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Website: http://www.eisinspections.com
Email: cmccauley@eisinspections.com
Phone: (434) 851-5477
FAX: (434) 821-3450
P.O. Box 11524 
Lynchburg, VA 24506
Inspector: Charles McCauley, P.E.
VA Licensed Engineer no. 0402-029618
VA Certified Home Inspector no. 3380-000331
VA Licensed Class-C Contractor no. 2705-112837

  

Residential Property Inspection Report
Client(s): Randy and Lynn Buchanan
Property address: 2660 Waters Edge Dr.,
Penhook, VA 24137
Inspection date: 8/9/2010
This report published on Monday, August 09, 2010 5:16:49 PM EDT

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The property inspected herein was a very nice lakefront home located in the Waters Edge development at Smith Mountain Lake. The home was built over a basement with partial crawlspace. It appeared to be about 3,500± square feet in size.

As with all homes, systems or components age and may require updating at times. The repairs recommended in this report are common for a home of this age and type. All homes require regular maintenance, occasional repairs, and occasional system improvements. Considering the age of this home, its condition can be rated as well above average in most areas.

Please note the limitations of a home inspection and the Standards of Practice that are followed. Both are listed near the end of the report.




This report is the exclusive property of Engineered Inspection Services LLC and the client(s) listed in the report title. Use of this report by any unauthorized persons is prohibited.

 
How to Read this Report
This report is organized by the property's functional areas.  Within each functional area, descriptive information is listed first and is shown in bold type.  Items of concern follow descriptive information.
Concerns are shown and sorted according to these types:
Repair/ReplaceDenotes a system or component which is missing or which needs corrective action to assure proper and reliable function. Recommend repairing item or replacing 
EvaluateRecommend further detailed evaluation by a specialist 
CommentThis describes general information for the homebuyer 

Click here for a glossary of building construction terms.  Contact your inspector if there are terms that you do not understand, or visit the glossary of construction terms at http://www.reporthost.com/glossary.asp

Table of Contents
General information
Receipt
Roof
Foundation
Exterior
Electric service
Heating and Cooling
Water heater
Plumbing System and Bathrooms
Crawl space
Basement
Kitchen
Interior rooms
Fireplaces
Attic and Insulation
Boat Dock
Maintenance Advice
Environmental and Safety Issues
Cost Guide
Limitations of Inspection
Standards of Practice for Home Inspections

 
General information Return to table of contents
Report number: 08-2010-04
Type of building: Single family
Age of building: approx 19-years
Time started: 9:30 am
Time finished: 11:15 am
Inspection Fee: 520.00 including radon
Payment method: Checkpaid at inspection
Present during inspection: Client(s)
Occupied: No, but furnishings and stored items are present
Weather conditions: Clear
Temperature: Hot
Ground condition: Dry
Foundation type: Finished basement, Crawlspace
The following items are excluded from this inspection: Private sewage disposal system, Central vacuum system, Sea wall
Selling Realtor: Jane Horne
Buyers name: Randy and Lynn Buchanan
1) - Many wall, floor and/or ceiling surfaces were obscured by large amounts of furniture and/or stored items. Many areas couldn't be evaluated.
 
Receipt Return to table of contents

2) - Receipt


Engineered Inspection Services
P.O. Box 11524
Lynchburg, VA 24506
ph. 434-821-2333


Invoice no: 08-2010-04

Inspection Date: August 9, 2010

Sold To: Randy and Lynn Buchanan

Property Inspected: 2660 Waters Edge Dr., Penhook, VA 24137

Description: Pre-purchase Home Inspection

Amount: $ 370.00

Radon test: $ 150.00

Paid in full at time of inspection

Total Due: $ 00.00



Thank you for your business !

 
Roof Return to table of contents
Roof inspection method: Traversed
Roof type: Cross gable, Flat
Roof covering: Asphalt or fiberglass composition shingles, Metal
Estimated age of roof: unknown
Gutter & downspout material: Aluminum
Roof ventilation: Adequate
3) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The roof over the rear deck area is nearly flat in pitch and has composition tabbed shingles installed. The roof slope is considerably less than 3:12 (three inches rise for every 12 inches run) as measured with a level. The level shows about 2.5-degrees which is less than 1:12 pitch. The Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code section R905.2.2 states " Asphalt shingles shall be used only on roof slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or greater."

Most shingle manufacturers won't warranty composition shingles if used on a roof with a slope less than 3/12. The 3rd and 4th photos shows that there are actually shingle areas that could hold water due to poor drainage angle.

The final photos show one of the areas on the side of the dormer that is susceptible to holding snow for long periods especially with a near-flat roof. There was also considerable caulking along the intersection of the roof and siding in this area. This is not necessary if flashing is done properly and this tends to raise questions.



At a minimum, the client(s) should consult with a qualified roofing contractor regarding this and monitor these roof section(s) and interior spaces below for leaks in the future. Ideally, or if leaks occur, a qualified roofing contractor should replace the roof surface with materials intended for low slopes such as an EPDM (rubber) roof.

Photo 12  

Photo 49  

Photo 50  

Photo 51  

Photo 52  

Photo 15  

4) Evaluate - The area shown in the photos appears to be problematic. The roof adjoins a vertical wall in this area and has copper flashing with shingles on top. However; it appears that during a wind-blown rain, the shingles could raise and allow water entry underneath. This could not be confirmed but it is suspect. Recommend having a roofing contractor examine this area and make recommendations.

Photo 9  

Photo 10  

Photo 53  
 

5) Evaluate - A portion of the front roof was standing seam metal. The roof itself was in good condition however; it has some suspicious areas where the upper part of the roof is installed below the shingles. One of the sections of roofing has moved downward about 1-1/2 inches. This can be seen in the 2nd photo. The seams have been heavily caulked at the shingle intersection and there are some gaps present however; it could not be determined if this is a leakage issue. For a positive evaluation, a roofing contractor should pull up the lowest row of shingles to see if there is adequate protection at the intersection with the metal roof.

The interior area below this roof did have some staining reported that had been painted over.

The final photo shows another suspicious area where the upper valley joins the metal roof. It could not be determined if the flashing extends sufficiently below the shingles to prevent water entry.

Photo 4  

Photo 21  

Photo 19  

Photo 20  

Photo 22  
 

6) - The roofing installed on this home consisted of architectural style fiberglass-asphalt shingles. A representative area is shown in the photo. It could not be determined if this was the original roof covering since some additions were made to the house. The typical life of this type of shingle is 30-35 years. The shingles were in relatively good condition.

The gutters were standard aluminum and in good condition. They were clean in all areas of the roof.

Photo 3  

Photo 11  

7) - The various roof valleys had copper valley flashing as shown. All areas appeared to be in good shape but some of the peak areas have lapped flashing that is pulling loose slightly. These are difficult areas to form metal and should be monitored. Caulking has pulled loose in most areas due to expansion of the metal.

