one or more areas. This wiring is not intended to be used as permanent wiring, and poses a safety hazard of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    174) Evidence of "light to moderate" rodent infestation was found in one or more areas. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) defines this as less than 20 feces per square foot. Rodent infestation may be a safety hazard due to the risk of contracting Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). HPS is a rare (only 20-50 cases per year in the United states) but deadly (40% mortality rate) disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in aerosolized virus. For example, from sweeping up rodent droppings.

    Recommend following guidelines in the CDC's Clean Up, Trap Up, Seal Up article for eradicating rodents, cleaning up their waste and nesting materials, and preventing future infestations. While Hantavirus is believed to survive less than one week in droppings and urine, specific precautions should be taken during clean up. The client(s) may wish to consult with a qualified, licensed pest control operator for eliminating the infestation. A qualified licensed abatement contractor or industrial hygienist could be contacted for clean up. If the infestation was minimal, clean up of rodent waste and nesting materials in non-living spaces (crawl spaces and attics) may not be necessary, or may be performed for aesthetic reasons only (odor and appearance).

    175) Trip hazard(s) exist at stairs due to non-uniform riser heights. Standard building practices call for riser heights not to vary more than 3/8 inch on a flight of stairs. At a minimum, the client(s) should be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Ideally a qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace stairs so all riser heights are within 3/8 inch of each other.
    176) Stairs are unsafe due to a non-standard configuration, such as too-high riser heights and/or too-narrow tread depths. Standard building practices call for riser heights not to exceed eight inches and tread depths to be at least nine inches but preferably 11 inches. Riser heights should not vary more than 3/8 inch on a flight of stairs. At a minimum, the client(s) should be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Ideally a qualified contractor should repair or replace stairs so they conform to standard building practices.
    177) Trip hazard(s) exist at stairs due to non-uniform riser heights. Standard building practices call for riser heights not to vary more than 3/8 inch on a flight of stairs. A qualified contractor should repair or replace stairs so all riser heights are within 3/8 inch of each other.
    178) One or more flights of stairs with more than two risers have no handrail installed. This is a safety hazard. A qualified contractor should install graspable handrails that your hand can completely encircle at stairs where missing, and as per standard building practices.
    179) Evidence of prior water intrusion was found in one or more sections of the basement. For example, water stains and/or efflorescence on the foundation or floor, water stains at bases of support posts, etc. Accumulated water is a conducive condition for wood destroying insects and organisms and should not be present in the basement. The client(s) should review any disclosure statements available and ask the property owner(s) about past accumulation of water in the basement. The basement should be monitored in the future for accumulated water, especially after heavy and/or prolonged periods of rain. If water is found to accumulate, a qualified contractor who specializes in drainage issues should evaluate and repair as necessary. Typical repairs for preventing water from accumulating in the basement include:
  • Repairing, installing or improving rain run-off systems (gutters, downspouts and extensions or drain lines)
  • Improving perimeter grading
  • Repairing, installing or improving underground footing and/or curtain drains

    Ideally, water should not enter the basement, but if water must be controlled after it enters the basement, then typical repairs include installing sump pump(s) or interior perimeter drains.
    180) One or more floor joists are undersized for their span. Sagging and/or bouncing floors may result. In extreme circumstances, floors may collapse. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    181) One or more floor beams are undersized for their span. Sagging and/or bouncing floors may result. In extreme circumstances, floors may collapse. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    182) Lock mechanisms or locksets at one or more exterior entrance doors are inoperable and/or difficult to operate. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace locksets or lock mechanisms as necessary, so entry doors can be secured, and are easy to open, close and latch.
    183) One or more electric receptacles appear to have no power. Recommend asking the property owner(s) about this. Switches may need to be operated to make some receptacles energized. If necessary, a qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    184) One or more exterior entrance doors are damaged and/or deteriorated and should be repaired or replaced by a qualified contractor.
    185) The weatherstrip around one or more exterior entry doors is missing and/or deteriorated. Weatherstrip should be installed where missing and/or replaced where deteriorated, and by a qualified contractor if necessary.
    186) The weatherstrip around one or more exterior entry doors is damaged and/or deteriorated. Recommend replacing weatherstripping at entry door(s) where necessary.
     
