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Website: http://www.interstatemold.com
Email: admin@interstatemold.com
Phone: (360) 597-3308 · (503) 984-5958
PO Box 30864 
Portland OR 97294-3864

   

Interstate Mold Inspection
SAMPLE *** REPORT

Client(s):  Mr. and Mrs. Smith
Property address:  123 Your street
Anytown, USA 12345
Inspection date:  Thursday, January 08, 2015

This report published on Friday, September 11, 2015 6:04:33 PM PDT

Thank you for choosing Interstate Mold inspection for your inspection needs. We strive to become the best inspection company in the northwest. Any comments about this report or recommendations for improvement please leave them on the contact page of our web site www.interstatemold.com. This report is the exclusive property of Interstate Mold Inspection Company and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized persons is prohibited. No section in part or whole may be reproduced except by authorized persons. This report is only for the listed day of the inspection ONLY. Any changes in humidity, water intrusions, leaks, etc. after the inspection could lead to a future mold infestation, and Interstate Mold Inspection is not responsible except for the specific day listed.]
How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas.  Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type.  Items of concern follow descriptive information. Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Concern typeSafetyPoses a safety hazard. Mold spore content very high
Concern typeMajor defectRemediation likely involves a significant expense
Concern typeRepair/ReplaceRecommend repairing or replacing
Concern typeRepair/MaintainRecommend repair and/or maintenance
Concern typeMinor defectCorrection only involves a minor expense
Concern typeMaintainRecommend ongoing maintenance
Concern typeEvaluateRecommend evaluation by a specialist
Concern typeMonitorRecommend monitoring air in the future
Concern typeServiceableItem or component is in serviceable condition
Concern typeCommentFor your information

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.Contact your inspector If there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at http://www.reporthost.com/glossary.asp

Table of Contents
General Information
Grounds and Building Exterior
Foundation, Basement and/or Crawl Space
Living Room
Kitchen
Bedroom #1
Miscellaneous room
Bedroom # 2
Bedroom #3
Bathroom #1
Bathroom #2
Laundry Room
Garage/Carport
MOLD Sample 1 (Outdoors)
MOLD Sample 2
Remediation Protocol
Definitions of mold spores and other fragments


General Information
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Report number: 2855
Time started: 8:35 am
Time finished: 10:55 am
Inspection Report delivered by: email
Present during inspection: Client
Client present for discussion at end of inspection: Yes
Payment method: Check
Inspection Fee: 000.00
Weather conditions: Partly cloudy
Age of building(s): 2006
Source for building age: Client
Outdoor temperature (degrees Fahrenheit): 62
Outdoor relative humidity (percent): 70
Indoor temperature (degrees Fahrenheit): 71
Indoor relative humidity (percent): 60
Occupied: Yes
Owner / Renter: Owner
Mold infestation found this inspection: Yes
Air Cell taken This Inspection: Yes
SAFE FOR OCCUPANCY?: No, Should not be occupied until clearance testing is completed
Did homeowner/occupant ask for remediation quote?: Yes
Remediation recommended: Yes, Referred to Remediation contractor
Type of building: Single family
Spaces below grade: Crawl space
Outside ground condition: Damp
Square footage inspected property: 2600
Were all windows and doors closed during Air Sampling: Yes
attic inspected: Yes
Attic air cell: No
Limitations: This is NOT a complete home inspection. This is only a Mold inspection completed by Interstate Mold Inspection Company. The following items are not included in this inspection: security, intercom and sound systems; communications wiring; central vacuum systems; elevators and stair lifts; cosmetic deficiencies such as nail-pops, scuff marks, dents, dings, blemishes or issues due to normal wear and tear in wall, floor and ceiling surfaces and coverings, or in equipment; deficiencies relating to interior decorating; low voltage and gas lighting systems. Any comments made regarding these items are as a courtesy only. Note that this inspector does not evaluate behind or below any areas or items which require moving stored items, furnishings, debris, equipment, floor coverings, insulation or similar materials. This inspector does not test for asbestos, lead, hazardous waste, bacteria, urea formaldehyde urethane, or any other toxic substance. The client should be aware that paint may obscure wall and ceiling potential mold infestations, floor coverings may obscure mold infestations, and furnishings (not movable) may obscure wall, floor mold infestations. If furnishings were present during the inspection, recommend a full evaluation of walls, floors and ceilings that were previously obscured when possible. Determining the cause and/or source of odors is not within the scope of this inspection. These inspection results are for the day and time listed in this report and any mold found growing after the day and time listed is not the responsibility of Interstate Mold Inspection Company.

1) The results of the air sampling showed that there is a higher count of mold spores inside the subject property than outside air. Recommendations have been made with the client's permission to alert a remediation company to quote the removing any mold infestations.

Interstate mold inspection company will give an accepted protocol to and work with the mold remediation company on the mold infestation that was noted.

There was also visual mold found in bedroom #1

When all remediation has been completed the client has the option to contact interstate mold inspection company to return and conduct a clearance test at a discounted price to verify that the mold remediation company has completed the remediation and all areas are free from mold.

2) Based on this inspectors opinion, and one or more of the following:
1. The occupants statement of upper respiratory issues that may increase
2. The size of the visual mold found
3. Laboratory results of air sampling
4. Laboratory results of tape or swab tests

It is not recommended that the occupants remain within the subject property until the remediation company can remediate and or locate the reason along with Interstate Mold Inspection for the laboratory analysis.

Once remediation has been accomplished then interstate mold inspection company can return and conduct a clearance test to verify the property habitable.