Photo 5  

Photo 6  

Photo 13  

Photo 16  

8) - The chimney was a metal unit with stone veneer installed over wood framing. A metal chimney cap was installed and it is becoming rusty on top where it is flat and has poor drainage. The cap is also fastened with metal screws. Even though these have rubber washers, they should be inspected occasionally and caulked. The stone veneer had mortar against the chimneys which prevented evaluation of any step flashing for the shingles (4th photo).

Photo 7  

Photo 8  

Photo 18  

Photo 17  

 
Foundation Return to table of contents
Footing material: Poured in place concrete
Foundation material: Poured in place concrete, Concrete block
Apparent wall structure: Wood frame
9) - The construction of the home is of generally good quality. The materials and workmanship, where visible, are good. The visible joist spans appear to be within typical construction practices. The inspection did not discover evidence of substantial structural movement. No major defects were observed in the accessible structural components of the house. No repair to any of the structural components are necessary at this time. The house was constructed over a full basement with poured concrete foundation walls. Most of the foundation was not visible for inspection due to finished walls or stored items. Where visible, the foundation walls were in good condition with no damage or structural issues. There were no signs in the finished walls that would indicate shrinkage or settlement.
 
Exterior Return to table of contents
Wall covering: Cement-based clapboard, Stone veneer
Driveway material: Asphalt
Sidewalk material: Poured in place concrete
Exterior door material: Solid core wood
10) Comment - The deck stairs are connected to a cantilevered landing. This is considered poor technique in general since one of the cantilevers is supporting the weight of the staircase. However; the exact construction details were hidden from view. Two posts under the cantilever extensions would be a nice addition for safety even though they may not be cosmetically desirable.

Photo 30  
 

11) - The siding on the home consisted of fiber-cement or “Hardie-Plank” siding and shingles which was developed by James Hardie Building Products. It consists of a blend of wood fiber and Portland cement, sand and clay and is a very durable and long-lasting material. All areas observed were in excellent condition with no visible damage. Caulking details were very good. There is further info on this material at: http://www.jameshardie.com/

The windows and other exterior attachments had metal cap flashing installed (photos 3 and 4). This is good attention to detail and was neatly done.

The final photo shows a penetration in the siding for the gas supply. This should be caulked to prevent insect entry.

Photo 2  

Photo 14  

Photo 23  

Photo 29  

Photo 31  
 

12) - The windows were vinyl clad double hung and casement units and in good condition. A random number of windows were tested in each room and no problems were encountered.
13) - The rear decks were professionally built and in excellent condition. The decking wood could not be identified but appeared to be a more exotic product and was in good condition with hidden fasteners.
14) - The house had a 2-car garage with double width garage door. An automatic garage door opener was installed and the unit was tested for operation with no problems encountered. The safety mechanisms including the auto-reverse and photo-eye were tested and both operated properly. The garage was fully finished on the interior.
 
Electric service Return to table of contents
Primary service type: Underground
Primary service overload protection type: Circuit breakers
Service amperage (amps): 400
Service voltage (volts): 120/240
Location of main disconnect: Breaker at top of main service panel
Service entrance conductor material: Aluminum
System ground: Ground rod(s) in soil
Main disconnect rating (amps): 200
Branch circuit wiring type: Non-metallic sheathed
Solid strand aluminum branch circuit wiring present: No
Smoke detectors present: Yes
15) - The photo shows the main electrical circuit breaker panel located in the basement laundry room. The panel cover was removed from one panel for inspection of the interior (the refrigerator blocked the other panel). The wire sizes appeared to match the amperages of the circuit breakers to which they were attached. The panel was properly grounded and bonded. All circuits were labeled properly. There were some empty spaces left for additional circuits if required. The size of the electrical service is sufficient for typical single family needs. The electrical panel is arranged well and all breakers are properly sized. Generally speaking, the electrical system is in good order. All outlets and light fixtures that were tested operated satisfactorily. The distribution of electricity within the home is good.

All 3-prong outlets that were tested were appropriately grounded. Split receptacles are present in the kitchen. These outlets offer an added level of convenience, as there are separate circuits provided for each half of the outlet. Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) devices have been provided in some areas of the home. These devices are extremely valuable, as they offer an extra level of shock protection. All GFCI’s that were tested responded properly.

Dedicated 220 volt circuits have been provided for all 220 volt appliances within the home. All visible wiring within the home is copper. The house was wired with standard 3-prong electrical outlets. A random number were tested in each room and no problems were encountered. All lights, switches and ceiling fans tested operated properly. Smoke detectors were present on all levels of the home.

Photo 33  
 

16) - The photo shows several arc fault circuit breakers (AFCI). These are identified by the yellow test buttons. Arc fault interrupters protect against the hazards of an electrical fire. An AFCI breaker contains circuitry that will recognize the unique current and voltage waveforms that are the signature of an electrical arc, and they will open the circuit (trip the breaker) when arcing occurs. They are currently required in bedroom circuits.

Photo 34  
 

17) - Based on the age of this structure and the appearance of existing smoke alarms, the alarms may be older than 10 years old. According to National Fire Protection Association, aging smoke alarms don't operate as efficiently and often are the source for nuisance alarms. Older smoke alarms are estimated to have a 30% probability of failure within the first 10 years. Newer smoke alarms do better, but should be replaced after 10 years. Unless you know that the smoke alarms are new, replacing them when moving into a new residence is also recommended by NFPA. For more information, visit this article:

NFPA urges replacing home smoke alarms after 10 years.

 
Heating and Cooling Return to table of contents
Estimated age: 4-years
Primary heating system energy source: Electric
Primary heat system type: Heat pump
M/N and S/N: American Standard m/n 2A6H3048 (4-ton) s/n 6186XAM4F and m/n 2A6H3036 (3-ton) s/n 61943KP4F
Primary A/C energy source: Electric
Primary Air conditioning type: Heat pump
Distribution system: Flexible ducts
Filter location: Behind return air grill
18) - The photos below shows the heat pump condenser units. The units were in good physical condition with no damage noted. The heat pumps were relatively new units at about 4-years in age. The average life of a heat pump compressor is approximately 15-20 years. As such, these units should have plenty of useful life remaining. The units were activated via the wall-mounted thermostats and operation was normal. A normal temperature drop was obtained in the cooling mode.

The last service date of this system appears to be more than one year ago, or the inspector was unable to determine the last service date. The client(s) should ask the property owner(s) when it was last serviced. If unable to determine the last service date, or if this system was serviced more than one year ago, a qualified heating and cooling contractor should inspect, clean, and service this system, and make repairs if necessary. This servicing should be performed annually in the future.