    Well Return to table of contents
    Location of well equipment: Outside Pit
    Location of tank shut off valve: In well pit
    187) Cover plate(s) are missing from one or more electric boxes, such as for receptacles, switches and/or junction boxes. They are intended to contain fire and prevent electric shock from exposed wires. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire and shock. Cover plates should be installed where missing.
    188) Recommend having the well water tested for coliform bacteria, nitrates, and anything else of local concern, by a qualified lab. For more information, visit http://www.wellowner.org
    189) Based on information provided to the inspector, and/or evidence found during the inspection, the well casing may be closer than 50 feet to a septic system leach field. This is a potential source for contamination of the well water. The client(s) should consult with a qualified well contractor regarding this.
    190) This property's water pressure was below 40 psi at times during the inspection. 40-80 psi is considered to be the normal range for water pressure in a home. Most well equipment operates in a 20 psi range during its use and recharge cycle. The client(s) may find that the lower pressures in this range may not be adequate. For example, when one person is showering and another is using other plumbing fixtures. Modifications can be made such as adjusting or replacing the pressure regulator switch. Recommend having a qualified well or plumbing contractor evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For more information, visit http://www.wellowner.org/awellmaintenance/waterpressure.shtml
    191) The water from the well is significantly murky or loaded with sediment. Recommend having a qualified well and/or plumbing contractor evaluate to determine if a filtration system is needed.
    192) Rust or corrosion was found on one or more sections of pipe and/or fittings. This may cause leaks. A qualified well or plumbing contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    193) Rust, corrosion and leaks were found in pipes and/or fittings. A qualified well or plumbing contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    194) Significant amounts of rust or corrosion were found on the pressure tank. It may be nearing the end of its useful life. A qualified plumber or well contractor should evaluate and replace the tank if necessary.
    195) The cycle time of the well pump is too short. The pressure tank may be waterlogged. If the tank has a bladder it may be defective. The tank may need replacing or recharging. This system should be evaluated by a qualified well contractor and repaired as necessary.
    196) The pressure tank appears to be waterlogged. If the tank has a bladder it may be defective. The tank may need replacing or recharging. This system should be evaluated by a qualified plumber or well contractor and repaired as necessary.
    197) The estimated useful life for most well pumps is 15 to 20 years. Based on information provided to the inspector, or evidence found during the inspection, the well pump may be at this age or older and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future.
    198) The estimated useful life for most steel pressure tanks is 15 to 25 years. Based on information provided to the inspector, or evidence found during the inspection, the pressure tank may be at this age or older and may need replacing at any time. Recommend budgeting for a replacement in the near future.
     
    Kitchen Return to table of contents

    199) One or more open ground, three-pronged electric receptacles were found. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, replacing receptacles or correcting wiring circuits.

    Grounding type receptacles began being required in residential structures during the 1960s. Based on the age of this structure and the presence of 2-pronged receptacles in some areas of this structure, an acceptable repair may be to simply replace the ungrounded 3-pronged receptacles with 2-pronged receptacles. However the following appliances require grounding type receptacles:
  • Computer hardware
  • Refrigerators
  • Freezers
  • Air conditioners
  • Clothes washers
  • Clothes dryers
  • Dishwashers
  • Kitchen food waste disposers
  • Information technology equipment
  • Sump pumps
  • Electrical aquarium equipment
  • Hand-held motor-operated tools
  • Stationary and fixed motor-operated tools
  • Light industrial motor-operated tools
  • Hedge clippers
  • Lawn mowers