3)  
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Grounds and Building Exterior
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Excessive foliage surrounding subject property: No
Conditions were found that are conducive to increased moisture levels: No
Yard profile, FRONT: minor slope, Sloping away from property
Building siding: Vinyl
Downspouts: Good Condition
Downspouts: in ground
Gutters: Not Visible
Roof Material: 3 tab asphalt
Roof Condition: Good
Where outside air sampling taken: outside front entrance
Air O Cell duration/ volume: 10 minutes @ 150 L/m3

4) The outside air sampling was taken at 150 L/m3 for 10 minutes intervals
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Foundation, Basement and/or Crawl Space
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Conditions were found that are conducive to increased moisture levels: Yes, Slight moisture found but not excessive
leaks found: No leaks were found
Cracks found: No
Air sampling taken in this room: No

5) Evidence of prior water intrusion was found in one or more sections of the crawl space. For example, sediment stains on the vapor barrier or foundation, and/or efflorescence on the foundation. Accumulated water will increase moisture in the building and should not be present in the crawl space. The client should review any disclosure statements available about past accumulation of water in the crawl space. The crawl space should be monitored in the future for accumulated water, especially after heavy and/or prolonged periods of rain. If water is found to accumulate, a qualified contractor who specializes in drainage issues should evaluate and repair as necessary. Typical repairs for preventing water from accumulating in crawl spaces include:
  • Repairing, installing or improving rain run-off systems (gutters, downspouts and extensions or drain lines)
  • Improving perimeter grading
  • Repairing, installing or improving underground footing and/or curtain drains

Ideally, water should not enter crawl spaces, but if water must be controlled after it enters the crawl space, then typical repairs include installing trenches, gravity drains and/or sump pump(s) in the crawl space.

6) The vapor barrier in the crawl space was in some areas had voids. This may increase moisture in the building due to water evaporating from the soil and entering the building. A qualified person should evaluate and replace or repair sections as necessary. Standard building practices require the following:
  • The soil below the vapor barrier should be smooth and free from sharp objects.
  • Seams should overlap a minimum of 12 inches.
  • The vapor barrier should lap up onto the foundation side walls.

  • Better building practices require that:
  • Seams and protrusions should be sealed with a pressure sensitive tape.
  • The vapor barrier should be caulked and attached tightly to the foundation side walls. For example, with furring strips and masonry nails.
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Living Room
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Type(s) of windows: Vinyl
Double paned gas leaking excessive moisture: No
Potential Mold infestation found: No
Tape Test taken: No
Swab Test Taken: No
Wall type or covering: Drywall, Painted
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall, Acoustic spray
High Moisture in carpet: N/A
Carpet lifted and viewed: N/A
Flooring type or covering: Laminate
Air sampling taken in this room: No

7)  
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Kitchen
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Inspection under sink cabinet: One small leak detected from the hot side valve
Area Behind Refrigerator: Dry
Type(s) of windows: Vinyl
Double paned gas leaking excessive moisture: N/A
Potential Mold infestation found: No
Tape Test taken: No
Swab Test Taken: No
Wall type or covering: Drywall, Painted
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall, Painted
High Moisture in carpet: N/A
Carpet lifted and viewed: N/A
Flooring type or covering: Vinyl, linoleum or marmoleum
Air sampling taken in this room: No

8)  
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Only a small leak from the hot water side valve. recommend repairs
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Bedroom #1
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Type(s) of windows: Vinyl
Double paned gas leaking excessive moisture: Yes
Potential Mold infestation found: Yes, on the ceiling
Tape Test taken: No, Air sample to determine type and severity of mold
Swab Test Taken: No
Size of potential mold: over 2'X 5'
Wall type or covering: Drywall, Painted
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall, Acoustic spray
High Moisture in carpet: N/A
Flooring type or covering: Carpet
Air sampling taken in this room: Yes @ 150 liters/min, 10 min
Carpet lifted and viewed: N/A

9) Either the roof, walls appeared to have an active leak. A qualified mold remediation contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.

10) Some condensation or staining was also visible between multi-pane glass in one or more windows. This usually indicates that the seal between the panes of glass has failed or that the desiccant material that absorbs moisture is saturated. As a result, the view through the window may be obscured, the window's R-value will be reduced, and accumulated condensation may leak into the wall structure below. Recommend that a qualified contractor evaluate and repair windows as necessary. Usually, this means replacing the glass in window frames.

Be aware that evidence of failed seals or desiccant may be more or less visible depending on the temperature, humidity, sunlight, etc. Windows or glass-paneled doors other than those that the inspector identified may also have failed seals and need glass replaced. It is beyond the scope of this inspection to identify every window with failed seals or desiccant.

11) Stains and elevated levels of moisture were found in one or more wall or ceiling areas. The stains appear to be due to an active roof or exterior wall leak. Recommend that a qualified mold remediation contractor evaluate and repair as necessary.
Air sampling laboratory results attached to the report.
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This microbial growth was caused by an active roof leak
 

Miscellaneous room
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Double paned gas leaking excessive moisture: No
Type(s) of windows: Vinyl
Potential Mold infestation found: No
Tape Test taken: No
Swab Test Taken: No
Wall type or covering: Drywall, Painted
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall, Acoustic spray
High Moisture in carpet: N/A
Carpet lifted and viewed: N/A
Flooring type or covering: Carpet
Air sampling taken in this room: No

12)  
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Bedroom # 2
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Type(s) of windows: Vinyl
Double paned gas leaking excessive moisture: No
Potential Mold infestation found: No
Tape Test taken: No
Swab Test Taken: No
Size of potential mold: N/A
Wall type or covering: Drywall, Painted
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall, Acoustic spray
High Moisture in carpet: N/A
Carpet lifted and viewed: N/A
Flooring type or covering: Carpet
Air sampling taken in this room: No