Photo 27  

Photo 28  

 
Water heater Return to table of contents
Estimated age: 4-years
Type: Tank
Energy source: Electricity
Capacity (in gallons): 502-units
Manufacturer: Bradford White
Model: m/n M250S6DS5 (both units) s/n CE7721839 and CE7721818
19) - The photo below shows the two electric hot water heaters located in the basement laundry room. The water heaters were approximately 4-years in age and in generally good condition. The average age of a water heater is 8-12 years with some units lasting longer. This units should have plenty of useful life remaining.

Photo 32  
 

 
Plumbing System and Bathrooms Return to table of contents
Location of main water shut-off valve: next to electrical panels
Location of main fuel shut-off: at fireplace
Visible fuel storage systems: LP tank outside in ground
Water service: Community well
Service pipe material: Polyethelene
Supply pipe material: CPVC
Drain pipe material: Plastic
Waste pipe material: Plastic
20) - The plumbing system is in generally good condition. The piping system within the home, for both supply and waste, is a good quality system. The water pressure supplied to the fixtures is above average. A slight drop in flow was experienced when two fixtures were operated simultaneously. The plumbing fixtures including the sinks, faucets, toilets, bathtubs and shower units were in good condition with no damage noted to any components. The plumbing supply lines were CPVC and copper and appeared to be in good condition where they were accessible and visible. There were no signs of leakage in the visible joints. The waste piping also appeared to be in good order with no signs of leaks.
21) - The far right bathroom on the main level had extensive caulking around the shower stall frame and adjacent trim. There may have been a leak at one point in time. This area should be monitored and kept dry.

Photo 39  
 

22) - The main level laundry appliances were reported as never used and were not hooked-up to the hoses or exhaust. It is recommended that a safety pan be placed below the washer in case of a leak however; the presence of a drain could not be confirmed and would be difficult to install.

Photo 38  
 

23) - The main water cutoff valve is located to the right of the electrical panels in the basement laundry room. It could not be determined which of the two valves is the main however; one of them probably goes to the water heaters. This will require some testing by the owner to determine which is the main.

Photo 35  
 

 
Crawl space Return to table of contents
Inspection method: Partially traversed
Insulation material underneath floor above: Fiberglass roll or batt
Floor structure above: Wood trusses
Vapor barrier present: No
24) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - Some of the insulation was missing in the floor above the crawlspace. Any missing sections should be replaced.

Photo 26  
 

25) Repair/Replace - A dryer vent is discharging into the crawlspace. This is not permitted by code as it raises the humidity levels, causes mold and attracts insects.

Photo 48  
 

26) - The crawlspace was accessible and a typical area is shown in the photos. The earth floor was exposed and should be covered with a plastic vapor barrier to prevent excess moisture in the crawlspace area. Foundation vents were installed.


Photo 24  

Photo 25  

 
Basement Return to table of contents
Floor structure above: Wood trusses
27) - At the time of the inspection, there were no signs of current leakage in the basement. However; this is impossible to determine with any certainty during a one-time inspection.

The vast majority of basement leakage problems are the result of insufficient control of storm water at the surface. The ground around the house should be sloped to encourage water to flow away from the foundation. Gutters and downspouts should act to collect roof water and drain the water at least five (5) feet from the foundation or into a functional storm sewer. Downspouts that are clogged or broken below grade level, or that discharge too close to the foundation are the most common source of basement leakage. Please refer to the Roofing and Exterior sections of the report for more information.

In the event that basement leakage problems are experienced, lot and roof drainage improvements should be undertaken as a first step. Please beware of contractors who recommend expensive solutions. Excavation, damp-proofing and/or the installation of drainage tiles should be a last resort. In some cases, however, it is necessary. Your plans for using the basement may also influence the approach taken to curing any dampness that is experienced.

 
Kitchen Return to table of contents

28) - Most of the major appliances in the home are newer. The appliances are in excellent condition. All appliances tested responded satisfactorily. The kitchen counters were custom granite and in good condition with no damage noted. The cabinets were custom quality units and in very good condition. There were no observable areas of damage.

Photo 41  
 

 
Interior rooms Return to table of contents

29) Repair/Replace, Evaluate - The small office room (opposite the stairway) had double entry doors. The leftmost door drags on the hardwood flooring and will scratch it unless the bottom edge is trimmed.

The same room has a missing switch cover behind the door.

Photo 36  

Photo 37  

30) - The wall and ceiling finishes were in very good condition and well maintained. There were no areas of damage in any visible areas observed.

The hardwood floors and floor coverings appeared to be in generally good condition where visible.

The windows were in generally good condition. As mentioned previously, a random number were tested for operation and no problems were encountered.

All interior doors within the house were in good condition. No damage was noted. All door latches operated properly.

 
Fireplaces Return to table of contents
Fireplace type: Metal prefabricated
Chimney type: Metal
31) - The fireplaces are located in the basement den and living room. Both were in generally good condition. The basement unit was plumbed for gas logs but none were installed. There was no damage to the hearths. A gas burner was installed in the upstairs unit.

Photo 40  
 

 
Attic and Insulation Return to table of contents
Inspection method: Viewed from hatch
Roof structure type: Trusses, Rafters
Insulation material: Fiberglass roll or batt
32) - This is a well insulated home. Caulking and weather-stripping around doors, windows and other exterior wall openings will help to maintain weather tightness and reduce energy costs.
 
Boat Dock Return to table of contents
condition: excellent
dock construction: professional construction exhibited throughout
roof: good condition
electrical: sub-panel located at dock, panel or outlets are GFCI protected and tripped properly when tested, electricl boat lift tested satisfactory
33) - The boat dock was in good order. All attached hardware on the floating docks was tight and in good condition. The pilings were steel. The electrical sub-panel was in the storage house and was properly wired. The roofing appeared to be the same age as that on the house. The decking was in excellent condition and had up-to-date stain.

Photo 42  

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Photo 46  
 

 
Maintenance Advice Return to table of contents

34) - taking ownership

After taking possession of a new home, there are some maintenance and safety issues that should be addressed immediately. The following checklist should help you undertake these improvements:

 Change the locks on all exterior entrances, for improved security.
 Check that all windows and doors are secure. Improve window hardware as necessary. Security rods can be added to sliding windows and doors. Consideration could also be given to a security system.
 Install smoke detectors on each level of the home. Ensure that there is a smoke detector outside all sleeping areas. Replace batteries on any existing smoke detectors and test them. Make a note to replace batteries again in one year.
 Create a plan of action in the event of a fire in your home. Ensure that there is an operable window or door in every room of the house. Consult with your local fire department regarding fire safety issues and what to do in the event of fire.
 Examine driveways and walkways for trip hazards. Undertake repairs where necessary.
 Examine the interior of the home for trip hazards. Loose or torn carpeting and flooring should be repaired.
 Undertake improvements to all stairways, decks, porches and landings where there is a risk of falling or stumbling.
 Review you home inspection report for any items that require immediate improvement or further investigation. Address these areas as required.
 Install rain caps and vermin screens on all chimney flues, as necessary.
 Investigate the location of the main shut-offs for the plumbing, heating and electrical systems. If you attended the home inspection, these items would have been pointed out to you.