    This list is not exhaustive. Grounded circuits and receptacles should be installed in locations where such appliances will be used.
    200) One or more electric receptacles have burn or scorch marks on them. Receptacle(s) and/or wiring to them may be damaged. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as replacing damaged receptacles and/or wiring.
    201) One or more electric receptacles and/or the boxes they are installed in are loose and/or not securely anchored. Wire conductors may be damaged due to repeated movement and/or tension on wires, or insulation may be damaged. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    202) One or more electric receptacles that serve countertop surfaces within six feet of a sink appear to have no ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate to determine if GFCI protection exists, and if not, repairs should be made so that all receptacles that serve countertop surfaces within six feet of sinks have GFCI protection. For example, install GFCI receptacles or circuit breaker(s) as needed.
    203) One or more sink drains are missing a trap (a u-shaped bend in the drain pipe). Traps hold water in the drain pipe to prevent sewer gases from venting into the structure. A qualified plumber should evaluate and install vented p-traps where necessary.
    204) Lamp holders or light fixtures with fully or partially exposed bulbs are installed in one or more closets. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire. Flammable stored items may come into contact with hot bulbs, and hot fragments from broken bulbs may fall on combustible materials. Standard building practices require closet lighting to use fluorescent light fixtures, or to use fully enclosed incandescent fixtures. Installing a compact fluorescent lamp in a lamp holder is not an acceptable practice. A qualified electrician should replace closet lights as necessary and as per standard building practices.
    205) Cover plate(s) are broken at one or more electric boxes, such as for receptacles, switches and/or junction boxes. They are intended to contain fire and prevent electric shock from exposed wires. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire and shock. Cover plates should be replaced where necessary.
    206) The microwave oven appears to be inoperable. The client(s) should ask the property owner(s) about this, and if necessary, the microwave oven should be replaced, or a qualified appliance technician should evaluate and repair.
    207) The oven bake function appears to be inoperable. The client(s) should ask the property owner(s) about this, and if necessary, a qualified appliance technician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    208) One or more stove top burners are inoperable. A qualified appliance technician should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    209) One or more light fixtures are damaged and/or deteriorated. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair or replace light fixtures where necessary.
    210) One or more leaks were found at water supply lines. A qualified plumber should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    211) One or more faucets leak or drip when turned off. A qualified plumber should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    212) One or more cabinets and/or drawers are damaged and/or deteriorated. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace cabinets and/or components as necessary.
    213) Drawers are difficult to open and close in one or more cabinets. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    214) Countertops are damaged and/or deteriorated in one or more areas. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace countertops as necessary.
    215) Wood flooring in one or more areas is worn, damaged and/or cupping. Recommend having a qualified contractor evaluate and refinish wood flooring as necessary.
    216) The seal for the refrigerator door is damaged, deteriorated, misaligned or otherwise does not seal well. Energy efficiency may be reduced due to loss of cold air. For refrigerators more than 10 to 15 years old, it may be more cost effective to replace the refrigerator due to the high cost and limited availability of replacement gaskets, and higher efficiencies in newer refrigerators. Otherwise, repairs should be made by a qualified appliance technician, such as replacing the door seal.
    217) The refrigerator and/or freezer door handle(s) are loose and/or missing. Repairs should be made as necessary, and by a qualified appliance technician if necessary, such as tightening or replacing handles.
    218) No range hood is installed over the range or cook top. Ventilation and/or lighting may be inadequate and moisture may accumulate indoors. Recommend having a qualified contractor install a vented and lighted range hood, with the exhaust fan configured so as to vent outdoors.
    219) One or more sinks are clogged or drain slowly. Drain(s) should be cleared as necessary, and by a qualified plumber if necessary.
    220) Shelving or other components are missing from one or more cabinets. Missing shelving and/or components should be replaced, and by a qualified contractor if necessary.
    221) Hardware such as hinges, latches or pulls are loose and/or missing on one or more cabinets. Repairs should be made and/or hardware should be replaced as necessary, and by a qualified contractor if necessary.
    222) Handles and/or drawer pulls are not installed on one or more cabinets, where the drawers and/or doors are difficult to open without them. Recommend installing handles and/or pulls as necessary.
    223) Water damage was found in the shelving or cabinet components below one or more sinks. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    224) Vinyl flooring is damaged and/or deteriorated in one or more areas. A qualified contractor should replace or repair the damaged flooring.
    225) One or more control knobs for the range, oven and/or stove are missing or damaged. Knobs should be replaced where necessary.
    226) One or more light fixtures appear to be inoperable. Recommend further evaluation by replacing bulb(s) and/or consulting with the property owner(s). Repairs or replacement of the light fixture(s) by a qualified electrician may be necessary.
    227) The enamel coating on one or more sinks is damaged and/or deteriorated. For example, chipped or worn, and/or rust on some exposed steel. However, no leaks were found due to the deterioration. The client(s) should evaluate to determine if the sinks should be replaced.
    228) One or more kitchen appliances appear to be near, at, or beyond their intended service life of 10 to 15 years. Recommend budgeting for replacements as necessary.
    229) Water stains and/or minor water damage was found in the shelving or cabinet components below the sink. The client(s) should evaluate and consider having repairs made.
     