13)  
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Bedroom #3
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Type(s) of windows: Vinyl
Double paned gas leaking excessive moisture: No
Potential Mold infestation found: No
Tape Test taken: No
Size of potential mold: N/A
Wall type or covering: Drywall, Painted
Ceiling type or covering: Drywall, Acoustic spray
Swab Test Taken: No
High Moisture in carpet: N/A
Carpet lifted and viewed: N/A
Flooring type or covering: Carpet
Air sampling taken in this room: No

14)  
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Bathroom #1
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Conditions were found that are conducive to increased moisture levels: Yes
Dampness or leaks found: Ceiling, Evaluate ceiling fan size
Area underside toilet tank (bottom): Clean
Mold found around tub area: very small amount
Bathroom Ventilation: exhaust fan
Bathroom Exhaust Fan: Undersized
Floor moisture readings: acceptable
Wall moisture Readings: good
Air sampling taken in this room: No

15) Your Bathroom exhaust fan appears to be underrated for the size of the room or is not operating at the proper speed or capacity. The average exhaust fan for this room should be 150 CFM. This will exhaust stream and moisture from the room to prevent mold from accumulating. Also check the exhaust piping to the roof. If the exhaust piping is leaking, broken, in the attic area or does not exhaust to the outside air then moisture can gather in the attic and cause a severe mold infestation.
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16) A very small leak was found in plumbing supply lines in bathroom. This may increase moisture in the building. A qualified contractor should evaluate and repair as necessary.
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NOTE ARROW
 

Bathroom #2
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Conditions were found that are conducive to increased moisture levels: No
Dampness or leaks found: None
Area underside toilet tank (bottom): Clean
Mold found around tub area: very small amount, Cleanable
Bathroom Ventilation: exhaust fan
Floor moisture readings: low
Wall moisture Readings: good
Air sampling taken in this room: No

17) The fresh air vents on one or more vents were closed. These vents are installed to maintain adequate indoor air quality and to reduce moisture levels in living spaces. Recent construction practices that result in tighter building envelopes have resulted in the need for fresh air sources in buildings. Large amounts of moisture are released into bathrooms from people showering. As a result, condensation around windows and/or exterior walls may occur if vents, windows, fans are non-operational or closed. This will increase moisture in the building. These area vents should be fully open at all times while showering.

18)  
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Laundry Room
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Area behind Washer: Dry
Exhaust Fan: Yes, working properly
Air sampling taken in this room: No

19)  
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Garage/Carport
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Mold found on walls: No
Excessive moisture: No
Air Sampling Taken in This Area: No
Water Heater: All areas behind water heater dry

20) All areas in this garage appear to be dry and free from any microbial infestations
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MOLD Sample 1 (Outdoors)
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General location: Outdoor
Specific location: Outside the front entrance
General type: Air
Sampling Method: 10 minutes, 150 L/m3
Refer to:: See associated laboratory report for more details of mold spores found
Remediation Recommended: Yes
Remediation Recommended: Interstate Mold Inspection only works with solid, honest mold remediation companies. Contact the any of the following mold remediation companies"

INTERSTATE MOLD INSPECTION COMPANY TAKES NO PART IN THE REMEDIATION PROCESS BUT WE DO RECOMMEND THE FOLLOWING MOLD REMEDIATION COMPANIES THAT ARE TRUSTWORTHY.

1. Name of remediation company IMI has worked with goes here
2. Name of remediation company IMI has worked with goes here
3. Name of remediation company IMI has worked with goes here

T E L L
T H E M
I N T E R S T A T E
M O L D
S E N T
Y O U
and we will share our information and knowledge with them.

21)   THE LABORATORY RESULTS OF MOLD SPORES AND OTHER FRAGMENTS PICKED UP IN THIS AREA ARE LISTED BELOW.
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AUREOBASIDIUM
BASISIOSPORES
CHAETOMIUM
CLADOSPORIUM
FUSARIUM
PENICILLIUM/ASPERGILLUS
STACHYBOTRYS
TRICHODERMA
ULOCLADIUM
HYPHAL FRAGMENTS
SKIN CELLS
POLLEN

MOLD Sample 2
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General location: Indoor
Temperature (degrees Fahrenheit): 71
Relative humidity (percent): 60
Client authorization: Granted
Reason: Serious mold infestations found
General type: Air
Species found: Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Stachybotrys
Air count, Aspergillus (pcm): 422
Air count, Chaetomium (pcm): 358
Air count, Cladosporium (pcm): 479
Air count, Stachybotrys (pcm): 362
Refer to:: See associated laboratory report for exact amounts of mold spores found
Remediation Recommended: Yes
Remediation Recommended: Contact the following mold remediation company
Air O Cell sample duration/volume: 150 Liters/min @ 10 minutes
Specific location: Outside master bedroom in hallway
Sampling Method: 5 minutes, 75 L/m3
Refer to:: See associated laboratory report for more details of mold spores found
Remediation Recommended: Interstate Mold Inspection only works with solid, honest mold remediation companies. Contact the any of the following mold remediation companies"

INTERSTATE MOLD INSPECTION COMPANY TAKES NO PART IN THE REMEDIATION PROCESS BUT WE DO RECOMMEND THE FOLLOWING MOLD REMEDIATION COMPANIES THAT ARE TRUSTWORTHY.