Regular maintenance

every month

 Check that fire extinguisher(s) are fully charged. Re-charge if necessary.
 Examine heating/cooling air filters and replace or clean as necessary.
 Inspect and clean humidifiers and electronic air cleaners.
 If the house has hot water heating, bleed radiator valves.
 Clean gutters and downspouts. Ensure that downspouts are secure, and that the discharge of the downspouts is appropriate. Remove debris from window wells.
 Carefully inspect the condition of shower enclosures. Repair or replace deteriorated grout and caulk. Ensure that water is not escaping the enclosure during showering. Check below all plumbing fixtures for evidence of leakage.
 Repair or replace leaking faucets or shower heads.
 Secure loose toilets, or repair flush mechanisms that become troublesome.

spring and fall

 Examine the roof for evidence of damage to roof coverings, flashings and chimneys.
 Look in the attic (if accessible) to ensure that roof vents are not obstructed. Check for evidence of leakage, condensation or vermin activity. Level out insulation if needed.
 Trim back tree branches and shrubs to ensure that they are not in contact with the house.
 Inspect the exterior walls and foundation for evidence of damage, cracking or movement. Watch for bird nests or other vermin or insect activity.
 Survey the basement and/or crawl space walls for evidence of moisture seepage.

 Look at overhead wires coming to the house. They should be secure and clear of trees or other obstructions.
 Ensure that the grade of the land around the house encourages water to flow away from the foundation.
 Inspect all driveways, walkways, decks, porches, and landscape components for evidence of deterioration, movement or safety hazards.
 Clean windows and test their operation. Improve caulking and weather-stripping as necessary. Watch for evidence of rot in wood window frames. Paint and repair window sills and frames as necessary.
 Test all ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) devices, as identified in the inspection report.
 Shut off isolating valves for exterior hose bibs in the fall, if below freezing temperatures are anticipated.
 Test the Temperature and Pressure Relief (TPR) Valve on water heaters.
 Inspect for evidence of wood boring insect activity. Eliminate any wood/soil contact around the perimeter of the home.
 Test the overhead garage door opener, to ensure that the auto-reverse mechanism is responding properly. Clean and lubricate hinges, rollers and tracks on overhead doors.
 Replace or clean exhaust hood filters.
 Clean, inspect and/or service all appliances as per the manufacturer’s recommendations.

annually

 Replace smoke detector batteries.
 Have the heating, cooling and water heater systems cleaned and serviced.
 Have chimneys inspected and cleaned. Ensure that rain caps and vermin screens are secure.
 Examine the electrical panels, wiring and electrical components for evidence of overheating. Ensure that all components are secure. Flip the breakers on and off to ensure that they are not sticky.
 If the house utilizes a well, check and service the pump and holding tank. Have the water quality tested. If the property has a septic system, have the tank inspected (and pumped as needed).
 If your home is in an area prone to wood destroying insects (termites, carpenter ants, etc.), have the home inspected by a licensed specialist. Preventative treatments may be recommended in some cases.

Prevention is the best approach

Although we’ve heard it many times, nothing could be more true than the old cliché “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” Preventative maintenance is the best way to keep your house in great shape. It also reduces the risk of unexpected repairs and improves the odds of selling your house at fair market value, when the time comes.
Please feel free to contact our office should you have any questions regarding the operation or maintenance of your home. Enjoy your home!

 
Environmental and Safety Issues Return to table of contents

35) - Radon gas is a naturally occurring gas that is invisible, odorless and tasteless. A danger exists when the gas percolates through the ground and enters a tightly enclosed structure (such as a home). Long-term exposure to high levels of radon gas can cause cancer. The Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.) states that a radon reading of more than 4.0 picocuries per liter of air represents a health hazard. A radon evaluation is beyond the scope of this inspection (unless specifically requested). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Surgeon General Strongly recommend taking further action when the home’s radon test results are 4.0 pCi/L or greater. The concentration of radon in the home is measured in picocuries per liter of air (pCi/L). Radon levels less than 4.0 pCi/L still pose some risk and in many cases may be reduced.
36) - Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas that can result from a faulty fuel burning furnace, range, water heater, space heater or wood stove. Proper maintenance of these appliances is the best way to reduce the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. For more information, consult the Consumer Product Safety Commission at 1-800-638-2772 (C.P.S.C.) for further guidance. It would be wise to install carbon monoxide detectors within the home.
 
Cost Guide Return to table of contents

37) - Cost Guide (Price ranges for common repairs/replacements in the home)

Notice: Obtain 2 or 3 estimates from reputable contractors – actual costs may vary.

Electric service upgrade to 200 amps $900 – $1,300

Install separate circuit for clothes dryer $150 - $250
or air conditioner.

Add GFCI protection to receptacle $40 - $100 each

Upgrade interior wiring (old knob and tube) $1.25 - $3.00 per square foot
+ repairs for any unusual conditions

Correct double tap in panel box $75 - $250

Correct exposed wiring in closet/garage $100 - $300

Correct ungrounded receptacle $50 - $100 each

Service heating or cooling system $75 - $200

Install new gas furnace $1,500 - $3,000

Install new hot water boiler $2,500 - $4,000

Install new air conditioning $1,300 - $1,800
or heat pump compressor

Install new heat pump or $3,000 - $6,000
air conditioning complete

Replace old window with $300 - $600 each
new vinyl replacement

Install storm windows $80 - $150 each

Install sliding glass door $1,000 - $1,900 each

Replace main entry door $800 - $1,500 each

Sealcoat driveway $0.15 - $0.30 per square ft.

Replace humidifier $300 - $800

Install electronic air cleaner $500 - $1,000

Clean indoor coil in AC or heat pump $100 - $350

Install new electric water heater $400 - $700
(50 gallon)

Install new gas water heater $350 - $600
(50 gallon)

Replace laundry sink $200 - $400

Replace shower pan (includes $900 - $1,500
patch and replace tile)

Replace galvanized water pipes with $2,000 - $4,000
copper tubing or plastic (average)

Install new main water valve $150 - $200

Install water pressure regulator $200 - $300

Remove and re-set toilet, $150 - $300
install new wax seal

Snake plumbing drain $150 - $300


The cost ranges above are derived from nationally used repair cost guides and are designed for budget purposes only. The costs reflect prices in typical metropolitan areas. Your inspector recommends that you always consult a licensed qualified contractor for repair options and costs for major items as repair costs can vary widely dependant upon quality of materials used and economic conditions. The consultation should occur prior to settlement of the transaction.