    Bathrooms Return to table of contents

    230)   NO BATHROOMS 3 HOLE OUT HOUSE
     
    Interior rooms Return to table of contents

    231) One or more open ground, three-pronged electric receptacles were found. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, replacing receptacles or correcting wiring circuits.

    Grounding type receptacles began being required in residential structures during the 1960s. Based on the age of this structure and the presence of 2-pronged receptacles in some areas of this structure, an acceptable repair may be to simply replace the ungrounded 3-pronged receptacles with 2-pronged receptacles. However the following appliances require grounding type receptacles:
  • Computer hardware
  • Refrigerators
  • Freezers
  • Air conditioners
  • Clothes washers
  • Clothes dryers
  • Dishwashers
  • Kitchen food waste disposers
  • Information technology equipment
  • Sump pumps
  • Electrical aquarium equipment
  • Hand-held motor-operated tools
  • Stationary and fixed motor-operated tools
  • Light industrial motor-operated tools
  • Hedge clippers
  • Lawn mowers

    This list is not exhaustive. Grounded circuits and receptacles should be installed in locations where such appliances will be used.
    232) One or more open ground, three-pronged grounding type receptacles were found. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.

    Grounding type receptacles were first required in residential structures during the 1960s. Based on the age of this structure and/or the absence of 2-pronged receptacles, repairs should be made by correcting wiring circuits as necessary so all receptacles are grounded as per standard building practices. Replacement of three-pronged receptacles with 2-pronged receptacles is not an acceptable solution.

    233) One or more electric receptacles have burn or scorch marks on them. Receptacle(s) and/or wiring to them may be damaged. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary, such as replacing damaged receptacles and/or wiring.
    234) One or more electric receptacles are worn, where a circuit analyzer test device indicates a disconnect or short. This condition is similar to having a loose wire inside a wall cavity, and is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and replace receptacles as necessary.
    235) Relatively few electric receptacles are installed in one or more interior rooms. This can result in "octopus" wiring with extension cords, which is a fire hazard. A qualified electrician should evaluate and install additional receptacles as necessary and as per standard building practices.
    236) Two-pronged electric receptacles rather than three-pronged, grounded receptacles are installed in one or more interior rooms. They are considered to be unsafe by today's standards and limit the ability to use appliances that require a ground in these rooms. Examples of appliances that require grounded receptacles include:
  • Computer hardware
  • Refrigerators
  • Freezers
  • Air conditioners
  • Clothes washers
  • Clothes dryers
  • Dishwashers
  • Kitchen food waste disposers
  • Information technology equipment
  • Sump pumps
  • Electrical aquarium equipment
  • Hand-held motor-operated tools
  • Stationary and fixed motor-operated tools
  • Light industrial motor-operated tools
  • Hedge clippers
  • Lawn mowers