22) THE LABORATORY RESULTS OF MOLD SPORES AND OTHER FRAGMENTS PICKED UP IN THIS AREA ARE LISTED BELOW.
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AUREOBASIDIUM
BASISIOSPORES
CHAETOMIUM
CLADOSPORIUM
FUSARIUM
PENICILLIUM/ASPERGILLUS
STACHYBOTRYS
TRICHODERMA
ULOCLADIUM
HYPHAL FRAGMENTS
SKIN CELLS
POLLEN

Remediation Protocol
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23) Interstate Mold Inspection Remediation Protocol

NOTE: This protocol is included within this particular report for information only.
All the professional opinions presented in this report are based solely on the scope of work conducted and sources referred to in our report. The data presented by the Interstate Mold Certified Inspector in this report was collected and analyzed using generally accepted industry methods and practices at the time the report was generated. This report represents the conditions, locations and material that were observed at the time the fieldwork was conducted. The scope of work for this project did not include an assessment of other environmental conditions which might exist on the property. No inferences regarding other conditions, locations or materials at a later or earlier time may be made based on the contact of this report. No warranty is made. Interstate Mold Inspection's liability and that of its contractors and subcontractors, arising from any services rendered hereunder, shall not exceed the total fee paid by the client to Interstate Mold Inspection. This report was prepared for the sole use of our client. The use of this report by anyone other than our client, their repetitive or Interstate Mold Inspection is strictly prohibited without the expressed written consent of Interstate Mold Inspection Company. Portions of this report may not be used independently of the entire report. Interstate Mold Inspection Company does not conduct Mold remediation therefore we recommend a trustworthy company listed within to conduct all remediation. Interstate Mold also recommends that we return to conduct a clearance inspection after remediation.

STEP #1: INSPECTION

* To determine whether the property has a mold problem requiring remediation, the certified inspector from Interstate Mold Inspection Company, uses a wide variety of mold testing techniques and technologies. The air is sampled via Air-O-Cell Sampler and topical samples are taken through the use of swabs and tape lifts. This process enables the certified inspector to define the areas of removal and provide oversight for the project.

* Consult with the construction and remodeling group prior to removal to facilitate efficient reconstruction of the space.

* Develop a project time line and communicate this with building representatives prior to the remediation and construction project. Provide contact numbers if occupants have questions about the project.

STEP #2: PERSONNEL

* Individuals trained in the handling of hazardous materials.

* Provide right-to-know training on exposure to the chemicals used and the health effects of exposure to the fungal organisms.

STEP #3: PPE

* Full faced negative pressure respirators (North 7600 series) with CD/CL/HC/HF/OV/SD/P100 cartridges. The cartridge protects against chlorine dioxide, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, organic vapor, sulfur dioxide and provides a HEPA filter to protect against particles.

* Disposable tyvek coveralls covering both the head and the shoes.

* Gloves: Neoprene, Rubber, Leather or cotton depending on the material to be removed. Leather is recommended when sharp material is expected to be encountered during the demolition.

* Tools: Pliers or cutters to break up metal mesh in plaster walls. These and other tools are used to reduce skin contact with sharp objects.

STEP #4: HYGIENE

* Wash hands after exiting the enclosure and prior to using the hands to place anything in the mouth. Fungal organisms can cause dermatitis. Ingestion of the bacteria or fungi can cause severe diarrhea.

* During the exit from the enclosure, remove the coveralls leaving them inside either the enclosure or the first stage (dirty room) of the two stage decontamination room. In some cases, space will not allow for construction of the decontamination room.

* In the change area, take off the respirator. Remove the cartridges. Clean the surfaces of the cartridges with a disinfectant wipe and keep the cartridges for reuse. Soak and clean the respirator in a gallon of disinfectant (1/2 oz. A-33 quaternary ammonia disinfectant per gallon of water). Rinse the respirator in water, clean with a disinfectant wipe and dry with a clean towel.

* After an exhaust fan with a HEPA filter is used on a job site, the prefilter is covered with 4-6 mil poly and sealed with duct tape.

STEP #5: CONTAINMENT OF AFFECTED AREA

* Complete isolation of work area from occupied spaces using plastic (4-6 mil poly) sheeting sealed with duct tape (including ventilation ducts/grills, fixtures and other openings).

* Use an exhaust fan with a HEPA filter to generate negative pressurization. Use the appropriate sized unit for the space. For example, an Ulti Vac may be used for a glove bag removal, a HEPA Jr. for an office sized room and larger units for bigger areas. Do not use the same units for asbestos and mold removal. If units are shared, a break in the HEPA filter could change a mold containment into an asbestos containment.

* The two sections of the Ulti Vacs are reinforced with duct tape wrapped around the taped junction in the middle of the vacuum unit.

* If space allows, construct a two stage decontamination room with a changing area and a dirty room attached to the entrance of the containment area.

STEP #6: CONTROL OF EXPOSURE TO ADJACENT AREAS

* Vacating people from spaces in not necessary but is recommended for individuals with reduced immune systems, infants, recent surgery patients, people with chronic inflammatory lung diseases or individuals with respiratory health concerns (asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and severe allergies).

* In general, there are fewer occupant complaints about the remediation if the adjacent spaces are vacated. The complaints about construction related odors are reduced and there is more space to place cleanup material.

STEP #7: PAINTING AND APPLYING BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE
* Exhaust fan discharge is outside building - Keep HEPA exhaust fan on during the application of Benzalkonium Chloride and anti-microbial paint. Make sure adjacent outside windows are shut, the discharge is not close to an air intake, and window air conditions are shut off or set on re-circulation.

* Exhaust fan discharge is inside building - Shut off HEPA exhaust fan during the application of Benzallkonium Chloride and anti-microbial paint. Turn the fan back on when the odor is no longer noticeable.

* Applying Benzalkonium Chloride to visible fungal growth prior to removal of material. Apply the Benzallkonium Chloride solution to the surface and wait sixty minutes prior to removing the material. This provides sufficient time for the Benzalkonium Chloride to disinfect the material and reduces the dust generated because the material is wetted.