 
Limitations of Inspection Return to table of contents

38) - This is a visual inspection limited in scope by (but not restricted to) the following conditions:
ROOFING
Not all of the underside of the roof sheathing is inspected for evidence of leaks.
Evidence of prior leaks may be disguised by interior finishes.
Estimates of remaining roof life are approximations only and do not preclude the possibility of leakage. Leakage can develop at any time and may depend on rain intensity, wind direction, ice build up, and other factors.
Antennae, chimney/flue interiors which are not readily accessible are not inspected and could require repair.
Roof inspection may be limited by access, condition, weather, or other safety concerns.
FOUNDATION AND STRUCTURE
Structural components concealed behind finished surfaces could not be inspected.
Only a representative sampling of visible structural components were inspected.
Furniture and/or storage restricted access to some structural components.
Engineering or architectural services such as calculation of structural capacities, adequacy, or integrity are not part of a home inspection.
EXTERIOR COMPONENTS
A representative sample of exterior components was inspected rather than every occurrence of components.
The inspection does not include an assessment of geological, geotechnical, or hydrological conditions, or environmental hazards.
Screening, shutters, awnings, or similar seasonal accessories, fences, recreational facilities, outbuildings, seawalls, break-walls, docks, erosion control and earth stabilization measures are not inspected unless specifically agreed-upon and documented in this report.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Electrical components concealed behind finished surfaces are not inspected.
Only a representative sampling of outlets and light fixtures were tested.
Furniture and/or storage restricted access to some electrical components which may not be inspected.
The inspection does not include remote control devices, alarm systems and components, low voltage wiring, systems, and components, ancillary wiring, systems, and other components which are not part of the primary electrical power distribution system.
HEATING SYSTEM
The adequacy of heat supply or distribution balance is not inspected.
The interior of flues or chimneys which are not readily accessible are not inspected.
The furnace heat exchanger, humidifier, or dehumidifier, and electronic air filters are not inspected.
Solar space heating equipment/systems are not inspected.
HEAT PUMPS / CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING
Window mounted air conditioning units are not inspected.
The cooling supply adequacy or distribution balance are not inspected.
INSULATION / VENTILATION
Insulation/ventilation type and levels in concealed areas are not inspected. Insulation and vapor barriers are not disturbed and no destructive tests (such as cutting openings in walls to look for insulation) are performed.
Potentially hazardous materials such as Asbestos and Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation (UFFI) cannot be positively identified without a detailed inspection and laboratory analysis. This is beyond the scope of the inspection.
An analysis of indoor air quality is not part of our inspection unless explicitly contracted-for and discussed in this or a separate report.
Any estimates of insulation R values or depths are rough average values.
PLUMBING SYSTEM
Portions of the plumbing system concealed by finishes and/or storage (below sinks, etc.), below the structure, or beneath the ground surface are not inspected.
Water quantity and water quality are not tested unless explicitly contracted-for and discussed in this or a separate report.
Clothes washing machine connections are not inspected.
Interiors of flues or chimneys which are not readily accessible are not inspected.
Water conditioning systems, solar water heaters, fire and lawn sprinkler systems, and private waste disposal systems are not inspected unless explicitly contracted-for and discussed in this or a separate report.
INTERIOR
Furniture, storage, appliances and/or wall hangings are not moved to permit inspection and may block defects.
Carpeting, window treatments, central vacuum systems, household appliances, recreational facilities, paint, wallpaper, and other finish treatments are not inspected.
The temperature calibration, functionality of timers, effectiveness, efficiency and overall performance of appliances is outside the scope of this inspection.

 
Standards of Practice for Home Inspections Return to table of contents

39) - Engineered Inspection Services, LLC

Standards of Practice
per the National Association of Certified Home Inspectors (NACHI)

Table of Contents
1. Definitions and Scope.
2. Standards of Practice
2.1. Roof
2.2. Exterior
2.3. Basement, Foundation, Crawlspace & Structure
2.4. Heating
2.5. Cooling
2.6. Plumbing
2.7. Electrical
2.8. Fireplace
2.9. Attic & Insulation
2.10. Doors, Windows & Interior
3. Limitations, Exceptions & Exclusions
4. Glossary of Terms

1. Definitions and Scope
1.1. A Home inspection is a non-invasive visual examination of a residential dwelling, performed for a fee, which is designed to identify observed material defects within specific components of said dwelling. Components may include any combination of mechanical, structural, electrical, plumbing, or other essential systems or portions of the home, as identified and agreed to by the Client and Inspector, prior to the inspection process.
I. A home inspection is intended to assist in evaluation of the overall condition of the dwelling. The inspection is based on observation of the visible and apparent condition of the structure and its components on the date of the inspection and not the prediction of future conditions.
II. A home inspection will not reveal every concern that exists or ever could exist, but only those material defects observed on the day of the inspection.
1.2. A Material defect is a condition with a residential real property or any portion of it that would have a significant adverse impact on the value of the real property or that involves an unreasonable risk to people on the property. The fact that a structural element, system or subsystem is near, at or beyond the end of the normal useful life of such a structural element, system or subsystem is not by itself a material defect.
1.3. An Inspection report shall describe and identify in written format the inspected systems, structures, and components of the dwelling and shall identify material defects observed. Inspection reports may contain recommendations regarding conditions reported or recommendations for correction, monitoring or further evaluation by professionals, but this is not required.

2. Standards of Practice
2.1. Roof
I. The inspector shall inspect from ground level or eaves:
A. The roof covering.
B. The gutters.
C. The downspouts.
D. The vents, flashings, skylights, chimney and other roof penetrations.
E. The general structure of the roof from the readily accessible panels, doors or stairs.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Walk on any roof surface.
B. Predict the service life expectancy.
C. Inspect underground downspout diverter drainage pipes.
D. Remove snow, ice, debris or other conditions that prohibit the observation of the roof surfaces.
E. Inspect antennae, lightning arresters, or similar attachments.
2.2. Exterior
I. The inspector shall inspect:
A. The siding, flashing and trim.
B. All exterior doors, decks, stoops, steps, stairs, porches, railings, eaves, soffits and fascias.
C. And report as in need of repair any spacings between intermediate balusters, spindles, or rails for steps, stairways, balconies, and railings that permit the passage of an object greater than four inches in diameter.
D. A representative number of windows.
E. The vegetation, surface drainage and retaining walls when these are likely to adversely affect the structure.
F. And describe the exterior wall covering.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Inspect or operate screens, storm windows, shutters, awnings, fences, outbuildings, or exterior accent lighting.
B. Inspect items, including window and door flashings, which are not visible or readily accessible from the ground.
C. Inspect geological, geotechnical, hydrological and/or soil conditions.
D. Inspect recreational facilities.
E. Inspect seawalls, break-walls and docks.
F. Inspect erosion control and earth stabilization measures.
G. Inspect for safety type glass.
H. Inspect underground utilities.
I. Inspect underground items.
J. Inspect wells or springs.
K. Inspect solar systems.
L. Inspect swimming pools or spas.
M. Inspect septic systems or cesspools.
N. Inspect playground equipment.
O. Inspect sprinkler systems.
P. Inspect drain fields or drywells.
Q. Determine the integrity of the thermal window seals or damaged glass.
2.3. Basement, Foundation & Crawlspace
I. The inspector shall inspect:
A. The basement.
B. The foundation
C. The crawlspace.
D. The visible structural components.
E. Any present conditions or clear indications of active water penetration observed by the inspector.
F. And report any general indications of foundation movement that are observed by the inspector, such as but not limited to sheetrock cracks, brick cracks, out-of-square door frames or floor slopes.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Enter any crawlspaces that are not readily accessible or where entry could cause damage or pose a hazard to the inspector.
B. Move stored items or debris.
C. Operate sump pumps with inaccessible floats.
D. Identify size, spacing, span, location or determine adequacy of foundation bolting, bracing, joists, joist spans or support systems.
E. Provide any engineering or architectural service.
F. Report on the adequacy of any structural system or component.