    This list is not exhaustive. A qualified electrician should evaluate and install grounded receptacles as per the client(s)' needs and standard building practices.
    237) One or more electric receptacles that serve countertop surfaces within six feet of a sink appear to have no ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) protection. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate to determine if GFCI protection exists, and if not, repairs should be made so that all receptacles that serve countertop surfaces within six feet of sinks have GFCI protection. For example, install GFCI receptacles or circuit breaker(s) as needed.
    238) One or more light fixtures are loose or installed in a substandard way. A qualified contractor or electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary so light fixtures are securely mounted and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
    239) One or more light fixtures or lamp holders appear to be very old and may have brittle and/or deteriorated insulation. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of shock and/or fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and replace old fixtures as necessary.
    240) One or more sections of wiring that weren't terminated were found. This is a potential safety hazard due to the risk of shock. A qualified electrician should evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, cutting the wire to length and terminating the wire with wire nuts in a securely anchored, covered, properly sized junction box.
    241) Extension cords are being used as permanent wiring in one or more areas. They should only be used for portable equipment on a temporary basis. Using extension cords as permanent wiring poses a fire and shock hazard, and is an indication that wiring is inadequate and should be updated. Extension cords may be undersized. Connections may not be secure, resulting in power fluctuations, damage to equipment, and sparks that could start a fire. Extension cords should be removed as necessary, or a qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, install additional circuits and/or electric receptacles.
    242) Flexible lamp or appliance cord is being used for permanent wiring in one or more areas. This wiring is not intended to be used as permanent wiring, and poses a safety hazard of shock and fire. A qualified electrician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    243) One or more doors swing outward over stairs without a landing area in front of the door. This a safety hazard, specifically in the case of someone tripping or falling when standing on the stairs and opening the door while someone else walks through the door as it is opened. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary. For example, installing a door that opens in the other direction (away from the stairs).
    244) Evidence of "light to moderate" rodent infestation was found in one or more areas. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) defines this as less than 20 feces per square foot. Rodent infestation may be a safety hazard due to the risk of contracting Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). HPS is a rare (only 20-50 cases per year in the United states) but deadly (40% mortality rate) disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in aerosolized virus. For example, from sweeping up rodent droppings.

    Recommend following guidelines in the CDC's Clean Up, Trap Up, Seal Up article for eradicating rodents, cleaning up their waste and nesting materials, and preventing future infestations. While Hantavirus is believed to survive less than one week in droppings and urine, specific precautions should be taken during clean up. The client(s) may wish to consult with a qualified, licensed pest control operator for eliminating the infestation. A qualified licensed abatement contractor or industrial hygienist could be contacted for clean up. If the infestation was minimal, clean up of rodent waste and nesting materials in non-living spaces (crawl spaces and attics) may not be necessary, or may be performed for aesthetic reasons only (odor and appearance).

    245) This structure was built prior to 1979 and may contain lead paint. Laws were enacted in 1978 in the US preventing the use of lead paint in residential structures. Lead is a known safety hazard, especially to children but also to adults. Numerous areas of the paint found in and around this structure are in poor condition (peeling, flaking, etc.). Recommend consulting with a qualified industrial hygienist to determine the safest and most cost-effective action to take regarding the paint. Testing and/or abatement may be necessary. Also recommend following precautions as described in the following links to Consumer Products Safety Commission website articles regarding possible lead paint.

    What You Should Know About Lead Based Paint in Your Home: Safety Alert - CPSC Document #5054

    CPSC Warns About Hazards of "Do lt Yourself" Removal of Lead Based Paint: Safety Alert - CPSC Document #5055

    246) Trip hazard(s) exist at stairs due to non-uniform riser heights. Standard building practices call for riser heights not to vary more than 3/8 inch on a flight of stairs. At a minimum, the client(s) should be aware of this hazard, especially when guests who are not familiar with the stairs are present. Ideally a qualified contractor should evaluate and repair or replace stairs so all riser heights are within 3/8 inch of each other.
    247) No smoke alarms are visible. This is a safety hazard. A qualified electrician should install smoke alarms as per standard building practices (functioning one exists in hallways leading to bedrooms, and in each bedroom, etc.). For more information, visit http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/5077.html
    248) One or more electric receptacles are broken or damaged. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire and shock. A qualified electrician should replace them as necessary.
    249) One or more bedroom windows have inadequate egress in the event of a fire due to their being too high from the floor. Bedroom windows should have a maximum sill height of 44 inches from the floor. At a minimum furniture such as a chair should be located immediately below the window to improve egress. Ideally modifications should be made as necessary, such as moving or replacing window(s) to comply with these recommendations. For more information, visit http://www.taunton.com/finehomebuilding/pages/h00100.asp
    250) One or more bedroom windows have inadequate egress in the event of a fire due to the opening size being too small and/or being unable to open. Bedroom windows should be easy to open, stay open by themselves, and have:
  • A minimum width of opening of 20 inches
  • A minimum height of opening of 24 inches
  • A minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet (5 square feet for ground floor).