* In some cases, a surface is lightly misted with a Benzalkonium Chloride solution prior to painting. Painting of the surface may begin within 90 minutes of the Benzallkonium Chloride misting.

STEP #8: REMOVAL OF CONTAINMENT MATERIALS

* Containment materials that cannot be cleaned should be removed from the building in sealed plastic bags. The outside of the bags could be cleaned with a damp cloth and a detergent solution or HELP vacuumed in the decontamination chamber prior to their transport to uncontaminated areas of the building. There are no special requirements for the disposal of moldy materials. Moldy materials that are bagged can be disposed of with other general waste.

* Dirt, debris and broken plaster may be placed in 55 gallon drums inside the containment area. Before removal from the containment area, close the drum and clean the outside surface.

STEP #9: CLEANING OF THE CONTAINMENT AREA

* The contained area and decontamination room should be HEPA vacuumed and cleaned with a damp cloth and/or mop with a detergent solution and be visibly clean prior to the removal of isolation barriers.

STEP #10: CONTAINMENT OF AREA USED DURING RECONSTRUCTION
* After the containment area has been cleaned, the enclosure can be used to contain the dusts generated by the sheetrock sanding and taping activities. This is done to reduce the problems with cleanup when reconstruction is completed. The use of HEPA exhaust filter is not required. The two stage decontamination area is also not needed.

STEP #11: FINAL INSPECTION

* Prior to re-occupancy of the space, a visual inspection and or air sampling will be done by any inspector from INTERSTATE MOLD INSPECTION COMPANY. Re-occupancy may occur when the space passes the inspection.

STEP #12" REFERENCES

Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments, New York City Department of Health Bureau of Environment & Occupational Disease Epidemiology. April, 2000 16p.

Managing Water Infiltration in Buildings, U of MN DEHS and Institute for Environmental Assessment. N.G. Carlson and A. Quraishi - 1998.

Additional procedures developed in consultation with Leviticus Corporation.

RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES
Remediators should perform remediation in compliance with the Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification (IICRC) mold removal guidelines, The New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene Bureau of Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology guidelines
or in compliance with EPA mold removal guidelines for schools and commercial buildings. Air conditioner remediation should be done by a licensed AC contractor who specializes in cleaning mold contaminated HVAC systems. HVAC remediation work should be done in compliance with NADCA recommendations. The remediator should follow any applicable recommendations that the indoor environmental professional included below.

CONTRACTOR RESPONSIBILITIES
Remediation services should be rendered only by a professional, experienced, mold remediator who can verify the following: proper insurance coverage, proper certifications in mold remediation by a non-profit organization (such as IICRC, or AmIaq,) and possesses any licenses required in your area.
All work shall be done in strict accordance with all applicable regulations, standards, and codes.
It is highly recommended that the remediator use a legal written contract which outlines the contractor's responsibilities and client's obligations as well as cost estimates, limitations and disclaimers. The agreement must be made prior to remediation regarding who is responsible for build-back of building materials after moldy building materials have been removed. All personal property removed by the remediator shall be returned to their proper locations after remediation is complete.
Employees must demonstrate completion of mold remediation training and respirator training. Employees must demonstrate hazardous communication training as required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200). Tyvec coveralls should be utilized along with proper gloves, goggles, and foot cover. NIOSH-approved respirators and cartridges are highly recommended. Adequate respiratory protection must be utilized in accordance with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134. In addition, the extent of coverall use and selection of respirator type and selection of containment type at this specific job site must comply with the mold removal guidelines prescribed by New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene Bureau of Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology.
The remediator shall use all appropriate controls and work practices which are standard in the indoor air environment and mold remediation industry that apply, regardless of the inclusion or exclusion of such standards in this document. Should the above scope or protocol or any part thereof not be specifically adhered to, the consultant and mold inspection company shall be held harmless by all parties.

CONTAINMENT
The containment enclosure will be in the form of 6 mil thick polyethylene sheeting. The remediator shall enclose in 6 mil polyethylene sheeting any and all HVAC system returns and air vents, and any ceiling voids above ceiling tile in the containment area that are used as return air plenums.
Also, all conduits, chases, risers and doors within the containment area shall be sealed with 6 mil plastic to minimize the migration of contaminants to other parts of the building. It is highly recommended that warning signs be posted that inform persons that mold remediation work is ongoing. In addition, it is highly recommended that remediators restrict access to the work areas.
Pressure in the containment enclosure must be negative at least 5 pascals or 0.02 inches water gauge relative to non contaminated areas outside of the containment enclosure. Contractors can verify negative pressure with a digital manometer. It is highly recommended that containment barriers be constructed so that containment flaps close if negative pressure is lost. In addition to the creation of negative pressure, it is highly recommended that a containment area achieve four to twelve air changes per hour for containment air ventilation and dilution.
Air being removed from the containment enclosure should be HEPA filtered and emptied outside, away from air intakes. If it is not possible to exhaust air outside, the air must be HEPA filtered and a particle counter should be utilized to confirm proper function of the filter. Air scrubbers equipped with HEPA filters and capable of at least 600 to 1,000 cfm must be used in all enclosed work areas during remediation and for at least 48 hours after remediation. Expanding containment may be necessary when hidden fungal contamination is discovered. The creation of negative pressure differentials may create a risk of carbon monoxide exposure from back drafting of carbon monoxide, or fire hazards due to rollout of fire from gas appliances. Caution, judgment, and proper planning must be used whenever gas appliances, fireplaces, laboratory hoods and other potential pathways which may be affected by the creation of nearby negative pressure. Negatively pressurized containment in hot humid climates or seasons can cause humidity to be sucked into containment areas through openings in walls, ceilings, and floors.