2.4. Heating
I. The inspector shall inspect:
A. The heating system and describe the energy source and heating method using normal operating controls.
B. And report as in need of repair furnaces which do not operate.
C. And report if inspector deemed the furnace inaccessible.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Inspect or evaluate interiors of flues or chimneys, fire chambers, heat exchangers, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters, solar heating systems or fuel tanks.
B. Inspect underground fuel tanks.
C. Determine the uniformity, temperature, flow, balance, distribution, size, capacity, BTU, or supply adequacy of the heating system.
D. Light or ignite pilot flames.
E. Activate heating, heat pump systems, or other heating systems when ambient temperatures or when other circumstances are not conducive to safe operation or may damage the equipment.
F. Override electronic thermostats.
G. Evaluate fuel quality.
H. Verify thermostat calibration, heat anticipation or automatic setbacks, timers, programs or clocks.
2.5. Cooling
I. The inspector shall inspect:
A. The central cooling equipment using normal operating controls.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Determine the uniformity, temperature, flow, balance, distribution, size, capacity, BTU, or supply adequacy of the cooling system.
B. Inspect window units, through-wall units, or electronic air filters.
C. Operate equipment or systems if exterior temperature is below 60 degrees Fahrenheit or when other circumstances are not conducive to safe operation or may damage the equipment.
D. Inspect or determine thermostat calibration, heat anticipation or automatic setbacks or clocks.
E. Examine electrical current, coolant fluids or gasses, or coolant leakage.
2.6. Plumbing
I. The inspector shall:
A. Verify the presence of and identify the location of the main water shutoff valve.
B. Inspect the water heating equipment, including combustion air, venting, connections, energy sources, seismic bracing, and verify the presence or absence of temperature-pressure relief valves and/or Watts 210 valves.
C. Flush toilets.
D. Run water in sinks, tubs, and showers.
E. Inspect the interior water supply including all fixtures and faucets.
F. Inspect the drain, waste and vent systems, including all fixtures.
G. Describe any visible fuel storage systems.
H. Inspect the drainage sump pumps testing sumps with accessible floats.
I. Inspect and describe the water supply, drain, waste and main fuel shut-off valves, as well as the location of the water main and main fuel shut-off valves.
J. Inspect and determine if the water supply is public or private.
K. Inspect and report as in need of repair deficiencies in the water supply by viewing the functional flow in two fixtures operated simultaneously.
L. Inspect and report as in need of repair deficiencies in installation and identification of hot and cold faucets.
M. Inspect and report as in need of repair mechanical drain-stops that are missing or do not operate if installed in sinks, lavatories and tubs.
N. Inspect and report as in need of repair commodes that have cracks in the ceramic material, are improperly mounted on the floor, leak, or have tank components which do not operate.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Light or ignite pilot flames.
B. Determine the size, temperature, age, life expectancy or adequacy of the water heater.
C. Inspect interiors of flues or chimneys, water softening or filtering systems, well pumps or tanks, safety or shut-of valves, floor drains, lawn sprinkler systems or fire sprinkler systems.
D. Determine the exact flow rate, volume, pressure, temperature, or adequacy of the water supply.
E. Determine the water quality or potability or the reliability of the water supply or source.
F. Open sealed plumbing access panels.
G. Inspect clothes washing machines or their connections.
H. Operate any main, branch or fixture valve.
I. Test shower pans, tub and shower surrounds or enclosures for leakage.
J. Evaluate the compliance with local or state conservation or energy standards, or the proper design or sizing of any water, waste or venting components, fixtures or piping.
K. Determine the effectiveness of anti-siphon, back-flow prevention or drain-stop devices.
L. Determine whether there are sufficient clean-outs for effective cleaning of drains.
M. Evaluate gas, liquid propane or oil storage tanks.
N. Inspect any private sewage waste disposal system or component of.
O. Inspect water treatment systems or water filters.
P. Inspect water storage tanks, pressure pumps or bladder tanks.
Q. Evaluate time to obtain hot water at fixtures, or perform testing of any kind to water heater elements.
R. Evaluate or determine the adequacy of combustion air.
S. Test, operate, open or close safety controls, manual stop valves and/or temperature or pressure relief valves.
T. Examine ancillary systems or components, such as, but not limited to, those relating to solar water heating, hot water circulation.
U. Determine the existence or condition of polybutylene plumbing.
2.7. Electrical
I. The inspector shall inspect:
A. The service line.
B. The meter box.
C. The main disconnect.
D. And determine the rating of the service amperage.
E. Panels, breakers and fuses.
F. The service grounding and bonding.
H. A representative sampling of switches, receptacles, light fixtures, AFCI receptacles
I. And test all GFCI receptacles and GFCI circuit breakers observed and deemed to be GFCI's during the inspection.
I. And report the presence of solid conductor aluminum branch circuit wiring if readily visible.
J. And report on any GFCI-tested receptacles in which power is not present, polarity is incorrect, the receptacle is not grounded, is not secured to the wall, the cover is not in place, the ground fault circuit interrupter devices are not properly installed or do not operate properly, or evidence of arcing or excessive heat is present.
K. The service entrance conductors and the condition of their sheathing.