    Recommend having a qualified contractor make modifications as necessary, such as moving or replacing window(s) to comply with these recommendations. For more information, visit http://www.taunton.com/finehomebuilding/pages/h00100.asp
    251) One or more bedroom windows have inadequate egress in the event of a fire due to their being too high from the floor, having too small of an opening, and/or being unable to open. Bedroom windows should be easy to open, stay open by themselves, and have:
  • A maximum sill height of 44 inches from the floor
  • A minimum width of opening of 20 inches
  • A minimum height of opening of 24 inches
  • A minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet (5 square feet for ground floor).

    For windows that are too high, keeping furniture such as a chair immediately below the window can improve egress, but is not a permanent solution. Recommend having a qualified contractor make modifications as necessary, such as moving or replacing window(s) to comply with these recommendations. For more information, visit http://www.taunton.com/finehomebuilding/pages/h00100.asp
    252) One or more interior doors have a keyed lockset or deadbolt installed. This is a safety hazard for small children in the event that they lock themselves in the room, do not know how to unlock the door, and the key is not available. Keyed locksets and/or deadbolts should be replaced as necessary with "privacy" locksets that don't require a key.
    253) Trip hazard(s) exist at stairs due to non-uniform riser heights. Standard building practices call for riser heights not to vary more than 3/8 inch on a flight of stairs. A qualified contractor should repair or replace stairs so all riser heights are within 3/8 inch of each other.
    254) Handrail(s) at some stairs are loose. This is a safety hazard. A qualified contractor should make repairs as necessary. For example, installing new fasteners and/or hardware so handrails are securely attached.
    255) Carpeting in one or more rooms is loose and poses a trip hazard. A qualified carpeting installation contractor should restretch or replace carpet as necessary.
    256) Cover plate(s) are broken at one or more electric boxes, such as for receptacles, switches and/or junction boxes. They are intended to contain fire and prevent electric shock from exposed wires. This is a safety hazard due to the risk of fire and shock. Cover plates should be replaced where necessary.
    257) Some ceiling areas in this structure have "popcorn" textured surfaces possibly installed prior to 1979. This material may contain asbestos, which is a known carcinogen and poses a health hazard. Laws were passed in the United States in 1978 prohibiting use of asbestos in residential structures, but stocks of existing materials have been known to be used for some time thereafter. The client(s) may wish to have this ceiling material tested by a qualified lab to determine if it does contain asbestos.

    In most cases, when the material is intact and in good condition, keeping it encapsulated with paint and not disturbing it may reduce or effectively eliminate the health hazard. If the client wishes to remove the material, or plans to disturb it through remodeling, they should have it tested by a qualified lab and/or consult with a qualified industrial hygienist or asbestos abatement specialist. For more information, visit: http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PUBS/453.html