HVAC SYSTEM SHUT DOWN
Any air conditioner in the enclosed work area or with a return in the enclosed work area must be shut down, locked out, and all registers, grills, and returns must be sealed and taped with barriers consisting of polyethylene sheeting. Supplemental portable heating or air conditioning may be used in the building or work area if needed to maintain favorable temperatures for workers and building occupants.

REMOVAL OF PERSONAL ITEMS
All furniture, clothes, mirrors, and other personal items must be be removed from the work areas and stored in a safe, dry place. Removal will deter cross contamination and will almost always expose hidden mold behind personal items. Hard-surfaced personal items that were in contaminated areas must be wiped with fungicide. Porous items in same areas must be HEPA vacuumed or disposed of. All non-movable and attached items in the work area shall be sealed with polyethylene sheeting after being first HEPA vacuumed and then wet wiped with fungicide, exercise caution when wrapping salvageable items to prevent trapping moisture.

SPORE SUPPRESSION
Prior to removal and disposal of any moldy materials, spore suppression is recommended. Spore suppression can be in the form of HEPA vacuuming moldy surfaces, covering moldy materials with sticky sheets of plastic covering, or simply spraying the moldy material with a misting of fungicide. Only EPA-approved fungicides should be used, such as a products manufactured by Fiberlock or similar companies.
1. All areas to be treated with a biocide must be clean.

2. Vacuum all debris in an appropriate hepa-vac.

3. Using a wire brush, aggressively scrub all areas to be treated with a solution containing one part water, one part sodium hypo chloride and 2 ounces of anionic surfactant. Let dry completely.

4. Using a sprayer, thoroughly saturate the entire area with the pre-mixed biocide (Benzalkonium Chloride or Lophene). Let dry completely.

5. Repeat step number four.I

6. Spray or brush on an antimicrobial sealant (Tim bor, fosters). Complete coverage is essential.

7. Perform Interstate Mold Inspection clearance tests to verify any mold infestation has been irradiated.

Definitions of mold spores and other fragments
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24) Aureobasidium pullulans is a ubiquitous black, yeast-like fungus that can be found in different environments (e.g. soil, water, air and limestone). It is well known as a naturally occurring epiphyte or endophyte of a wide range of plant species (e.g. apple, grape, cucumber, green beans, cabbage) without causing any symptoms of disease. Pullulans has a high importance in biotechnology for the production of different enzymes, siderophores and pullulan. Furthermore A. pullulans is used in biological control of plant diseases, especially storage diseases
Chronic human exposure to Pullulans via humidifiers or air conditioners can lead to hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) or "humidifier lung". This condition is characterized acutely by dyspnea, cough, fever, chest infiltrates, and acute inflammatory reaction. The condition can also be chronic, and lymphocyte-mediated. The chronic condition is characterized radiographically by reticulonodular infiltrates in the lung, with apical sparing. The strains causing infections in humans were reclassified to melanogenum

25) Basidiospore
A basidiospore is a reproductive spore produced by Basidiomycete fungi. Basidiospores typically each contain one haploid nucleus that is the product of meiosis, and they are produced by specialized fungal cells called basidia. In gills under a cap of one common species in the phylum of Basidiomycota, there exist millions of basidia. Mature state of basidia has the base usually topped with four basidiospores in which contains one from the two haploid nucleus obtained from the process of meiosis. Because of this, a single mushroom has the ability to release a billion spores. Most basidiospores are forcibly discharged, and are thus considered ballistospores.
Basidiomycetes form sexual spores externally from a structure called a basidium. Four basidiospores develop on appendages from each basidium. These spores serve as the main air dispersal units for the fungi. The spores are released during periods of high humidity and generally have a night-time or pre-dawn peak concentration in the atmosphere.
When basidiospores encounter a favorable substrate, they may germinate, typically by forming hyphae. These hyphae grow outward from the original spore, forming an expanding circle of mycelium. The circular shape of a fungal colony explains the formation of fairy rings, and also the circular lesions of skin-infecting fungi that cause ringworm. Some basidiospores germinate repetitively by forming small spores instead of hyphae.
General structure and shape
Basidiospores are generally characterized by an attachment peg (called a hilar appendage) on its surface. This is where the spore was attached to the basidium. The hilar appendage is quite prominent in some basidiospores, but less evident in others. An apical germ pore may also be present. Many basidiospores have an asymmetric shape due to their development on the basidium. Basidiospores are typically single-celled (without septa), and typically range from spherical to oval to oblong, to ellipsoid or cylindrical. The surface of the spore can be fairly smooth, or it can be ornamented.
Industrial uses: Edible mushrooms are used in the food industry.
Potential Toxins produced: Amanitins, monomethyl-hydrazine, muscarine, ibotenic acid, psilocybin.
Basidiospores are the result of sexual reproduction and formed on a structure called the basidium. Basidiospores belong to the members of the Phylum Basidiomycota, which includes mushrooms, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts.

26) Chaetomium is a genus of fungi in the Chaetomiaceae family. It is a dematiaceous (dark-walled) mold normally found in soil, air, and plant debris. According to the Dictionary of the Fungi (10th edition, 2008), there are about 95 species in the widespread genus.[1]

Members of this genus typically have superficial, ostiolar perithecia, covered in hairs. Asci are often clavate and evanescent, bearing eight spores. Ascospores are usually lemon-shaped, commonly colored olive-brown. Mycelia often grows in conglomerate masses that resemble rope.[2]

As well as being a contaminant, Chaetomium spp. are also encountered as causative agents of infections in humans. A few cases of fatal deep infections due to Chaetomium atrobrunneum have been reported in the immunocompromised host. Other clinical syndromes include brain abscess, peritonitis, and onychomycosis.