L. The ground fault circuit interrupters observed and deemed to be GFCI's during the inspection with a GFCI tester.
M. And describe the amperage rating of the service.
N. And report the absence of smoke detectors.
O. Service entrance cables and report as in need of repair deficiencies in the integrity of the insulation, drip loop, or separation of conductors at weatherheads and clearances.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Insert any tool, probe or device into the main panel, sub-panels, downstream panels, or electrical fixtures.
B. Operate electrical systems that are shut down.
C. Remove panel covers or dead front covers if not readily accessible.
D. Operate over current protection devices.
E. Operate non-accessible smoke detectors.
F. Measure or determine the amperage or voltage of the main service if not visibly labeled.
G. Inspect the alarm system and components.
H. Inspect the ancillary wiring or remote control devices.
I. Activate any electrical systems or branch circuits which are not energized.
J. Operate overload devices.
K. Inspect low voltage systems, electrical de-icing tapes, swimming pool wiring or any time-controlled devices.
L. Verify the continuity of the connected service ground.
M. Inspect private or emergency electrical supply sources, including but not limited to generators, windmills, photovoltaic solar collectors, or battery or electrical storage facility.
N. Inspect spark or lightning arrestors.
O. Conduct voltage drop calculations.
P. Determine the accuracy of breaker labeling.
2.8. Fireplace
I. The inspector shall inspect:
A. The fireplace, and open and close the damper door if readily accessible and operable.
B. Hearth extensions and other permanently installed components.
C. And report as in need of repair deficiencies in the lintel, hearth and material surrounding the fireplace, including clearance from combustible materials
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Inspect the flue or vent system.
B. Inspect the interior of chimneys or flues, fire doors or screens, seals or gaskets, or mantels.
C. Determine the need for a chimney sweep.
D. Operate gas fireplace inserts.
E. Light pilot flames.
F. Determine the appropriateness of such installation.
G. Inspect automatic fuel feed devices.
H. Inspect combustion and/or make-up air devices.
I. Inspect heat distribution assists whether gravity controlled or fan assisted.
J. Ignite or extinguish fires.
K. Determine draft characteristics.
L. Move fireplace inserts, stoves, or firebox contents.
M. Determine adequacy of draft, perform a smoke test or dismantle or remove any component.
N. Perform an NFPA inspection.
2.9. Attic, Ventilation & Insulation
I. The inspector shall inspect:
A. The insulation in unfinished spaces.
B. The ventilation of attic spaces.
C. Mechanical ventilation systems.
D. And report on the general absence or lack of insulation.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Enter the attic or unfinished spaces that are not readily accessible or where entry could cause damage or pose a safety hazard to the inspector in his or her opinion.
B. To move, touch, or disturb insulation.
C. To move, touch or disturb vapor retarders.
D. Break or otherwise damage the surface finish or weather seal on or around access panels and covers.
E. Identify the composition of or the exact R-value of insulation material.
F. Activate thermostatically operated fans.
G. Determine the types of materials used in insulation/wrapping of pipes, ducts, jackets, boilers, and wiring.
H. Determine adequacy of ventilation.
2.10. Doors, Windows & Interior
I. The inspector shall:
A. Open and close a representative number of doors and windows.
B. Inspect the walls, ceilings, steps, stairways, and railings.
C. Inspect garage doors and garage door openers by operating first by remote (if available) and then by the installed automatic door control.
D. And report as in need of repair any installed electronic sensors that are not operable or not installed at proper heights above the garage door.
E. And report as in need of repair any door locks or side ropes that have not been removed or disabled when garage door opener is in use.
F. And report as in need of repair any windows that are obviously fogged or display other evidence of broken seals.
II. The inspector is not required to:
A. Inspect paint, wallpaper, window treatments or finish treatments.
B. Inspect central vacuum systems.
C. Inspect safety glazing.
D. Inspect security systems or components.
E. Evaluate the fastening of countertops, cabinets, sink tops and fixtures, or firewall compromises.
F. Move furniture, stored items, or any coverings like carpets or rugs in order to inspect the concealed floor structure.
G. Move drop ceiling tiles.
H. Inspect or move any household appliances..
I. Inspect or operate equipment housed in the garage except as otherwise noted.
J. Verify or certify safe operation of any auto reverse or related safety function of a garage door.
K. Operate or evaluate security bar release and opening mechanisms, whether interior or exterior, including compliance with local, state, or federal standards.
L. Operate any system, appliance or component that requires the use of special keys, codes, combinations, or devices.
M. Operate or evaluate self-cleaning oven cycles, tilt guards/latches or signal lights.
N. Inspect microwave ovens or test leakage from microwave ovens.
O. Operate or examine any sauna, steam-jenny, kiln, toaster, ice-maker, coffee-maker, can-opener, bread-warmer, blender, instant hot water dispenser, or other small, ancillary devices.
P. Inspect elevators.
Q. Inspect remote controls.
R. Inspect appliances.
S. Inspect items not permanently installed.
T. Examine or operate any above-ground, movable, freestanding, or otherwise non-permanently installed pool/spa, recreational equipment or self-contained equipment.
U. Come into contact with any pool or spa water in order to determine the system structure or components.
V. Determine the adequacy of spa jet water force or bubble effect.
W. Determine the structural integrity or leakage of a pool or spa.