    258) Stains and elevated levels of moisture were found in one or more ceiling areas. The stain(s) appear to be due to plumbing leaks. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    259) The sash spring mechanism(s) in one or more windows are broken or loose. A qualified contractor or service technician should evaluate and make repairs as necessary so the window(s) operate as intended (open easily, stay open without support, close easily, etc.).
    260) Screen(s) in one or more windows are missing. The client(s) should ask the property owner(s) about this. Screens are often removed for window cleaning and they may be stored somewhere. If not, then recommend installing screens where missing.
    261) One or more doors bind in their jamb and cannot be closed and latched, or are difficult to open and close. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary. For example, adjusting jambs or trimming doors.
    262) One or more deadbolt mechanisms are inoperable or difficult to operate. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    263) Floors in one or more areas are not level. Significant repairs may be needed to make floors level, such as repairs to the foundation. A qualified contractor should evaluate and make repairs as necessary.
    264) Wood flooring in one or more areas is worn, damaged and/or cupping. Recommend having a qualified contractor evaluate and refinish wood flooring as necessary.
    265) Squeaking or creaking noises occur when walking on one or more sections of flooring. This is usually caused by substandard construction practices where the subfloor decking is not adequately fastened to the framing below. For example, not enough glue was used and/or nails were used rather than screws. In most cases, this is only an annoyance rather than a structural problem. Various solutions such as Squeeeeek No More and Counter Snap fasteners exist to correct this. Repairs to eliminate the squeaks or creaks may be more or less difficult depending on the floor covering, and the access to the underside of the subfloor. Recommend having a qualified contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.
    266) One or more air supply registers are loose or installed in a substandard way. Repairs should be made as necessary so registers are securely attached, flush with the surface they are installed on, and otherwise correctly installed.
    267) One or more windows that were built to open, will not open, or open only minimally due to their being painted shut, damaged and/or deteriorated in some way. Repairs should be made as necessary, and by a qualified contractor if necessary so windows open fully, and open and close easily.
    268) Lock mechanisms on one or more windows are missing and/or damaged so that they are inoperable. Repairs should be made by a qualified contractor or service technician so that windows lock and unlock easily.
    269) Glass in one or more windows is broken. A qualified contractor should replace glass where necessary.
    270) Screen(s) in one or more windows are torn or have holes in them. Screens should be replaced where necessary.
    271) One or more interior doors are damaged and/or deteriorated and should be repaired or replaced by a qualified contractor.
    272) One or more doors will not latch when closed. Repairs should be made as necessary, and by a qualified contractor if necessary. For example, aligning strike plates with latch bolts and/or replacing locksets.
    273) One or more bedroom doors has no gap between it and the floor below, or has a gap substantially less than one inch. This structure has a forced air heating system with centrally located return air ducts. When bedroom doors are closed, the only effective path for return air out of the bedrooms is under the doors. A minimum gap of one inch below bedroom doors is recommended to allow an adequate air flow for return air. Recommend trimming the bottoms of bedroom doors as necessary so each door has a minimum one inch gap at its base.
    274) One or more doors have no lockset installed. Locksets should be installed where missing.
    275) One or more locksets are damaged and/or deteriorated. Locksets should be replaced as necessary.
    276) One or more exterior entrance doors are damaged and/or deteriorated and should be repaired or replaced by a qualified contractor.
    277) The weatherstrip around one or more exterior entry doors is missing and/or deteriorated. Weatherstrip should be installed where missing and/or replaced where deteriorated, and by a qualified contractor if necessary.
    278) Vinyl flooring is damaged and/or deteriorated in one or more areas. A qualified contractor should replace or repair the damaged flooring.
    279) Carpeting in one or more rooms is damaged and/or significantly deteriorated. Recommend replacing carpeting where necessary.
    280) Trim is missing in one or more areas. Recommend having a qualified contractor install trim where missing.
    281) Trim is damaged and/or deteriorated in one or more areas. Recommend having a qualified contractor replace or repair trim as necessary.
    282) One or more rooms that are considered living spaces appear to have no visible source of heat. The client(s) should consult with the property owner(s) regarding this, and if necessary, a qualified contractor should evaluate and install heat source(s) as necessary.
    283) One or more light fixtures appear to be inoperable. Recommend further evaluation by replacing bulb(s) and/or consulting with the property owner(s). Repairs or replacement of the light fixture(s) by a qualified electrician may be necessary.
    284) Stains were found in one or more ceiling areas. However, no elevated levels of moisture were found. The stain(s) may be due to past roof and/or plumbing leaks. Recommend asking the property owner(s) about this, and monitoring the stained area(s) in the future, especially after heavy or prolonged rain. If elevated moisture is found in the future, a qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
    285) Minor cracks were found in ceilings in one or more areas. They do not appear to be a structural concern, but the client(s) may wish to repair these for aesthetic reasons.
    286) Minor cracks were found in walls in one or more areas. They do not appear to be a structural concern, but the client(s) may wish to repair these for aesthetic reasons.
     
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