Chaetomium infections in humans can be avoided by proper hygiene habits. For instance, the Sohnian Kittah strain's presence can often be eliminated entirely with household products. Showering with soap after working out in a community gymnasium will help reduce the chance for infection

27) Cladosporium is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds. Species produce olive-green to brown or black colonies, and have dark-pigmented conidia that are formed in simple or branching chains.

The many species of Cladosporium are commonly found on living and dead plant material. Some species are plant pathogens, others parasitize other fungi. Cladosporium spores are wind-dispersed and they are often extremely abundant in outdoor air. Indoors Cladosporium species may grow on surfaces when moisture is present.
Cladosporium species are rarely pathogenic to humans, but have been reported to cause infections of the skin and toenails, as well as sinusitis and pulmonary infections. If left untreated, these infections could turn into respiratory infections like pneumonia.

The airborne spores of Cladosporium species are significant allergens, and in large amounts they can severely affect asthmatics and people with respiratory diseases. Cladosporium species produce no major mycotoxins of concern, but do produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with odors.

28) Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants. Most species are harmless saprobes, and are relatively abundant members of the soil microbial community. Some species produce mycotoxins in cereal crops that can affect human and animal health if they enter the food chain. The main toxins produced by these Fusarium species are fumonisins and trichothecenes.
Some species may cause a range of opportunistic infections in humans. In humans with normal immune systems, fusarial infections may occur in the nails (onychomycosis) and in the cornea (keratomycosis or mycotic keratitis).[5][6] In humans whose immune systems are weakened in a particular way, (neutropenia, i.e., very low neutrophils count), aggressive fusarial infections penetrating the entire body and bloodstream (disseminated infections) may be caused by members of the Fusarium solani complex, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium proliferatum and, rarely, other fusarial species.

29) Penicillium species are present in the air and dust of indoor environments, such as homes and public buildings. The fungus can be readily transported from the outdoors, and grow indoors using building material or accumulated soil to obtain nutrients for growth. Penicillium growth can still occur indoors even if the relative humidity is low, as long as there is sufficient moisture available on a given surface. A British study determined that Aspergillus- and Penicillium-type spores were the most prevalent in the indoor air of residential properties, and exceeded outdoor levels.[14] Even ceiling tiles can support the growth of Penicillium—as one study demonstrated—if the relative humidity is 85% and the moisture content of the tiles is greater than 2.2%.
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In the indoor environment, Aspergillus can be found in household dust, building materials, ornamental plants, flower arrangements, tobacco, food and water (Warris & Verwej 2005). Dispersal of fungal structures (spores, hyphal fragments) is impacted by activities such as construction, demolition, excavation, disturbance of dust accumulations during routine cleaning, water intrusion and moisture accumulation. In addition, Aspergillus outbreaks in healthcare facilities have been associated with contaminated air conditioners, air filters, particle board frames of air filters, air duct systems, ceiling tiles and fireproofing materials (Haiduven 2009). However, concentrations of Aspergillus spores have not been found to be correlated to any seasonal pattern or the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis (Hospenthal et al. 1998). Also, the relationship between airborne spore counts and infection risk has been difficult to assess because it has been impossible to relate a specific number of airborne spores to a quantifiable infection risk among patients, including highly immunocompromised patients. For this reason, the CDC has not provided recommendations regarding routine microbiologic air sampling before, during, or after facility construction or renovation, or before or during occupancy of areas housing immunocompromised patients (Weber 2009).

30) Scopulariopsis is a genus of anamorphic fungi that are saprobic and pathogenic to animals.[1] The widespread genus contains 22 species.[2] Scopulariopsis belongs to the group Hyphomycetes. These species are commonly found in soil, decaying wood, and various other plant and animal products. In indoor environment Scopulariopsis is found on dry walls, cellulose board, wallpaper, wood, and mattress dust. Species of Scopulariopsis have also been isolated from carpets, hospital floors, swimming pools, wooden food packing, shoes and wood pulp.

31) Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that is present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi. Many species in this genus can be characterized as opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts.[1] This refers to the ability of several Trichoderma species to form mutualistic endophytic relationships with several plant species.[2] The genomes of several Trichoderma species have been sequenced and are publicly available from the JGI
Trichoderma species are frequently isolated from forest or agricultural soils at all latitudes. Hypocrea species are most frequently found on bark or on decorticated wood but many species grow on bracket fungi (e.g. H. pulvinata), Exidia (H. sulphurea) or bird's nest fungi (H. latizonata) or agarics

32) Sample clarity and visibility
Air samples collect dirt and debris in addition to mold spores. Higher levels of debris make analysis more difficult,
because they obscure the analyst's view of spores and can therefore lead to undercounting of the mold spores present.
When sample clarity and visibility is rated "poor", the analytical results should be regarded as minimal and actual
counts may be higher than reported.
Other "normal trapping" spores
Some molds do not grow on wet building materials and, consequently, are not usually indicative of building problems,
or growth on building surfaces. Strict plant pathogens, for example, even if present in high numbers indoors, are not
an indication of a building leak or mold growth on a wall or carpet. This section of the report focuses on the exposure
level that may be due to these spore types.

33) Colonies of this fungal genus are typically coloured white to beige or grey and are fast-growing. Colonies on culture medium may grow to several centimetres in height. Older colonies become grey to brown in colour due to the development of spores.