3. Limitations, Exceptions & Exclusions
3.1. Limitations:
I. An inspection is not technically exhaustive.
II. An inspection will not identify concealed or latent defects.
III. An inspection will not deal with aesthetic concerns or what could be deemed matters of taste, cosmetic, etc.
IV. An inspection will not determine the suitability of the property for any use.
V. An inspection does not determine the market value of the property or its marketability.
VI. An inspection does not determine the advisability or inadvisability of the purchase of the inspected property.
VII. An inspection does not determine the life expectancy of the property or any components or systems therein.
VIII. An inspection does not include items not permanently installed.
IX. These Standards of Practice apply only to homes with four or fewer dwelling units.

3.2. Exclusions:
I. The inspectors are not required to determine:
A. Property boundary lines or encroachments.
B. The condition of any component or system that is not readily accessible.
C. The service life expectancy of any component or system.
D. The size, capacity, BTU, performance, or efficiency of any component or system.
E. The cause or reason of any condition.
F. The cause for the need of repair or replacement of any system or component.
G. Future conditions.
H. The compliance with codes or regulations.
I. The presence of evidence of rodents, animals or insects.
J. The presence of mold, mildew or fungus.
K. The presence of air-borne hazards.
L. The presence of birds.
M. The presence of other flora or fauna.
N. The air quality.
O. The existence of asbestos.
P. The existence of environmental hazards.
Q. The existence of electro-magnetic fields.
R. The presence of hazardous materials including, but not limited to, the presence of lead in paint.
S. Any hazardous waste conditions.
T. Any manufacturer recalls or conformance with manufacturer installation or any information included in the consumer protection bulletin.
U. Operating costs of systems.
V. Replacement or repair cost estimates.
W. The acoustical properties of any systems.
X. Estimates of how much it will cost to run any given system.
II. The inspectors are not required to operate:
A. Any system that is shut down.
B. Any system that does not function properly.
C. Or evaluate low voltage electrical systems such as, but not limited to:
1. Phone lines.
2. Cable lines.
3. Antennae.
4. Lights.
5. Remote controls.
D. Any system that does not turn on with the use of normal operating controls.
E. Any shut off valves or manual stop valves.
F. Any electrical disconnect or over current protection devices.
G. Any alarm systems.
H. Moisture meters, gas detectors or similar equipment.
III. The inspectors are not required to:
A. Move any personal items or other obstructions, such as, but not limited to:
1. Throw rugs.
2. Furniture.
3. Floor or wall coverings.
4. Ceiling tiles
5. Window coverings.
6. Equipment.
7. Plants.
8. Ice.
9. Debris.
10. Snow.
11. Water.
12. Dirt.
13. Foliage.
14. Pets
B. Dismantle, open, or uncover any system or component.
C. Enter or access any area which may, in the opinion of the inspector, to be unsafe or risk personal safety.
D. Enter crawlspaces or other areas that are unsafe or not readily accessible.
E. Inspect underground items such as, but not limited to, underground storage tanks or other indications of their presence, whether abandoned or actively used.
F. Do anything which, in the inspector's opinion, is likely to be unsafe or dangerous to the inspector or others or damage property, such as, but not limited to, walking on roof surfaces, climbing ladders, entering attic spaces or negotiating with dogs.
G. Inspect decorative items.
H. Inspect common elements or areas in multi-unit housing.
I. Inspect intercoms, speaker systems, radio-controlled, security devices or lawn irrigation systems.
J. Offer guarantees or warranties.
K. Offer or perform any engineering services.
L. Offer or perform any trade or professional service other than home inspection.
M. Research the history of the property, report on its potential for alteration, modification, extendibility, or its suitability for a specific or proposed use for occupancy.
N. Determine the age of construction or installation of any system structure, or component of a building, or differentiate between original construction or subsequent additions, improvements, renovations or replacements thereto.
O. Determine the insurability of a property.
P. Perform or offer Phase 1 environmental audits.
Q. Inspect on any system or component which is not included in these standards.

4. Glossary of Terms
4.1. Accessible: Can be approached or entered by the inspector safely, without difficulty, fear or danger.
4.2. Activate: To turn on, supply power, or enable systems, equipment, or devices to become active by normal operating controls. Examples include turning on the gas or water supply valves to the fixtures and appliances and activating electrical breakers or fuses.
4.3. Adversely Affect: Constitute, or potentially constitute, a negative or destructive impact.
4.4. Alarm System: Warning devices, installed or free-standing, including but not limited to: Carbon monoxide detectors, flue gas and other spillage detectors, security equipment, ejector pumps and smoke alarms.
4.5. Appliance: A household device operated by use of electricity or gas. Not included in this definition are components covered under central heating, central cooling or plumbing.
4.6. Architectural Service: Any practice involving the art and science of building design for construction of any structure or grouping of structures and the use of space within and surrounding the structures or the design, design development, preparation of construction contract documents, and administration of the construction contract.
4.7. Component: A permanently installed or attached fixture, element or part of a system.
4.8. Condition: The visible and conspicuous state of being of an object.
4.9. Crawlspace: The area within the confines of the foundation and between the ground and the underside of the lowest floor structural component.
4.10. Decorative: Ornamental; not required for the operation of essential systems and components of a home.
4.11. Describe: Report in writing a system or component by its type, or other observed characteristics, to distinguish it from other components used for the same purpose.
4.12. Determine: To arrive at an opinion or conclusion pursuant to examination.
4.13. Dismantle: To open, take apart or remove any component, device or piece that would not typically be opened, taken apart or removed by an ordinary occupant.
4.14. Engineering Service: Any professional service or creative work requiring engineering education, training, and experience and the application of special knowledge of the mathematical, physical and engineering sciences to such professional service or creative work as consultation, investigation, evaluation, planning, design and supervision of construction for the purpose of assuring compliance with the specifications and design, in conjunction with structures, buildings, machines, equipment, works or processes.
4.15. Enter: To go into an area to observe visible components.
4.16. Evaluate: To assess the systems, structures or components of a dwelling.
4.17. Examine: To visually look. See Inspect.
4.18. Foundation: The base upon which the structure or wall rests; usually masonry, concrete, or stone, and generally partially underground.
4.19. Function: The action for which an item, component, or system is specially fitted or used or for which an item, component or system exists; to be in action or perform a task.
4.20. Functional: Performing, or able to perform, a function.
4.21. Home Inspection: The process by which an inspector visually examines the readily accessible systems and components of a home and operates those systems and components utilizing these Standards of Practice as a guideline.
4.22. Household Appliances: Kitchen and laundry appliances, room air conditioners, and similar appliances.
4.23. Inspect: To visually look at readily accessible systems and components safely, using normal operating controls and accessing readily accessible panels and areas in accordance with these Standards of Practice.

4.24. Inspected Property: The readily accessible areas of the buildings, site, items, components, and systems included in the inspection.
4.25. Inspector: One who performs a real estate inspection.
4.26. Installed: Attached or connected such that the installed item requires tool for removal.
4.27. Material Defect: Refer to section 1.2.
4.28. Normal Operating Controls: Devices such as thermostats that would be operated by ordinary occupants which require no specialized skill or knowledge.
4.29. Observe: To see through visually directed attention.
4.30. Operate: To cause systems to function or turn on with normal operating controls.
4.31. Readily Accessible: An item or component is readily accessible if, in the judgment of the inspector, it is capable of being safely observed without movement of obstacles, detachment or disengagement of connecting or securing devices, or other unsafe or difficult procedures to gain access.
4.32. Recreational Facilities: Spas, saunas, steam baths, swimming pools, tennis courts, playground equipment, and other exercise, entertainment or athletic facilities.
4.33. Report: A written communication (possibly including digital images) of any material defects seen during the inspection.
4.34. Representative Number: A sufficient number to serve as a typical or characteristic example of the item(s) inspected.
4.35. Safety Glazing: Tempered glass, laminated glass, or rigid plastic.
4.36. Shut Down: Turned off, unplugged, inactive, not in service, not operational, etc.
4.37. Structural Component: A component which supports non-variable forces or weights (dead loads) and variable forces or weights (live loads).
4.38. System: An assembly of various components to function as a whole.
4.39. Technically Exhaustive: A comprehensive and detailed examination beyond the scope of a real estate home inspection which would involve or include, but would not be limited to: dismantling, specialized knowledge or training, special equipment, measurements, calculations, testing, research, analysis or other means.
4.40. Unsafe: A condition in a readily accessible, installed system or component which is judged to be a significant risk of personal injury during normal, day-to-day use. The risk may be due to damage, deterioration, improper installation or a change in accepted residential construction standards.
4.41. Verify: To confirm or substantiate.

 
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