Mucor spores or sporangiospores can be simple or branched and form apical, globular sporangia that are supported and elevated by a column-shaped columella. Mucor species can be differentiated from moulds of the genera Albsidia, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus by the shape and insertion of the columella, and the lack of rhizoids. Some Mucor species produce chlamydospores.

Most species of Mucor are unable to infect humans and endothermic animals due to their inability to grow in warm environments close to 37 degrees Celsius. Thermotolerant species such as Mucor indicus sometimes cause opportunistic, and often rapidly spreading, necrotizing infections known as zygomycosis.

34) Rhizomucor pusillus is a species of Rhizomucor. It can cause human disease.[1][2] Rhizomucor pusillus is a grey mycelium fungi most commonly found in compost piles. Yellow-brown spores grow on a stalk to reproduce more fungal cells.
Rhizomucor pusillis can lead to Zygomycosis in humans. It causes necrosis of infected tissues and pen neural invasion. It is an incredibly rare disease often found in the lungs of patients with a weakened immune system and can often lead to a fatal outcome. It occurs in patients with hematological malignancies and diabetes mellitus as well as leukemia. Rhizomucor pusillis can cause infections in non-human animals as well. In animals the fungus is found in the kidneys and can lead to mucormyotic abortion

35) the outer covering of the body. The skin is the largest organ of the body, and it performs a number of vital functions. It serves as a protective barrier against microorganisms. It helps shield the delicate, sensitive tissues underneath from mechanical and other injuries. It acts as an insulator against heat and cold, and helps eliminate body wastes in the form of perspiration. It guards against excessive exposure to the ultraviolet rays of the sun by producing a protective pigmentation, and it helps produce the body's supply of vitamin D. Its sense receptors enable the body to feel pain, cold, heat, touch, and pressure. The skin consists of two main parts: an outer layer, the epidermis, and an inner layer, the corium (or dermis).

36) Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants. If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, producing a pollen tube that transfers the sperm to the ovule containing the female gametophyte. Individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail. The study of pollen is called palynology and is highly useful in paleoecology, paleontology, archaeology, and forensics.

Pollen in plants is used for transferring haploid male genetic material from the anther of a single flower to the stigma of another in cross-pollination. In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower.

37)   Stachybotrys chartarum, also called Stachybotrys atra, Stachybotrys alternans or Stilbospora chartarum, is a black mold that produces its conidia in slime heads. It is sometimes found in soil and grain, but the mold is most often detected in cellulose-rich building materials from damp or water-damaged buildings.[1] S. chartarum was originally discovered on the wall of a house in Prague in 1837 by Czech mycologist August Carl Joseph Corda. It requires high moisture content in order to grow and is associated with wet gypsum material and wallpaper.
Two cats died under anesthesia in what is believed to be the first documented case of black mold poisoning in pets. The cats had been living in Florida in a water damaged home. During routine dental procedures both cats experienced severe pulmonary hemorrhage and later died. Blood tests confirmed the presence of a toxin produced by S. chartarum, and severe mold contamination was found in the home.

38)   Ulocladium is a genus of fungi. Species of this genus contain both plant pathogens and food spoilage agents. Other species contain enzymes that are biological control agents. Some members of the genus can invade homes and are a sign of moisture because the mold requires water to thrive. They can cause plant diseases or hay fever and more serious infections in immuno-suppressed individuals.

Species of Ulocladium resemble those of genus Alternaria with which they were once included. But Ulocladium, unlike Alternaria, do not produce alternariols, tenuazonic acid, altersolanols, or macrosporin.

The species Ulocladium oudemansii is utilised as a biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea. The New Zealand company Botryzen (2010) Ltd uses it to control Botrytis bunch rot in the NZ vineyard industry

39)   Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi. Alternaria species are known as major plant pathogens. They are also common allergens in humans, growing indoors and causing hay fever or hypersensitivity reactions that sometimes lead to asthma. They readily cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised people such as AIDS patients.

There are 299 species in the genus;[1][2] they are ubiquitous in the environment and are a natural part of fungal flora almost everywhere. They are normal agents of decay and decomposition. The spores are airborne and found in the soil and water, as well as indoors and on objects. The club-shaped spores are single or form long chains. They can grow thick colonies which are usually green, black, or gray.[2]

At least 20% of agricultural spoilage is caused by Alternaria species; most severe losses may reach up to 80% of yield, though.[2] Many human health disorders can be caused by these fungi, which grow on skin and mucous membranes, including on the eyeballs and within the respiratory tract. Allergies are common, but serious infections are rare, except in people with compromised immune systems. However, species of this fungal genus are often prolific producers of a variety of toxic compounds. The effects most of these compounds have on animal and plant health are not well known. The terms alternariosis and alternariatoxicosis are used for disorders in humans and animals caused by a fungus in this genus.

Not all Alternaria species are pests and pathogens; some have shown promise as biocontrol agents against invasive plant species. Some species have also been reported as endophytic microorganisms with highly bioactive metabolites.

40)   Hyphal fragments or mycelia are components of fungal growth (similar to the roots and branches of a tree); it is common to find small hyphal fragments in outdoor air and possibly in indoor dust.

But their presence in indoor air samples, if in quantity or in large segments, suggests an active fungal colony in the building. Their presence in a surface sample in quantity or in large segments indicates that active fungal growth is present or nearby, or that fungal material has been disturbed in the building. May be allergenic. -DF

Hyphal fragments might be just one or two little bits or a rats nest of growing mycelia (as we show at page top).

Hyphal fragments or hyphae may be colored (brown for example shown at the top of this page and just above) or colorless as in our photograph below (mycologists report colorless spores or hyphae as hyaline - just in case your report is not written in plain english).

Of course this means we need another definition right away

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